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2.
PLoS Med ; 18(6): e1003621, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, 235 million people are impacted by humanitarian emergencies worldwide, presenting increased risk of experiencing a mental disorder. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of a brief group psychological treatment delivered by trained facilitators without prior professional mental health training in a disaster-prone setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) from November 25, 2018 through September 30, 2019. Participants in both arms were assessed at baseline, midline (7 weeks post-baseline, which was approximately 1 week after treatment in the experimental arm), and endline (20 weeks post-baseline, which was approximately 3 months posttreatment). The intervention was Group Problem Management Plus (PM+), a psychological treatment of 5 weekly sessions, which was compared with enhanced usual care (EUC) consisting of a family psychoeducation meeting with a referral option to primary care providers trained in mental healthcare. The setting was 72 wards (geographic unit of clustering) in eastern Nepal, with 1 PM+ group per ward in the treatment arm. Wards were eligible if they were in disaster-prone regions and residents spoke Nepali. Wards were assigned to study arms based on covariate constrained randomization. Eligible participants were adult women and men 18 years of age and older who met screening criteria for psychological distress and functional impairment. Outcomes were measured at the participant level, with assessors blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was psychological distress assessed with the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Secondary outcomes included depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, "heart-mind" problems, social support, somatic symptoms, and functional impairment. The hypothesized mediator was skill use aligned with the treatment's mechanisms of action. A total of 324 participants were enrolled in the control arm (36 wards) and 319 in the Group PM+ arm (36 wards). The overall sample (N = 611) had a median age of 45 years (range 18-91 years), 82% of participants were female, 50% had recently experienced a natural disaster, and 31% had a chronic physical illness. Endline assessments were completed by 302 participants in the control arm (36 wards) and 303 participants in the Group PM+ arm (36 wards). At the midline assessment (immediately after Group PM+ in the experimental arm), mean GHQ-12 total score was 2.7 units lower in Group PM+ compared to control (95% CI: 1.7, 3.7, p < 0.001), with standardized mean difference (SMD) of -0.4 (95% CI: -0.5, -0.2). At 3 months posttreatment (primary endpoint), mean GHQ-12 total score was 1.4 units lower in Group PM+ compared to control (95% CI: 0.3, 2.5, p = 0.014), with SMD of -0.2 (95% CI: -0.4, 0.0). Among the secondary outcomes, Group PM+ was associated with endline with a larger proportion attaining more than 50% reduction in depression symptoms (29.9% of Group PM+ arm versus 17.3% of control arm, risk ratio = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.4, p = 0.002). Fewer participants in the Group PM+ arm continued to have "heart-mind" problems at endline (58.8%) compared to the control arm (69.4%), risk ratio = 0.8 (95% CI, 0.7, 1.0, p = 0.042). Group PM+ was not associated with lower PTSD symptoms or functional impairment. Use of psychosocial skills at midline was estimated to explain 31% of the PM+ effect on endline GHQ-12 scores. Adverse events in the control arm included 1 suicide death and 1 reportable incidence of domestic violence; in the Group PM+ arm, there was 1 death due to physical illness. Study limitations include lack of power to evaluate gender-specific effects, lack of long-term outcomes (e.g., 12 months posttreatment), and lack of cost-effectiveness information. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that a 5-session group psychological treatment delivered by nonspecialists modestly reduced psychological distress and depression symptoms in a setting prone to humanitarian emergencies. Benefits were partly explained by the degree of psychosocial skill use in daily life. To improve the treatment benefit, future implementation should focus on approaches to enhance skill use by PM+ participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03747055.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Saúde Mental , Desastres Naturais , Resolução de Problemas , Psicoterapia Breve , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Socorro em Desastres , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Estado Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996110

