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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125436, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514047

RESUMO

The physicochemical properties of wheat bran have an effect on its technofunctional and nutritional profile. The possibility to induce physicochemical modifications in wheat bran using microfluidisation was investigated. An I-optimal experimental design was used to investigate the effect of microfluidisation processing parameters (pressure, number of passes, bran concentration and initial particle size) on important properties of wheat bran (particle size, microstructure, chemical composition, water retention capacity (WRC), extractability, viscosity and sedimentation). With the parameters used in this study, microfluidisation reduced wheat bran median particle size to 14.8 µm and disintegrated starch granules from the attached endosperm. This coincided with an increased extractability of starch and arabinoxylan. While the initial particle size was of minor importance, a higher pressure, larger number of passes and lower bran concentration during microfluidisation resulted in a smaller particle size, higher WRC and extractability, and an increased viscosity and stability in a 2% wheat bran suspension.

2.
Food Res Int ; 125: 108550, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554139

RESUMO

The unique impact of roasting conditions on the aroma quality of cocoa beans has been demonstrated in many studies. However, information on the additional impact of pod storage (PS) and its combined effect with roasting temperature (RT) is unknown. Hence, this study sought to elucidate the collective contribution of these post-harvest/process parameters on the aroma profiles of cocoa liquors produced from Forastero cocoa beans. The beans had been subjected to different treatments following a 3 × 4 full factorial experiment, consisting of PS (0, 3, 7 days) and RT (100, 120, 140, 160 °C). Statistical analysis of the results from HS-SPME-GC-MS revealed significant (p < .05) impact of both PS and RT as well as their interaction effects on the ten groups of volatiles (acids, alcohols, esters, terpenes, aldehydes, ketones, pyrazines, furans, pyrroles and others) and their overall aroma concentration. An exception was however noted for aldehydes, where the total concentration was only significantly (p < .05) influenced by the individual effects of PS and RT. A subsequent clustering of the liquors, first on the basis of all identified volatiles, then, on the basis of the odor-active volatiles, also revealed similar pattern where liquors with high RT's possessed more volatiles with higher concentrations and vice versa. More so, it seemed that no or very minimal PS treatment was necessary for preserving more aromatic volatiles with typically fruity, floral or spicy flavor notes, whereas, for liquors with volatiles exhibiting more cocoa, chocolate, nutty and roasted flavor notes, prolonged PS (> 3 days) treatment was required. These findings are expected to challenge the status-quo, specifically in the conventional ways through which the aroma potential of 'bulk' cocoa may be steered. On the one hand, the idea of manipulating PS treatment and roasting conditions may indeed consolidate the possibility of creating diverse and/or distinct aroma profiles from the same 'bulk' cocoa beans, whereas, on the other hand, it raises the question whether the Ghanaian cocoa beans - being described as 'bulk' cocoa - could be a consequence of prolonged pod storage treatment.

3.
Food Res Int ; 122: 411-418, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229095

RESUMO

Since insects are a promising alternative protein source, the application potential of three insect larvae (Alphitobius diaperinus, Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas morio) for food purposes was explored. To this end, the effect of isothermal heating at 5 different temperatures (70 °C-90 °C) on structure formation in insect batters was studied rheologically. Meat batters (with the same protein content as insect batters), isothermally heated at 70 °C, were also studied for comparison. Cryo-SEM imaging was used to visualize the microstructure of raw and heated insect batters. These images showed that a network was formed in the heated batters, as well as in the raw batters. However, no clear effect of temperature or insect larva on the microstructure was observed. Rheologically, both the heating temperature applied and the insect larva used were shown to have a significant effect on the viscoelastic properties of the insect batters. Generally, batters containing Z. morio larvae showed both higher storage moduli (G') and longer linear viscoelastic regions (LVRs) compared to the other insect larvae, indicating that these larvae had the best structure forming capacities. Furthermore, both G' and the length of the LVR increased with increasing isothermal heating temperature, indicating more structure formation and structure stability in insect batters heated at higher temperatures. Compared to the meat batters, however, the insect larvae were shown to have inferior structure forming capacities. Even at the highest heating temperature (90 °C) the viscoelastic properties of the insect batters only approached those of meat batters heated at 70 °C. Therefore, it was concluded that higher heating temperatures may need to be employed in insect-based food products compared to meat products in order to obtain sufficient structure formation and the desired textural properties.

