Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 2 de 2
Mais filtros

Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
Microsc Microanal ; 13(3): 156-64, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17490497


Environmental sampling (ES) is a powerful technique used by safeguards inspectors of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the European Safeguards Office for the detection of undeclared nuclear activities. Since its implementation in the 1990s, ES has proven to be very sensitive and effective. Considering the consequences, the measurements should be carried out under a quality management programme. At the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, a new production method is under development for the preparation of reference uranium particles from well-certified UF6, allowing uranium particles with certified isotopic abundances to be prepared that are representative of those found in uranium enrichment facilities. Using an aerosol deposition chamber designed and built for the purpose, particles are formed by the hydrolysis of UF6 and their morphology and (isotopic) composition measured using SEM-EDX and SIMS. The SEM measurements show that by varying the relative humidity of the air in the reaction chamber, the morphology of the particles can be changed. By making a distribution map of the chemical composition of the particles, the relationship between fluorine and uranium as main constituents of the particle could be established. The presence of fluorine is a valuable indicator for the occurrence of nondeclared enrichment activities.

Microsc Microanal ; 12(5): 432-7, 2006 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16984670


The oxide scales of AISI 304 formed in boric acid solutions at 300 degrees C and pH = 4.5 have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling. The present focus is depth profile quantification both in depth and chemical composition on a molecular level. The roughness of the samples is studied by atomic force microscopy before and after sputtering, and the erosion rate is determined by measuring the crater depth with a surface profilometer and vertical scanning interferometry. The resulting roughness (20-30 nm), being an order of magnitude lower than the crater depth (0.2-0.5 microm), allows layer-by-layer profiling, although the ion-induced effects result in an uncertainty of the depth calibration of a factor of 2. The XPS spectrum deconvolution and data evaluation applying target factor analysis allows chemical speciation on a molecular level. The elemental distribution as a function of the sputtering time is obtained, and the formation of two layers is observed-one hydroxide (mainly iron-nickel based) on top and a second one deeper, mainly consisting of iron-chromium oxides.