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1.
Periodontol 2000 ; 84(1): 35-44, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844413

RESUMO

It is well established that dental plaque on teeth leads to gingivitis and periodontitis, and that several mechanical and chemical methods of plaque control can prevent gingivitis. The aim of the current review is to summarize and synthesize the available scientific evidence supporting practices for mechanical oral hygiene to prevent periodontal diseases. Evidence for contemporary practices of mechanical oral hygiene to prevent periodontal disease relies on studies of gingivitis patients. General recommendations concerning the ideal oral hygiene devices and procedures are still inconclusive. However, toothbrushing and interdental cleaning remain the mainstays of prevention of periodontal diseases. The primary approach requires individually tailored instruction for implementation of a systematic oral hygiene regimen.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Escovação Dentária
2.
Periodontol 2000 ; 79(1): 221-232, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30892760

RESUMO

This paper focuses on plaque control and the management of gingivitis in adults and summarizes the evidence of commercially available dentifrices as gathered from existing systematic reviews. Three internet sources were used to search for appropriate papers (up to and including February 2017). The search strategy was designed to include any systematic review published on dentifrices that also included an evaluation of plaque and gingivitis scores. Characteristics of the individual reviews, such as methodological aspects, quantitative data and conclusions, were extracted. The potential risk of bias was estimated and the acquired evidence was graded. Independent screening of 205 unique reviews resulted in 10 published and eligible systematic reviews. One publication evaluated the mechanical contribution of dentifrice to plaque removal. Eight papers were identified that evaluated the efficacy of a proposed single active ingredients, of which two reviewed more than one potentially active ingredient. One study compared two active ingredients. This meta-review appraised the current state of evidence and found that toothbrushing with a standard fluoride dentifrice does not provide an added effect for the mechanical removal of dental plaque. Evidence suggests that compared with a standard dentifrice, those containing triclosan or stannous fluoride have benefits with respect to gingival health and control of dental plaque.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Dentifrícios , Gengivite , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Índice Periodontal
3.
Int J Dent Hyg ; 17(1): 77-84, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate to what extent the degree of toothbrush wear of 3-month-old manual toothbrushes influence plaque scores. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During a recently published study with a follow-up of 1 year, all participants performed a similar basic home-based oral hygiene regimen. Hence, they were instructed to brush for 2 minutes twice daily according to the Bass method technique and using a standard dentifrice containing sodium fluoride. Toothbrushes were turned in every 3-month, and the degree of wear was scored. The mean plaque score data were additionally analysed and correlated with wear scores of the toothbrushes. RESULTS: For analysis, for each of 172 individual participants, a set of three identical, 3-month-old used toothbrushes were available. Toothbrush wear varied widely between participants. However, per patient, the 3-month wear status of the three evaluated toothbrushes was strongly correlated (rho = 0.8, P < 0.0001). Participants who returned toothbrushes with extreme wear had significantly higher plaque scores than those who returned toothbrushes with no visible or light wear (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Toothbrush wear per individual patient is fairly consistent. Toothbrushes with extreme wear were less effective than those with no or light wear. Therefore, bristle splaying appears to be a more appropriate measure of brush replacement time then the commonly used toothbrush age. Splaying of the outer tufts beyond the base of the toothbrush is a condition that indicates it is time to change the brush.


Assuntos
Índice de Placa Dentária , Falha de Equipamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escovação Dentária/métodos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 381, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559963