4.
Food Res Int ; 120: 819-828, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000302

RESUMO

The presence of a fat crystal network throughout the fat droplets of an oil-in-water emulsion is a requisite for partial coalescence. The characteristics of this fat crystal network determine greatly the kinetics of partial coalescence. In this study the fat crystal network was manipulated by altering the cooling rate applied to natural cream. The kinetics of partial coalescence under constant shear and at constant temperature were studied by combining rotational viscosity analysis with light microscopy and laser scattering. It was shown that slow cooling of the emulsion decelerates partial coalescence and favors the formation of loosely-packed aggregates. On the other hand, fast cooling favors a high partial coalescence rate and the formation of dense aggregates. Fat crystallization properties were analyzed using small deformation rheology, differential scanning calorimetry and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The difference in organization of the fat crystals obtained for both cooling rates contributed significantly to the mechanistic understanding of partial coalescence as influenced by the cooling rate.

5.
Food Res Int ; 119: 84-98, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884724

RESUMO

The impact of pod storage (PS) and roasting temperature (RT) on the aroma profiles of dark chocolates were evaluated. Cocoa liquor samples comprised of ten different combinations of PS and RT, whilst keeping the roasting time fixed at 35 min. Additionally, commercial cocoa liquors from renowned origins (Ecuador, Madagascar, Venezuela, Vietnam, Ivory Coast and Ghana) were acquired for comparison. From these, 70% dark chocolates were produced under the same conditions after which they were subjected to headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) analysis. Although both PS and RT were found to influence the aroma volatile concentrations, the impact of RT over PS seemed to be greater. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) of all chocolates on the basis of their aroma profiles revealed a similar impact as earlier observed, where major clustering of the chocolates was in accordance with the intensity of the roasting process applied. However, within each group, the dissimilarities owing to PS among the chocolates was clearly depicted. Comparatively, chocolates with low (100-120 °C), instead of moderate to high (135-160 °C) RT's, rather showed a low dissimilarity with those from the commercial cocoa liquors of the different origins. Although from the same beans, the diversity of aroma profiles of these chocolates as well as the similitude of some treatments to some chocolates from commercial grade cocoa liquors, unequivocally underscores the possibility for steering diverse distinct flavors from 'bulk' cocoa through PS and roasting, with beneficial implications, both from an application and an economic point of view.

6.
Food Funct ; 10(1): 379-396, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604790

RESUMO

Dietary modulation can alter the gut microbiota composition and activity, in turn affecting health. Particularly, dietary fibre rich foods, such as wheat bran, are an important nutrient source for the gut microbiota. Several processing methods have been developed to modify the functional, textural and breadmaking properties of wheat bran, which can affect the gut microbiota. We therefore studied the effect of enzyme treatment, particle size reduction and wheat kernel pearling on the faecal microbiota of ten healthy individuals. The most commonly studied health marker, associated to the gut microbiota activity is Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA) production. This study shows that modifying wheat bran physicochemical properties allows control over the extent and the rate of SCFA production by the faecal microbiota. Wheat bran pericarp fractions, depleted in starch and enriched in cellulose and highly branched arabinoxylans, were poorly fermentable compared to unmodified wheat bran, thus resulting in a reduced SCFA production with up to 20 mM. The nature of the SCFA, however, largely depends on the donor and can be linked to the individual's gut microbiota composition. The latter changed in an individually dependent manner in response to wheat bran modification. Some product dependent significant differences could still be identified across the ten donors. This product effect is more pronounced in the microbial community attached to the wheat bran residue as compared to the luminal microbial community. Generally, we find lower levels of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Bifidobacterium and a higher abundance of Proteobacteria in the pericarp enriched wheat bran fractions, compared to unmodified wheat bran.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Triticum/metabolismo , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Triticum/química , Adulto Jovem
7.
Food Res Int ; 111: 607-620, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007725