RESUMO

Background: Because of the high burden of untreated mental illness in humanitarian settings and low- and middle-income countries, scaling-up effective psychological interventions require a cultural adaptation process that is feasible and acceptable. Our adaptation process incorporates changes into both content and implementation strategies, with a focus on local understandings of distress and treatment mechanisms of action. Methods: Building upon the ecological validity model, we developed a 10-step process, the mental health Cultural Adaptation and Contextualization for Implementation (mhCACI) procedure, and piloted this approach in Nepal for Group Problem Management Plus (PM+), a task-sharing intervention, proven effective for adults with psychological distress in low-resource settings. Detailed documentation tools were used to ensure rigor and transparency during the adaptation process. Findings: The mhCACI is a 10-step process: (1) identify mechanisms of action, (2) conduct a literature desk review for the culture and context, (3) conduct a training-of-trainers, (4) translate intervention materials, (5) conduct an expert read-through of the materials, (6) qualitative assessment of intervention population and site, (7) conduct practice rounds, (8) conduct an adaptation workshop with experts and implementers, (9) pilot test the training, supervision, and implementation, and (10) review through process evaluation. For Group PM+, key adaptations were harmonizing the mechanisms of action with cultural models of 'tension'; modification of recruitment procedures to assure fit; and development of a skills checklist. Conclusion: A 10-step mhCACI process could feasibly be implemented in a humanitarian setting to rapidly prepare a psychological intervention for widespread implementation.

4.
Internet Interv ; 24: 100380, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747798

RESUMO

Background: E-mental health interventions may help to bridge the mental health treatment gap. Evidence on their effectiveness is compelling in high-income countries. Not enough evidence has been generated on their use with communities affected by adversity in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO), the National Mental Health Programme (NMMP) at Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) in Lebanon and other partners have adapted a WHO intervention called Step-by-Step for use with Lebanese and displaced people living in Lebanon. Step-by-Step is a minimally guided, internet-based intervention for adults with depression. In this study, a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) and a qualitative process evaluation were conducted to explore the feasibility and the acceptability of the research methods, and the intervention, in preparation for two fully powered trials to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Step-by-Step in Lebanon. Method: Participants were recruited through social media. Inclusion criteria were: being able to understand and speak Arabic or English; access to an internet connected device; aged over 18; living in Lebanon; scores above cut-off on the Patient Health Questionnaire and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or enhanced care as usual. They completed post-assessments eight weeks after baseline, and follow-up assessments another three months later. Primary outcomes were depression and level of functioning, secondary outcomes were anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and well-being. Qualitative interviews were conducted to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the research procedures and the intervention. Results: A total of N = 138 participants, including 33 Syrians, were recruited and randomised into two equal groups. The dropout rate was higher in the control group (73% post- and 82% follow-up assessment) than in the intervention group (63% post- and 72% follow-up assessment). The intervention was perceived as relevant, acceptable and beneficial to those who completed it. Suggestions were made to further adapt the content and to make the intervention more engaging. Statistical analyses were conducted despite the small sample size. Complete cases analysis showed a statistically significant symptom reduction in depression, anxiety, disability, and post-traumatic stress, and statistically significant improvement in well-being and functioning. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed non-significant effects. Conclusion: The research design, methods and procedures are feasible and acceptable in the context of Lebanon and can be applied in the RCTs. Preliminary findings suggest that Step-by-Step may be effective in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety and improving functioning and well-being.