RESUMO

Background: The oral cavity harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, intimately related to oral health and disease. The use of polyol-sweetened gum is believed to benefit oral health through stimulation of salivary flow and impacting oral pathogenic bacteria. Maltitol is often used as sweetener in food products. This study aimed to establish the in vivo effects of frequent consumption of maltitol-sweetened chewing gum on the dental plaque microbiota in healthy volunteers and to establish the cellular and molecular effects by in vitro cultivation and transcriptional analysis. Results: An intervention study was performed in 153 volunteers, randomly assigned to three groups (www.trialregister.nl; NTR4165). One group was requested to use maltitol gum five times daily, one group used gum-base, and the third group did not use chewing gum. At day 0 and day 28, 24 h-accumulated supragingival plaque was collected at the lingual sites of the lower jaw and the buccal sites of the upper jaw and analyzed by 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. At day 42, 2 weeks after completion of the study, lower-jaw samples were collected and analyzed. The upper buccal plaque microbiota composition had lower bacterial levels and higher relative abundances of (facultative) aerobic species compared to the lower lingual sites. There was no difference in bacterial community structure between any of the three study groups (PERMANOVA). Significant lower abundance of several bacterial phylotypes was found in maltitol gum group compared to the gum-base group, including Actinomyces massiliensis HOT 852 and Lautropia mirabilis HOT 022. Cultivation studies confirmed growth inhibition of A. massiliensis and A. johnsonii by maltitol at levels of 1% and higher. Transcriptome analysis of A. massiliensis revealed that exposure to maltitol resulted in changes in the expression of genes linked to osmoregulation, biofilm formation, and central carbon metabolism. Conclusion: The results showed that chewing itself only marginally impacted the plaque microbiota composition. Use of maltitol-sweetened gum lowered abundance of several bacterial species. Importantly, the species impacted play a key role in the early formation of dental biofilms. Further studies are required to establish if frequent use of maltitol gum impacts early dental-plaque biofilm development.

5.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 106(5): 1955-1963, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28963822

RESUMO

Remnants of air-abrasive powders on treated surfaces and tissues may affect tissue healing. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the possible effect of five commercially available air-abrasive powders on the viability and cell density of three types of periodontal cells. A sodium bicarbonate powder, two amino acid glycine powders, an amino acid glycine and tricalcium phosphate powder and an erythritol powder were tested. Suspensions of these powders in three different concentrations were prepared and incubated with gingival epithelial cells, gingival fibroblasts, and periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts for 6 hours. Mitochondrial activity, as a measure for cell viability, was evaluated by means of fluorescence activity of a redox indicator. Amount of DNA was measured as indication of cell density. All powders affected in different degrees cell viability and/or density. The most pronounced adverse effect was observed with the sodium bicarbonate followed by the erythritol-containing powder and at the highest concentration. A fivefold reduction or more in the number of cells was observed. The tricalcium phosphate containing powder had the least effect on all types of cells. Even, increased numbers of epithelial cells (twofold) were observed. Within the limits of the present study, it was concluded that careful selection of the powder is important to improve the clinical outcomes of air powder abrasive treatment. A tricalcium phosphate containing powder may improve the biologic responses. A sodium bicarbonate powder should be used with caution. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1955-1963, 2018.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Teste de Materiais , Ligamento Periodontal/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Ligamento Periodontal/patologia , Pós , Bicarbonato de Sódio/química , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia
6.
J Clin Periodontol ; 45(6): 650-662, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29125699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Diabetes mellitus and periodontitis are complex chronic diseases with an established bidirectional relationship. This systematic review evaluated in subjects with professionally diagnosed periodontitis the prevalence and odds of having diabetes. METHODS: The MEDLINE-PubMed, CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among subjects with periodontitis was extracted or if possible calculated. RESULTS: From the 803 titles and abstracts that came out of the search, 27 papers met the initial criteria. Prevalence of diabetes was 13.1% among subjects with periodontitis and 9.6% among subjects without periodontitis. Based on subanalysis, for subjects with periodontitis, the prevalence of diabetes was 6.2% when diabetes was self-reported, compared to 17.3% when diabetes was clinically assessed. The highest prevalence of diabetes among subjects with periodontitis was observed in studies originating from Asian countries (17.2%, n = 18,002) and the lowest in studies describing populations from Europe (4.3%, n = 7,858). The overall odds ratio for patients with diabetes to be among subjects with periodontitis as compared to those without periodontitis was 2.27 (95% CI [1.90;2.72]). A substantial variability in the definitions of periodontitis, combination of self-reported and clinically assessed diabetes, lack of confounding for diabetes control in included studies introduces estimation bias. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence and odds of having diabetes are higher within periodontitis populations compared to people without periodontitis. Self-reported diabetes underestimates the prevalence when compared to this condition assessed clinically. Geographical differences were observed: the highest diabetes prevalence among subjects with periodontitis was observed in studies conducted in Asia and the lowest in studies originating from Europe.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência
7.
Int J Oral Sci ; 8(3): 191-8, 2016 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27515277