RESUMO

The practice of pod storage (PS) has been applied in many cocoa producing countries, especially by Ghanaian farmers over the years. However, the study of PS has not received much attention, hence, until now, its potential impact on specific flavor precursor development and implications on the flavor of cocoa beans still remains uncovered. The study was therefore aimed at exploring this possibility through physico-chemical and flavor precursor analyses, carried out on equally fermented and dried pod stored (0, 3 and 7 days) Ghanaian cocoa beans. Flavor analysis was also conducted on equally roasted pod stored cocoa beans. Through visual assessment of the pods, pulp and beans, the compelling impact of PS on fermentation index (FI) and nib acidity could be demonstrated by the various biochemical and physical changes such as respiration, moisture reduction, and cellular degradation, occurring during the process. Whereas the entire reaction of sugar degradation may be deemed complex, a clear relationship between the FI, nib acidity and the glucose content was observed. Also, PS was found to increase with marginal increase in total reducing sugars (glucose and fructose). Although the concentration of free amino acids was directly proportional to the duration of PS, within the framework of this study, a significant difference (p < .05) was only observed in the case of extended duration (7 days). Overall, 7 PS seemed to have enhanced the formation of more volatiles. This was followed by 0 PS and finally 3 PS. Suggestively, these findings could provide some indications in explaining the typical flavor profiles of the Ghanaian cocoa beans, considering the fact that 87.8% of Ghanaian farmers adhere to this practice. Meanwhile, for the chocolate industry, the surging demand for cocoa/chocolate products exhibiting unique flavors, could be partly addressed by adopting PS as a tool for varietizing the flavor capacity of "bulk" cocoa through the expression or suppression of specific flavor precursors in the raw material on the farm level, which comes with almost no additional cost.

8.
Nat Plants ; 4(6): 365-375, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808023

RESUMO

Flowers have a species-specific functional life span that determines the time window in which pollination, fertilization and seed set can occur. The stigma tissue plays a key role in flower receptivity by intercepting pollen and initiating pollen tube growth toward the ovary. In this article, we show that a developmentally controlled cell death programme terminates the functional life span of stigma cells in Arabidopsis. We identified the leaf senescence regulator ORESARA1 (also known as ANAC092) and the previously uncharacterized KIRA1 (also known as ANAC074) as partially redundant transcription factors that modulate stigma longevity by controlling the expression of programmed cell death-associated genes. KIRA1 expression is sufficient to induce cell death and terminate floral receptivity, whereas lack of both KIRA1 and ORESARA1 substantially increases stigma life span. Surprisingly, the extension of stigma longevity is accompanied by only a moderate extension of flower receptivity, suggesting that additional processes participate in the control of the flower's receptive life span.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1516, 2018 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29367749

RESUMO

Steviol glycosides from the leaves of the plant Stevia rebaudiana are high-potency natural sweeteners but suffer from a lingering bitterness. The Lactobacillus reuteri 180 wild-type glucansucrase Gtf180-ΔN, and in particular its Q1140E-mutant, efficiently α-glucosylated rebaudioside A (RebA), using sucrose as donor substrate. Structural analysis of the products by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy showed that both enzymes exclusively glucosylate the Glc(ß1→C-19 residue of RebA, with the initial formation of an (α1→6) linkage. Docking of RebA in the active site of the enzyme revealed that only the steviol C-19 ß-D-glucosyl moiety is available for glucosylation. Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the Gtf180-ΔN-Q1140E-catalyzed α-glucosylation of RebA, resulting in a highly productive process with a RebA conversion of 95% and a production of 115 g/L α-glucosylated products within 3 h. Development of a fed-batch reaction allowed further suppression of α-glucan synthesis which improved the product yield to 270 g/L. Sensory analysis by a trained panel revealed that glucosylated RebA products show a significant reduction in bitterness, resulting in a superior taste profile compared to RebA. The Gtf180-ΔN-Q1140E glucansucrase mutant enzyme thus is an efficient biocatalyst for generating α-glucosylated RebA variants with improved edulcorant/organoleptic properties.