5.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(1): e21585, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of availability of evidence-based services for people exposed to adversity globally has led to the development of psychological interventions with features that will likely make them more scalable. The evidence for the efficacy of e-mental health from high-income countries is compelling, and the use of these interventions could be a way to increase the coverage of evidence-based psychological interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Step-by-Step is a brief (5-session) intervention proposed by the World Health Organization as an innovative approach to reducing the suffering and disability associated with depression. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a locally adapted version of Step-by-Step with Syrian nationals (trial 1) and Lebanese nationals and other populations residing in Lebanon (trial 2). METHODS: This Step-by-Step trial involves 2 parallel, two-armed, randomized controlled trials comparing the e-intervention Step-by-Step to enhanced care as usual in participants with depressive symptoms and impaired functioning. The randomized controlled trials are designed and powered to detect effectiveness in 2 populations: Syrians in Lebanon (n=568) and other people residing in Lebanon (n=568; Lebanese nationals and other populations resident in Lebanon). The primary outcomes are depressive symptomatology (measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and functioning (measured with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale 2.0). Secondary outcomes include anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, personalized measures of psychosocial problems, subjective well-being, and economic effectiveness. Participants are mainly recruited through online advertising. Additional outreach methods will be used if required, for example through dissemination of information through partner agencies and organizations. They can access the intervention on a computer, tablet, and mobile phone through a hybrid app. Step-by-Step has 5 sessions, and users are guided by trained nonspecialist "e-helpers" providing phone-based or message-based support for around 15 minutes a week. RESULTS: The trials were funded in 2018. The study protocol was last verified June 20, 2019 (WHO ERC.0002797) and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03720769). The trials started recruitment as of December 9, 2019, and all data collection was completed in December 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The Step-by-Step trials will provide evidence about the effectiveness of an e-mental health intervention in Lebanon. If the intervention proves to be effective, this will inform future scale-up of this and similar interventions in Lebanon and in other settings across the world. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03720769; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03720769. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/21585.

6.
Trials ; 21(1): 343, 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, the lack of availability of psychological services for people exposed to adversities has led to the development of a range of scalable psychological interventions with features that enable better scale-up. Problem Management Plus (PM+) is a brief intervention of five sessions that can be delivered by non-specialists. It is designed for people in communities in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) affected by any kind of adversity. Two recent randomized controlled trials in Pakistan and Kenya demonstrated the effectiveness of individually delivered PM+. A group version of PM+ has been developed to make the intervention more scalable and acceptable. This paper describes the protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial (c-RCT) on locally adapted Group PM+ in Nepal. METHODS/DESIGN: This c-RCT will compare Group PM+ to enhanced usual care (EUC) in participants with high levels of psychological distress recruited from the community. The study is designed as a two-arm, single-blind c-RCT that will be conducted in a community-based setting in Morang, a flood affected district in Eastern Nepal. Randomization will occur at ward level, the smallest administrative level in Nepal, with 72 enrolled wards allocated to Group PM+ or to EUC (ratio 1:1). Group PM+ consists of five approximately 2.5-h sessions, in which participants are taught techniques to manage their stressors and problems, and is delivered by trained and supervised community psychosocial workers (CPSWs). EUC consists of a family meeting with (a) basic information on adversity and mental health, (b) benefits of getting support, (c) information on seeking services from local health facilities with mhGAP-trained staff. The primary outcome measure is levels of individual psychological distress at endline (equivalent to 20 ± 1 weeks after baseline), measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Secondary outcome measures include levels of functioning, depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, levels of social support, somatic symptoms, and ways of coping. We hypothesize that skills acquired will mediate any impact of the intervention. DISCUSSION: This c-RCT will contribute to the growing evidence-base for transdiagnostic psychological interventions delivered by non-specialists for people in communities affected by adversity. If Group PM+ is proven effective, the intervention manual will be released for use, giving the opportunity for further adaptation and implementation of the intervention in diverse settings with communities that require better access to psychological interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03747055.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Intervenção na Crise/métodos , Depressão/terapia , Inundações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise por Conglomerados , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Método Simples-Cego , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 57(1): 108-123, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237805