RESUMO

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) have a major role in the innate immune system. However, little is known about PMN contribution in relation to oral health. The objective of this study was to investigate the numbers and functional characteristics of oral PMNs (oPMNs) compared with circulatory PMNs (cPMNs). Oral rinse and venous blood samples were obtained from 268 systemically and orally healthy volunteers in a cross-sectional observational study. PMN counts, cell cycle analysis and cellular activation state were investigated. Also, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was analyzed, with and without bacterial stimulation (Fusobacterium nucleatum). In males, 1.2 × 10(6)±1.0 × 10(6) oPMNs were collected, and showed a tendency to correlate with the levels of gingival bleeding (r=0.215, P=0.008). Comparable oPMNs counts were found among females (1.0 × 10(6)±0.7 × 10(6)). More late-stage apoptotic/necrotic cells were found among the oPMNs (53.1%) compared with the cPMNs (8.5%; P<0.001). Without additional stimulation, oPMNs were more activated than cPMNs, as indicated by higher expression of CD11b, CD63 and CD66b, and higher constitutive ROS levels (P<0.001). Notably, in response to bacterial stimulation, oPMNs released comparable ROS levels as cPMNs (P=0.042). In conclusion, this study provides data on viable oPMNs showing high levels of activation in orally and systemically healthy individuals, free of apparent caries lesions and periodontal disease. These data suggests that although the oPMNs are in a more mature stage of their life cycle compared with the cPMNs, oPMNs are still responsive to stimulation, which indicates their functional potential and possible contribution to a healthy oral ecosystem.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Neutrófilos , Saúde Bucal , Doenças Periodontais/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
8.
J Clin Periodontol ; 43(12): 1050-1058, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27513809