10.
Food Res Int ; 100(Pt 1): 832-840, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873756

RESUMO

Monoglycerides (MGs) and phytosterols (PS) are known to form firm oleogels with liquid oil. However, the oleogels are prone to undergo polymorphic transition over time that lead to crystals' aggregation thus, compromises physical properties. Thus, we combined MGs with PS to control the crystallization and modify the morphology of the combination oleogels, as both components are reported to interact together. The oleogels were prepared at different ratio combinations and characterized in their rheological, thermal, morphology, and diffraction properties. The results showed that the 8:2 MGP:PS exhibited higher storage modulus (G') than the MGP mono-component. The combination oleogels exhibited effects on the crystallization and polymorphic transition. Consequently, the effects led to change in the morphology of the combination oleogels which was visualized using optical and electron microscope. The resultant effect on the morphology is associated with crystal defect. Due to observable crystals of MGP and PS, it is speculated that the combination oleogels formed a mixed crystal system. This was confirmed with diffraction analysis in which the corresponding peaks from MGP and PS were observed in the combination oleogels. However, the 8:2 oleogel exhibited additional peak at 35.41Å. Ultimately, the 8:2 was the optimum combination observed in our study. Interestingly, this combination is inspired by nature as sterols (phytosterols) are natural component of lipid membrane whilst MGP has properties similar to phospholipids. Hence, the results of our study not only beneficial for oil structuring, but also for the fields of biophysical and pharmaceutical.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(29): 6030-6041, 2017 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28664731

RESUMO

Cost-efficient (bio)chemical production processes are essential to evaluate the commercial and industrial applications of promising carbohydrates and also are essential to ensure economically viable production processes. Here, the synthesis of the naturally occurring disaccharide kojibiose (2-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl-d-glucopyranoside) was evaluated using different Bifidobacterium adolescentis sucrose phosphorylase variants. Variant L341I_Q345S was found to efficiently synthesize kojibiose while remaining fully active after 1 week of incubation at 55 °C. Process optimization allowed kojibiose production at the kilogram scale, and simple but efficient downstream processing, using a yeast treatment and crystallization, resulted in more than 3 kg of highly pure crystalline kojibiose (99.8%). These amounts allowed a deeper characterization of its potential in food applications. It was found to have possible beneficial health effects, including delayed glucose release and potential to trigger SCFA production. Finally, we compared the bulk functionality of highly pure kojibiose to that of sucrose, hereby mapping its potential as a new sweetener in confectionery products.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium adolescentis/metabolismo , Dissacarídeos/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium adolescentis/genética , Biocatálise , Células CACO-2 , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Microbiologia Industrial , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/microbiologia , Sacarose/metabolismo
12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 504: 387-396, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28586736

RESUMO

In order to modify the self-assembly of sucrose esters (SEs) in sunflower oil, we added sunflower lecithin (SFL) as co-surfactant. It is hypothesized that SFL modifies the self-assembly of SEs by interrupting the extensive hydrogen bonding between SEs monomers. The addition of SFL into SEs induced gelation of the mixed surfactant system oleogels at all studied ratios. The 7:3 SEs:SFL combination showed enhanced rheological properties compared to the other studied ratios, which suggests better molecular ordering induced by SFL. The modifications might have been caused by interference in the hydrogen bonding, connecting the polar heads of SEs molecules in the presence of SFL. This effect was confirmed by thermal behavior and small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD) analysis. From the crystallization and melting analyses, it was shown that the peak temperature, shape and enthalpy decreased as the SFL ratio increases. Meanwhile, the bi-component oleogels exhibited new peaks in the SAXD profile, which imply a self-assembly modification. The microscopic study through polarized and electrons revealed a change in the structure. Therefore, it can be concluded that a synergistic effect between SEs and SFL, more particularly at 7:3 ratio, towards sunflower oil structuring could be obtained. These findings shed light for greater applications of SEs as structuring and carrier agent in foods and pharmaceutical.


Assuntos
Géis/química , Lecitinas/química , Sacarose/química , Óleo de Girassol/química , Tensoativos/química , Cristalização , Ésteres/química , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Difração de Raios X
13.
Food Chem ; 231: 356-364, 2017 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28450018