RESUMO

Health care should be informed by the physical, socioeconomic, mental, and emotional well-being of the person, and account for social circumstances and culture. Patient-generated outcome measures can contribute positively to mental health research in culturally diverse populations. In this study, we analysed qualitative responses to the Psychological Outcome Profiles (PSYCHLOPS) Questionnaire-a patient-generated outcome measure based on open-ended questions, and compared the qualitative responses gathered to conventional, nomothetic measures used alongside the PSYCHLOPS in two studies. Data were collected as part of outcome research on a psychological intervention in Pakistan (N = 346) and Kenya (N = 521). Two researchers coded the qualitative responses to the PSYCHLOPS and identified overarching themes. We compared the overarching themes identified to the items in the conventional, nomothetic outcome measures to investigate conceptual equivalence. Using the PSYCHLOPS, the most frequently reported problems in Kenya were financial constraints, poor health, and unemployment. In Pakistan, the most frequent problems were poor health and emotional problems. Most of the person-generated problem concepts were covered also in nomothetic measures that were part of the same study. However, there was no item equivalence in the nomothetic measures for the most frequent PSYCHLOPS problem cited in both countries. Response bias and measurement bias may not be excluded. More research on the use of PSYCHLOPS alongside conventional outcome measures is needed to further explore the extent to which it may bring added value. Use of a PSYCHLOPS semistructured interview schedule and efforts to minimise response biases should be considered.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Behav Cogn Ther ; 30(3): 165-186, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308387

RESUMO

Delivery of psychological and psychosocial treatments by non-specialists in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC) is a growing strategy to address the global mental health treatment gap. However, little is known about which competencies are essential for non-specialists to effectively deliver treatment. Psychotherapy research in high-income countries suggests that effective treatment requires competency in common factors. Therefore, our objective was to identify how common factors are described in evidence-supported non-specialist interventions in LMICs. To meet this objective, we identified and coded common factors by reviewing 16 evidence-supported manuals for psychological treatments delivered by non-specialists in LMICs. World Health Organization (WHO) manuals and other non-proprietary manuals, with positive randomized control outcomes, were included in the review. Fifteen common factors were identified and described in most manuals: 'promoting hope and realistic expectancy of change' and 'confidentiality' were described in 15 manuals (94%), followed by 'giving praise' and 'psychoeducation' (88% of manuals), and 'rapport building' (81% of manuals). Descriptions of common factors were similar across manuals, suggesting that training and competency evaluation approaches can be harmonized across interventions. Compiling these descriptions from the manuals can inform foundational training in common factors for diverse cadres of non-specialists around the world.

10.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 986, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116815

RESUMO

Background: E-mental health is an established mode of delivering treatment for common mental disorders in many high income countries. However, evidence of its effectiveness in lower income countries is lacking. This mixed methods study presents lessons learned and preliminary data on the feasibility of a minimally guided e-mental health intervention in Lebanon. The aim was to pilot test Step-by-Step, a WHO guided e-mental health intervention, and research methods prior to future, controlled testing. Methods: Participants were recruited using social media and advertisements in primary care clinics. Participants completed baseline and post-intervention questionnaires on depression symptoms (primary outcome, PHQ-8), anxiety symptoms, well-being, disability and self-perceived problem severity, and a client satisfaction questionnaire. In addition, seven completers, four drop-outs, 11 study staff, and four clinic managers were interviewed with responses thematically analyzed. Website analytics were used to understand participant behavior when using the website. Results: A total of 129 participants signed up via the Step-by-Step website. Seventy-four participants started session 1 after completing pre-test questionnaires and 26 completed both baseline and post-intervention data. Among those who completed post-assessments, depression symptoms improved (PHQ-8 scores (t=5.62, p < 0.001 two-tailed, df = 25). Wilcoxon signed ranks tests showed a significant difference between baseline and post-Step-by-Step scores on all secondary outcome measures. Client satisfaction data was positive. Interview responses suggested that the intervention could be made more appropriate for younger, single people, more motivating, and easier to use. Those who utilized the support element of the intervention were happy with their relationship with the non-specialist support person (e-helper), though some participants would have preferred specialist support. E-helpers would have liked more training on complex cases. Website analytics showed that many users dropped out before intervention start, and that some re-entered screening data having been excluded from the study. Conclusion: Step-by-Step skills and techniques, model of service integration, and its non-specialist support element are acceptable. Though the sample was small and non-controlled and drop-out was high, results suggest that it may be effective in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms and increasing well-being. Lessons learned will inform content revision, the development of an app version of Step-by-Step, and the research methodology of upcoming effectiveness studies.