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this systematic review was to establish the efficacy of brushing with and without a dentifrice for dental plaque removal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL, EMBASE and other electronic databases were searched. The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials and subjects ≥18 years of age with good general health. Studies that evaluated the effect of toothbrushing with a dentifrice compared to brushing without a dentifrice were included. Data were extracted from the eligible studies, and a meta-analysis was performed where feasible. RESULT: The search was conducted until June 2016 and retrieved 10 eligible publications that included 20 comparisons. On average, 49.2% of plaque was removed when brushing was performed with a dentifrice, and 50.3% of plaque was removed when toothbrushing was performed without a dentifrice. The descriptive analysis indicated that the majority of the comparisons did not show an additional effect of dentifrice use. Regarding the meta-analysis of post-brushing scores, no significant difference was observed between toothbrushing with and without a dentifrice (DiffM 0.00, 95%CI [-0.05: 0.05], p = 0.91). The meta-analysis of incremental data (as means or percentages) supported and strengthened these findings. CONCLUSION: The cumulative evidence for this systematic review demonstrates that there is moderate certainty that toothbrushing with a dentifrice does not provide an added effect for the mechanical removal of dental plaque.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária , Índice de Placa Dentária , Dentifrícios , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Escovação Dentária , Cremes Dentais
9.
BMC Oral Health ; 16: 27, 2016 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26928597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of periodontitis begins with a non-surgical phase that includes scaling and root planing(SRP) and on occasion the use of systemic antibiotics. The goal was to systematically evaluate in systemic healthy adults the effect of the concomitant administration of amoxicillin (amx) and metronidazole (met) adjunctive to SRP compared to SRP alone. METHODS: The PubMed-MEDLINE, Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched up to November 2014 to identify appropriate studies. Probing Pocket Depth (PD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Bleeding on Pocket Probing(BOP) and Plaque Indices(PI) were selected as outcome variables. Based on the extracted data a meta-analysis was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 526 unique articles were found, 20 studies met the eligibility criteria. A meta-analysis showed that SRP + amx + met provided significantly better effects overall and more pronounced PD reduction in periodontal pockets initially measuring ≥6 mm (DiffM:-0.86 mm, p < 0.00001) and gain in CAL(DiffM:+0.75 mm, p = 0.0001). The meta-analysis for the secondary inflammatory parameter BOP showed that SRP + amx + met provided full mouth significantly greater reduction in BOP than SRP alone (DiffM:-6.98 %, p = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Adjunctive systemic amoxicillin and metronidazole medication to SRP significantly improved the clinical outcomes with respect to mean PD, CAL and BOP compared to SRP alone. There is moderate to strong evidence in support of the recommendation that adjunctive amx + met therapy to SRP significantly improves the clinical outcomes, with respect to mean PD and CAL compared to SRP alone especially in initially deep (≥6 mm) pockets. No major side effects associated with the intake of amx + met were reported. This treatment regimen is an efficacious, minimally invasive, practical and inexpensive approach for periodontitis therapy. The key components are mechanical tooth and pocket debridement, supportive treatment of the disease with systemic antibiotics and attention to proper self-care.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Raspagem Dentária , Metronidazol/administração & dosagem , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Aplainamento Radicular , Humanos , Bolsa Periodontal/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Clin Oral Investig ; 20(9): 2551-2558, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26993658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the correlation between dental plaque scores determined by the measurement of red autofluorescence or by visualization with a two-tone solution. Clinical photographs were used for this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overnight plaque from the anterior teeth of 48 participants was assessed for red fluorescence on photographs (taken with a QLF-camera) using a modified Quigley & Hein (mQH) index. A two-tone disclosing solution was applied. Total disclosed plaque was clinically assessed using the mQH index. In addition, total and blue disclosed plaque was scored on clinical photographs using the mQH index. RESULTS: A strong correlation was observed between the total disclosed plaque scored on photographs and the clinical scores (r = 0.70 at site level; r = 0.88 at subject level). The correlation between red fluorescent plaque and total plaque, as assessed on the photographs, was moderate to strong and significant (r = 0.50 at the site level; r = 0.70 at the subject level), with the total plaque scores consistently higher than the red fluorescent plaque scores. The correlation between red fluorescent plaque and blue disclosed plaque was weak to moderate and significant (r = 0.30 at the site level; r = 0.50 at the subject level). CONCLUSIONS: Plaque, as scored on white-light photographs, corresponds well with clinically assessed plaque. A weak to moderate correlation between red fluorescing plaque and total disclosed plaque or blue disclosed plaque was found. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: What at present is considered to be matured dental plaque, which appears blue following the application of a two-tone disclosing solution, is not in agreement with red fluorescent dental plaque assessment.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/diagnóstico , Corantes Fluorescentes , Fotografia Dentária/métodos , Adulto , Cor , Colorimetria/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
J Periodontol ; 87(5): 548-56, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26777765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical studies have explored the relationship between toothbrushing and development of gingival recession (GR), but relevant GR data for the multidirectional power toothbrush (PT) are lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of brushing with either a multidirectional PT or American Dental Association reference manual toothbrush (MT) on mid-buccal preexisting GR (PreGR) during 12 months. METHODS: This was a 12-month prospective, single-masked, parallel-group, randomized, controlled clinical study. Healthy participants without periodontitis with at least two teeth showing PreGR ≥2 mm were randomized to a group brushing with either an MT or PT. The primary outcome parameter was change at sites with PreGR ≥2 mm. All clinically based GR measurements were performed by one calibrated examiner at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Secondary outcomes were changes of GR at all mid-buccal sites (with or without PreGR), changes in percentage of GR sites demonstrating a change of ≥1 mm, and changes in probing depths. RESULTS: A total of 107 participants completed the study (PT: 55, MT: 52). During the 12-month study period the mean recession at sites with PreGR ≥2 mm decreased significantly from 2.2 to 2.1 mm in both groups (P <0.05). The extent of GR parameters did not differ between MT and PT groups at any time point. GR evaluated clinically and on stone casts was well correlated. CONCLUSION: Neither the PT nor MT led to an increase in PreGR during 12 months of daily use.


Assuntos
Índice de Placa Dentária , Retração Gengival , Índice Periodontal , Escovação Dentária , Placa Dentária , Desenho de Equipamento , Gengivite , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego
12.
Dent Clin North Am ; 59(4): 799-829, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26427569