RESUMO

Cinnamon and cocoa are known to be valuable sources of bioactive phytochemicals, mainly the polyphenols. This paper investigates the potential antioxidant activity of cinnamon and cocoa extract and the interaction of their mixtures by various in vitro tests. Moreover, the combination effect of their constituents in a binary mixture was studied. Two representative active compounds of chocolate (epicatechin, catechin) were combined with seven of cinnamon (gallic acid, tannic acid, quercetin, sinapic acid, cinnamic acid, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde) in multilevel ratios. The results indicate that the addition of the cinnamon extract significantly increased the antioxidant activity of the cocoa extract. The interaction ranged from synergetic to antagonistic. The interaction was less synergetic when cinnamon extract was added in higher proportion. The interaction of their constituents substantially influenced the antioxidant activity of the mixture and was dependent on the ratio. The kinetics' study could elucidate how the polyphenols work in a mixture.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cacau , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Extratos Vegetais , Polifenóis
14.
Food Funct ; 5(4): 645-52, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24647527

RESUMO

We demonstrate three potential edible applications of shellac oleogels as (i) a continuous oil phase for preparation of emulsifier-free, structured w/o emulsions (spreads), (ii) a replacer for oil-binders in chocolate paste formulations and (iii) a shortening alternative for cake preparation. Water-in-oil emulsions with up to 60 wt% water were prepared without the need for an emulsifier by simply using shellac oleogels as the continuous oil phase. The water droplets in these emulsions (size < 40 µm) were stabilized via interfacial and bulk crystallization of shellac. Chocolate paste prepared by complete replacement of an oil-binder and a partial replacement of palm oil (∼27%) with a shellac oleogel, showed no sign of 'oiling-out' when stored at elevated temperature (30 °C) for several weeks. Further, cakes prepared using oleogel-based w/o emulsions (20 wt% water) as a shortening alternative showed comparable functionalities (texture and sensory attributes) to the standard cake.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares/química , Cacau/química , Emulsões/química , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Compostos Orgânicos/química
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 94(7): 1325-31, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24115134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and a fatty acid (FA) mixture were inter-esterified in a solvent-free system catalysed by Lipozyme RM IM to produce a cocoa butter equivalent (CBE). The effects of reaction conditions on the percentage of saturate-oleoyl-saturate (SOS) and saturate-saturate-oleoyl (SSO) triacylglycerols (TAGs) were studied. The process was further optimised by response surface methodology. A five-factor response surface design was used to investigate the influences of the five major factors and their mutual relationships. The five factors were substrate ratio (A, FA/HOSO, mol mol⁻¹), enzyme load (B, wt% based on substrates), water content (C, wt% based on substrates), reaction temperature (D,°C) and reaction time (E, in hours) varying at three levels together with two star point levels. RESULTS: The highest yield (59.1% SOS) and lowest acyl migration (2.9% SSO) was obtained at 10% enzyme load, 1% water content, 1:7 substrate mole ratio, 65°C reaction temperature and 6 h reaction time. All the investigated factors except substrate ratio had significant effect on acyl migration. CONCLUSION: The quadratic response models sufficiently described the acidolysis reaction. All parameters had significant effect on the percentage of SOS TAGs. Based on the models, the reaction was optimised to obtain a maximum yield of SOS TAGs.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/metabolismo , Substitutos da Gordura/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Ácido Oleico/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , Cacau/química , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/análise , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Esterificação , Substitutos da Gordura/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Isomerismo , Cinética , Ácido Oleico/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Rhizomucor/enzimologia , Sementes/química , Estatística como Assunto , Óleo de Girassol , Triglicerídeos/química
16.
Appetite ; 53(1): 16-23, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19447521

RESUMO

Bread contains a wide range of important nutritional components which provide a positive effect on human health. However, the consumption of bread is declining during the last decades. This is due to factors such as changing eating patterns and an increasing choice of substitutes like breakfast cereals and fast foods. The aim of this study is to investigate consumer's quality perception of bread towards sensory, health and nutrition attributes. Four consumer segments are identified based on these attributes. The different consumer segments comprise consumers being positive to all three quality aspects of bread ("enthusiastic") as wells as consumers perceiving bread strongly as "tasteless", "non-nutritious" or "unhealthy". Moreover, factors are identified which influence the consumers' quality perception of bread. The results of our study may help health professionals and policy makers to systematically inform consumers about the positive effects of bread based on its components. Furthermore, firms can use the results to build up tailor-made marketing strategies.


Assuntos
Pão , Comportamento do Consumidor , Percepção , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento , Características da Família , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Sensação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Paladar
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