11.
Mhealth ; 4: 34, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225240

RESUMO

The World Health Organization is developing a range of interventions, including technology supported interventions, to help address the mental health treatment gap, particularly in low and middle-income countries. One of these, Step-by-Step, is a guided, technology supported, intervention for depression. It provides psychoeducation and training in behavioural activation through an illustrated narrative with additional therapeutic techniques such as stress management (slow breathing), identifying strengths, positive self-talk, increasing social support and relapse prevention. Step-by-Step has been designed so that it can be adapted for use in settings with different cultural contexts and resource availability and to be meaningful in communities affected by adversity. This paper describes the process of developing Step-by-Step and highlights particular design features aimed at increasing feasibility of implementation in a wide variety of settings.

12.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 4: 126, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038793

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of common mental disorders increases in humanitarian emergencies while access to services to address them decreases. Problem Management Plus (PM+) is a brief five-session trans-diagnostic psychological WHO intervention employing empirically supported strategies that can be delivered by non-specialist lay-providers under specialist supervision to adults impaired by distress. Two recent randomized controlled trials in Pakistan and Kenya demonstrated the efficacy of individually delivered PM+. To make PM+ more scalable and acceptable in different contexts, it is important to develop a group version as well, with 6-8 participants in session. A study is needed to demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of both the intervention in a new cultural context and the procedures to evaluate Group PM+ in a cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods: This protocol describes a feasibility trial to Group PM+ in Sindhuli, Nepal. This study will evaluate procedures for a cluster randomized controlled trial (c-RCT) with Village Development Committees (VDCs), which are the second smallest unit of government administration, as the unit of randomization. Adults with high levels of psychological distress and functional impairment will receive either Group PM+ (n = 60) or enhanced usual care (EUC; n = 60). Psychological distress, functional impairment, depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and perceived problems will be measured during screening, pre-treatment baseline, and 7-10 days after the intervention. Qualitative data will be collected from beneficiaries, their families, local stakeholders, and staff to support quantitative data and to identify themes reporting that those involved and/or effected by Group PM+ perceived it as being acceptable, feasible, and useful. The primary objective of this trial is to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention; to identify issues around implementation of local adaptation methods, training, supervision, and outcomes measures; and to assure that procedures are adequate for a subsequent effectiveness c-RCT. Discussion: Outcomes from this trial will contribute to optimizing feasibility and acceptability through cultural adaptation and contextualization of the intervention as well as refining the design for a c-RCT, which will evaluate the effectiveness of Group PM+ in Nepal. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03359486.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29507742

RESUMO

Background: Problem Management Plus (PM+) is a brief multicomponent intervention incorporating behavioral strategies delivered by lay health workers. The effectiveness of PM+ has been evaluated in randomized controlled trials in Kenya and Pakistan. When developing interventions for large-scale implementation it is considered essential to evaluate their feasibility and acceptability in addition to their efficacy. This paper discusses a qualitative evaluation of PM+ for women affected by adversity in Kenya. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 27 key informants from peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya, where PM+ was tested. Interview participants included six women who completed PM+, six community health volunteers (CHVs) who delivered the intervention, seven people with local decision making power, and eight project staff involved in the PM+ trial. Results: Key informants generally noted positive experiences with PM+. Participants and CHVs reported the positive impact PM+ had made on their lives. Nonetheless, potential structural and psychological barriers to scale up were identified. The sustainability of CHVs as unsalaried, volunteer providers was mentioned by most interviewees as the main barrier to scaling up the intervention. Conclusions: The findings across diverse stakeholders show that PM+ is largely acceptable in this Kenyan setting. The results indicated that when further implemented, PM+ could be of great value to people in communities exposed to adversities such as interpersonal violence and chronic poverty. Barriers to large-scale implementation were identified, of which the sustainability of the non-specialist health workforce was the most important one.