RESUMO

Also note that structured abstracts are not allowed per journal style: What is the effect of a mouthwash containing various active chemical ingredients on plaque control and managing gingivitis in adults based on evidence gathered from existing systematic reviews? The summarized evidence suggests that mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine(CHX) and essential oils (EO) had a large effect supported by a strong body of evidence. Also there was strong evidence for a moderate effect of cetylpyridinium chloride(CPC). Evidence suggests that a CHX mouthwash is the first choice, the most reliable alternative is EO. No difference between CHX and EO with respect to gingivitis was observed.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Saúde Bucal
13.
J Clin Periodontol ; 42(9): 824-831, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26269207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative contribution of caries and periodontal disease to tooth loss over 24 years in a cohort deprived of regular dental care. MATERIAL & METHODS: The study population consisted of 98 subjects from a tea estate on West Java, Indonesia, that had been part of a prospective longitudinal study and provided full datasets of clinical assessments between 1987, 1994 and 2002. In 2011, complete sets of dental radiographs were made which was combined with the survey forms and clinical slides from the previous assessments in order to estimate reasons for tooth loss. RESULTS: Thirty-seven subjects lost no teeth, whereas 61 subjects lost 185 teeth. In this group, 45.9% lost ≤2 teeth, 32.8% lost 3 to 4 teeth and 19.7% lost ≥5 teeth. The majority of teeth were lost due to caries. In five subjects, tooth loss could be attributed solely to periodontitis, whereas in four subjects teeth were lost due to both caries and periodontits. Analyses of the predictor variables age, gender, smoking, education, presence of caries and severe periodontitis showed that male gender and caries were significantly associated with tooth loss. CONCLUSION: The majority of teeth in this population were lost due to caries.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/complicações , Periodontite/complicações , Perda de Dente/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Ocupações , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Clin Periodontol ; 42(10): 908-13, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26212602

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the correlation between bleeding on marginal probing (BOMP) and bleeding on pocket probing (BOPP), and the correlation of both bleeding indices with plaque. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study screened 336 participants, from which 268 were eligible for examination and analysis. Bleeding and plaque indices were assessed by single examiners, at six sites per tooth. RESULTS: The mean percentage of sites per individual with bleeding on marginal probing, bleeding on pocket probing and dental plaque were 19.9%, 51.2% and 32.2% respectively. In the quadrants where the margin was probed before the pocket, a 4.6 percentage points higher bleeding tendency with BOPP was observed (p < 0.05). At a site level, the correlation coefficients of plaque and bleeding on marginal probing and bleeding on pocket probing were 0.19 and 0.20 respectively. Both bleeding indices were also shown to be correlated (r = 0.89, fixed effect model). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of bleeding upon probing is influenced by the scoring method that is used for the diagnosis. Probing the bottom of the pocket results in significantly more bleeding than running a probe along the margin.


Assuntos
Hemorragia , Estudos Transversais , Placa Dentária/diagnóstico , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Gengivite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Índice Periodontal , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Clin Periodontol ; 42 Suppl 16: S303-16, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25682952

RESUMO

FOCUSED QUESTION: What is the effect of a dentifrice (DF), a mouthwash (MW), tongue cleaning (TC), or any combination of these as adjunct to toothbrushing on intra-oral malodour and tongue coating as compared to toothbrushing alone in systemically healthy patients, when used for a minimum follow-up period of 2 weeks? MATERIAL AND METHODS: The MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL and EMBASE databases were searched up to August 2014. Measurements of Volatile Sulphur Compounds and organoleptic scores of oral malodour were selected as outcome variables. Data were extracted and a descriptive analysis was performed. RESULTS: Independent screening of 1054 unique papers resulted in 12 eligible clinical trials with a medium-term (≥2 weeks) duration. The majority of studies provided a significant reduction in oral malodour when evaluating products with an active ingredient (incorporated into a DF or a MW) used adjunctively to toothbrushing. The added value of tongue cleaning over a MW was evaluated in one study. CONCLUSION: Due to very limited evidence, the potential effect of a specifically formulated dentifrice, a mouthwash or a tongue scraper for treating oral malodour is, in general, unclear. For mouthwashes containing the active ingredients chlorhexidine + cetylpyridinium chloride + zinc (CHX + CPC + Zn) and zinc chloride + cetylpyridinium chloride (ZnCl + CPC) most evidence was available. The strength of a recommendation to use these products was graded to be 'weak'.