14.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 663, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740065

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study is to describe the initial stages of the iterative and user-centered mobile mental health adaptation process of Step-by-Step (SbS), a modularized and originally web-based e-mental health intervention developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Given the great need for improving the responsiveness and accessibility of health systems in host countries, the EU-funded STRENGTHS consortium studies the adaptation, implementation and scaling-up of SbS for Syrian refugees in Germany, Sweden and Egypt. Using early prototyping, usability testing and identification of barriers to implementation, the study demonstrates a user-centered process of contextual adaptation to the needs and expectations of Syrian refugees. Materials and Methods: N = 128 adult Syrian refugees residing in Germany, Sweden and Egypt took part in qualitative assessments. Access, usage, and potential barriers regarding information and communication technologies (ICTs) were assessed in free list interviews. Interactive prototypes of the app were presented in key informant interviews and evaluated on usability, user experience and dissemination strategies. Focus groups were conducted to verify the results. The interview protocols were analyzed using inductive and deductive thematic analysis. Results: The use of digital technologies was found to be widespread among Syrian refugees. Technical literacy and problems with accessing the internet were common barriers. The majority of the respondents reacted positively to the presented app prototypes, stressing the potential health impact of the intervention (n = 28; 78%), its flexibility and customizability (n = 19; 53%) as well as the easy learnability of the app (n = 12; 33%). Aesthetic components (n = 12; 33%) and the overall length and pace of the intervention sessions (n = 9; 25%) were criticized in regard to their negative impact on user motivation. Acceptability, credibility, and technical requirements were identified as main barriers to implementation. Discussion: The study provided valuable guidance for adapting the app version of SbS and for mobile mental health adaptation in general. The findings underline the value of contextual adaptation with a focus on usability, user experience, and context specific dissemination strategies. Related factors such as access, acceptability and adherence have major implications for scaling-up digital interventions.

15.
Psychiatr Serv ; 65(5): 612-7, 2014 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24535615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several psychotherapies have been found to be effective in the treatment of depression among adults. However, little is known about whether effectiveness differs by racial-ethnic minority group. The authors conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relative effects of psychotherapy for persons from racial-ethnic minority groups, by examining whether a sample's racial-ethnic minority proportion was a moderator of the effect size of psychotherapy. METHODS: Eligible studies were identified with an existing database of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the psychological treatment of depression among adults. The analysis included all studies in which the effect of psychotherapy for adults with a depressive disorder or symptomatology was compared with a control condition in an RCT. Only studies that reported the overall racial-ethnic minority proportion of the sample or the studies reporting specific racial-ethnic backgrounds of participants were included. A total of 56 RCTs reported the proportion of participants from racial-ethnic minority groups (with 77 comparisons between psychotherapy treatment and control groups). RESULTS: An overall moderate effect size (g=.50) in favor of psychotherapy was found. No significant moderating effect of race-ethnicity was found in bivariate and multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that psychotherapy is equally effective regardless of care seekers' race-ethnicity. Future research should focus on filling in the gap between effective mental health care and the delivery of these services.


Assuntos
Depressão/etnologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Psicoterapia , Intervalos de Confiança , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise de Regressão
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 15(10): e227, 2013 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24121307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Turkish migrants living in the Netherlands have a high prevalence of depressive disorders, but experience considerable obstacles to accessing professional help. Providing easily accessible Internet treatments may help to overcome these barriers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally sensitive, guided, self-help, problem-solving intervention through the Internet for reducing depressive symptoms in Turkish migrants. METHODS: A two-armed randomized controlled trial was conducted. The primary outcome measure was the severity of depressive symptoms; secondary outcome measures were somatic symptoms, anxiety, quality of life, and satisfaction with the treatment. Participants were assessed online at baseline, posttest (6 weeks after baseline), and 4 months after baseline. Posttest results were analyzed on the intention-to-treat sample. Missing values were estimated by means of multiple imputation. Differences in clinical outcome between groups were analyzed with a t test. Cohen's d was used to determine the between-groups effect size at posttreatment and follow-up. RESULTS: Turkish adults (N=96) with depressive symptoms were randomized to the experimental group (n=49) or to a waitlist control group (n=47). High attrition rates were found among the 96 participants of which 42% (40/96) did not complete the posttest (6 weeks) and 62% (59/96) participants did not complete the follow-up assessment at 4 months. No significant difference between the experimental group and the control group was found for depression at posttest. Recovery occurred significantly more often in the experimental group (33%, 16/49) than in the control group (9%, 4/47) at posttest (P=.02). Because of the high attrition rate, a completers-only analysis was conducted at follow-up. The experimental group showed significant improvement in depression compared to the control group both at posttest (P=.01) and follow-up (P=.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study did not show a significant effect on the reduction of depressive symptoms. However, the effect size at posttest was high, which might be an indicator of the possible effectiveness of the intervention when assessed in a larger sample and robust trial. Future research should replicate our study with adequately powered samples. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trial Register: NTR2303. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2303 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6IOxNgoDu).


Assuntos
Características Culturais , Depressão/terapia , Emigração e Imigração , Internet , Resolução de Problemas , Adulto , Depressão/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Turquia
17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 11: 156, 2011 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21961801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of South Africans with a DSM-IV diagnosis receive no treatment for their mental health problems. There is a move to simplify treatment for common mental disorders (CMDs) in order to ease access. Brief problem solving therapy (PST) might fill the treatment gap for CMD's in deprived communities in South Africa. This pilot study evaluates the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of this PST program for CMD's in deprived communities around Cape Town. METHODS: A Dutch problem solving program was adapted and translated into English, Xhosa and Afrikaans and thereafter implemented in townships around Cape Town. An initial attempt to recruit participants for online PST proved difficult, and so the program was adapted to a booklet format. Volunteers experiencing psychological distress were invited to participate in the either individually or group delivered 5-week during self-help program. To evaluate the effectiveness, psychological distress was administered through self-report questionnaires. After completion of the intervention participants also rated the program on various acceptability aspects. RESULTS: Of 103 participants, 73 completed 5 weeks of brief PST in a booklet/workshop format. There were significantly more dropouts in those who used the booklet individually than in the group. Psychological distress measured on the K-10 and SRQ fell significantly and the program was evaluated positively. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that brief problem solving in a booklet/workshop format may be an effective, feasible and acceptable short-term treatment for people with CMD's in deprived communities. In this setting, group delivery of PST had lower drop-out rates than individual delivery, and was more feasible and acceptable. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the effect of brief self-help PST more rigorously.


Assuntos
Áreas de Pobreza , Resolução de Problemas , Psicoterapia Breve/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Psicoterapia Breve/métodos , Autocuidado , Autorrelato , África do Sul
18.
CNS Spectr ; 14(2 Suppl 3): 34-40, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19238128

RESUMO

There is a growing database of research on self-help and internet-guided interventions in the treatment of common mental disorders, and a number of meta-analyses have now been published. This article provides a systematic review of meta-analyses on the efficacy of self-help interventions, including internet-guided therapy, for depression and anxiety disorders. Searches were conducted in PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database for statistical meta-analyses of randomized, controlled trials of self-help or internet-guided interventions for depression or anxiety disorders published in English. Reference lists were also used to find additional studies. Effect sizes were tabulated; 13 meta-analyses reported medium to large effect sizes for self-help interventions. Studies included in the meta-analyses differed in samples, type of self-help (eg, computer-aided, internet-guided), control conditions, and study design. The meta-analyses indicate that self-help methods are effective in a range of different disorders, including depression and anxiety disorders. Most meta-analyses found relatively large effect sizes for self-help treatments, independent of the type of self-help, and comparable to effect sizes for face-to-face treatments. However, further research is needed to optimize the use of self-help methods.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Guias como Assunto , Internet , Metanálise como Assunto , Autocuidado/métodos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Guias como Assunto/normas , Humanos , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos
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