Assuntos
Halitose/terapia , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Dentifrícios/uso terapêutico , Seguimentos , Halitose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Língua/patologia , Escovação Dentária/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Clin Periodontol ; 42 Suppl 16: S92-105, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25581718

RESUMO

FOCUSED QUESTION: What is the effect of mechanical inter-dental plaque removal in addition to toothbrushing, on managing gingivitis using various formats of inter-dental self-care in adults based on evidence gathered from existing systematic reviews? MATERIAL & METHODS: Three Internet sources were searched by a strategy designed to include systematic reviews on inter-dental cleaning devices. Plaque and gingivitis scores were the primary parameters of interest. Characteristics of selected papers were extracted. The potential risk of bias was estimated and the acquired evidence was graded. RESULTS: Screening of 395 papers resulted in six systematic reviews. Two papers evaluated the efficacy of dental floss, two of inter-dental brushes (IDB), one of woodsticks and one of the oral irrigator. Weak evidence of unclear or small magnitude was retrieved that supported dental floss, woodsticks and the oral irrigator to reduce gingivitis in addition to toothbrushing. No concomitant evidence for an effect on plaque emerged. There is moderate evidence that IDBs in combination with toothbrushing reduce both plaque and gingivitis. CONCLUSION: Evidence suggests that inter-dental cleaning with IDBs is the most effective method for inter-dental plaque removal. The majority of available studies fail to demonstrate that flossing is generally effective in plaque removal. All investigated devices for inter-dental self-care seem to support the management of gingivitis, however, to a varying extend.


Assuntos
Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Índice Periodontal , Autocuidado , Escovação Dentária/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Clin Periodontol ; 42 Suppl 16: S77-91, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25597787

RESUMO

FOCUSED QUESTION: Based on evidence as presented in systematic reviews what is the efficacy and safety of available homecare toothbrush regimens for mechanical plaque removal on plaque and gingivitis in adults? MATERIAL & METHODS: Three Internet sources were used (up to and including August 2014) to search for appropriate papers that satisfied the study purpose. Plaque scores and gingivitis scores were considered to be the primary parameter of interest. Safety was considered an important facet in relation to efficacy. Data and conclusions as presented in the selected papers were extracted. The potential risk of bias was estimated and the emerging evidence was graded. RESULTS: Independent screening of 176 unique reviews resulted in 10 published and eligible systematic reviews. They were categorized into one review evaluating the effect of an oral hygiene instruction with a toothbrush on plaque and gingivitis scores, five evaluating the efficacy of manual and power toothbrushes and three reviews evaluating toothbrush safety and one evaluating toothbrush contamination. CONCLUSION: Tooth brushing is effective in reducing levels of dental plaque. With respect to gingivitis power toothbrushes have a benefit over manual toothbrushes. The greatest body of evidence was available for oscillating-rotating brushes. Tooth brushing generally can be considered safe for the teeth and their investing tissues.


Assuntos
Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Higiene Bucal , Autocuidado , Escovação Dentária/métodos , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Higiene Bucal/educação , Índice Periodontal , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Clin Periodontol ; 41(7): 681-92, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24460795

RESUMO

FOCUSED QUESTION: What is the adjunctive effect of a diode laser (DL) following non-surgical periodontal debridement (SRP) during the initial phase of periodontal therapy on the clinical parameters of periodontal inflammation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The MEDLINE-PubMed, Cochrane-Central Register of Controlled Trials and EMBASE databases were searched up to September 2013. Probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were selected as outcome variables. Also plaque scores (PS), bleeding scores (BS) and the Gingival Index (GI) were considered outcome measures. Data were extracted and a meta-analysis (MA) was performed where appropriate. RESULTS: Independent screening of 416 unique papers resulted in nine eligible publications. The MA evaluating PPD, CAL and PS showed no significant effect. The only significance favouring adjunctive use of the DL was observed for the outcome parameters GI and BS. CONCLUSION: The collective evidence regarding adjunctive use of the DL with SRP indicates that the combined treatment provides an effect comparable to that of SRP alone. That is for PPD and CAL. The body of evidence considering the adjunctive use of the DL is judged to be "moderate" for changes in PPD and CAL. With respect to BS, the results showed a small but significant effect favouring the DL, however, the clinical relevance of this difference remains a question. This systematic review questions the adjunctive use of DL with traditional mechanical modalities of periodontal therapy in patients with periodontitis.


Assuntos
Lasers Semicondutores/uso terapêutico , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Periodontite/radioterapia , Terapia Combinada , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Perda da Inserção Periodontal/radioterapia , Desbridamento Periodontal/métodos , Índice Periodontal , Bolsa Periodontal/radioterapia
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