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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 854-868, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585109

RESUMO

Cadherins constitute a family of transmembrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. The extracellular domain of cadherins consists of extracellular cadherin (EC) domains, separated by calcium binding sites. The EC interacts with other cadherin molecules in cis and in trans to mechanically hold apposing cell surfaces together. CDH2 encodes N-cadherin, whose essential roles in neural development include neuronal migration and axon pathfinding. However, CDH2 has not yet been linked to a Mendelian neurodevelopmental disorder. Here, we report de novo heterozygous pathogenic variants (seven missense, two frameshift) in CDH2 in nine individuals with a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, variable axon pathfinding defects (corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, mirror movements, Duane anomaly), and ocular, cardiac, and genital anomalies. All seven missense variants (c.1057G>A [p.Asp353Asn]; c.1789G>A [p.Asp597Asn]; c.1789G>T [p.Asp597Tyr]; c.1802A>C [p.Asn601Thr]; c.1839C>G [p.Cys613Trp]; c.1880A>G [p.Asp627Gly]; c.2027A>G [p.Tyr676Cys]) result in substitution of highly conserved residues, and six of seven cluster within EC domains 4 and 5. Four of the substitutions affect the calcium-binding site in the EC4-EC5 interdomain. We show that cells expressing these variants in the EC4-EC5 domains have a defect in cell-cell adhesion; this defect includes impaired binding in trans with N-cadherin-WT expressed on apposing cells. The two frameshift variants (c.2563_2564delCT [p.Leu855Valfs∗4]; c.2564_2567dupTGTT [p.Leu856Phefs∗5]) are predicted to lead to a truncated cytoplasmic domain. Our study demonstrates that de novo heterozygous variants in CDH2 impair the adhesive activity of N-cadherin, resulting in a multisystemic developmental disorder, that could be named ACOG syndrome (agenesis of corpus callosum, axon pathfinding, cardiac, ocular, and genital defects).

3.
Eur J Med Genet ; 62(8): 103680, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128261

RESUMO

Schwannomatosis is a rare affection predisposing to multiple peripheral neurologic tumors development. Approximatively, one third of patients with schwannomatosis are carriers of a germline mutation in LZTR1 (Leucin Zipper Transcription Regulator 1). Tumorigenesis in schwannomatosis responds to a somatic 5-hit/3-step mechanism resulting in a loss of function (LOF) of LZTR1 and the contiguous genes of locus 22q11.2q12.2. Effectively, LZTR1 is mapped on 22q11.2 and centromeric to SMARCB1 also implicated in the determinism of schwannomatosis and NF2, responsible for neurofibromatosis type 2. On a somatic point of view, LZTR1 mutations are known to drive with a significant frequency glioblastoma (GB) development. We report here two families in which segregate both multiple schwannomas and GB. In the first family, the proband received a diagnosis with of schwannomatosis after a surgery for a lumbar schwannoma at age 43, molecularly confirmed by identification of a germline heterozygous mutation in LZTR1. Her father, having unremarkable medical history deceased from an apparently isolated GB at age 59. In the second family, LZTR1-related schwannomatosis was diagnosed in the index case at age 70 after multiple schwannomas surgeries. Her elder sister had no neurological medical history before occurrence of a lethal GB at age 78. Molecular analysis of GB sample from both affected relatives showed the presence of the familial mutation. These observations hypothesize a potential link between schwannomatosis and the GB development.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 815-834, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031012

RESUMO

We identified individuals with variations in ACTL6B, a component of the chromatin remodeling machinery including the BAF complex. Ten individuals harbored bi-allelic mutations and presented with global developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and spasticity, and ten individuals with de novo heterozygous mutations displayed intellectual disability, ambulation deficits, severe language impairment, hypotonia, Rett-like stereotypies, and minor facial dysmorphisms (wide mouth, diastema, bulbous nose). Nine of these ten unrelated individuals had the identical de novo c.1027G>A (p.Gly343Arg) mutation. Human-derived neurons were generated that recaptured ACTL6B expression patterns in development from progenitor cell to post-mitotic neuron, validating the use of this model. Engineered knock-out of ACTL6B in wild-type human neurons resulted in profound deficits in dendrite development, a result recapitulated in two individuals with different bi-allelic mutations, and reversed on clonal genetic repair or exogenous expression of ACTL6B. Whole-transcriptome analyses and whole-genomic profiling of the BAF complex in wild-type and bi-allelic mutant ACTL6B neural progenitor cells and neurons revealed increased genomic binding of the BAF complex in ACTL6B mutants, with corresponding transcriptional changes in several genes including TPPP and FSCN1, suggesting that altered regulation of some cytoskeletal genes contribute to altered dendrite development. Assessment of bi-alleic and heterozygous ACTL6B mutations on an ACTL6B knock-out human background demonstrated that bi-allelic mutations mimic engineered deletion deficits while heterozygous mutations do not, suggesting that the former are loss of function and the latter are gain of function. These results reveal a role for ACTL6B in neurodevelopment and implicate another component of chromatin remodeling machinery in brain disease.

5.
Clin Genet ; 95(3): 420-426, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633342

RESUMO

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS; OMIM 180849) is an autosomal dominant developmental disorder characterized by facial dysmorphism, broad thumbs and halluces associated with intellectual disability. RSTS is caused by alterations in CREBBP (about 60%) and EP300 genes (8%). RSTS is often diagnosed at birth or during early childhood but generally not suspected during antenatal period. We report nine cases of well-documented fetal RSTS. Two cases were examined after death in utero at 18 and 35 weeks of gestation and seven cases after identification of ultrasound abnormalities and termination of pregnancy. On prenatal sonography, a large gallbladder was detected in two cases, and brain malformations were noted in four cases, especially cerebellar hypoplasia. However, the diagnosis of RSTS has not been suggested during pregnancy. Fetal autopsy showed that all fetuses had large thumbs and/or suggestive facial dysmorphism. A CREBBP gene anomaly was identified in all cases. Alterations were similar to those found in typical RSTS children. This report will contribute to a better knowledge of the fetal phenotype to consider the hypothesis of RSTS during pregnancy. Genotyping allows reassuring genetic counseling.

6.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142438

RESUMO

The CACNA1A gene encodes a calcium-dependent voltage channel, localized in neuronal cells. Pathogenic variants in this gene are known to lead to a broad clinical spectrum including episodic ataxia type 2, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6, familial hemiplegic migraine, and more recently epileptic encephalopathy. We report a large family revealing a wide variability of neurological manifestations associated with a CACNA1A missense pathogenic variant. The index case had early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with progressive cerebellar atrophy, although his mother and his great-grandmother suffered from paroxystic episodic ataxia. His grandfather and great grand-aunt reported no symptoms, but two of her sons displayed early-onset ataxia with intellectual disability. Two of her little daughters suffered from gait disorders, and also from epilepsy for one of them. All these relatives were carriers of the previously described heterozygous variant in CACNA1A gene. We report here the first family leading to major clinical variability and incomplete penetrance. Our family highlights the difficulties to provide accurate genetic counselling concerning prenatal diagnosis regarding highly variable severity of the clinical presentation.

7.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 47(11): 3321-3332, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28748333

RESUMO

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a rare genetic disease that associates intellectual disability with somatic characteristics. We have conducted a study of the overall motor abilities of RTS participants. Static postural performance as well as gait parameters were somewhat decreased, although not significantly compared to typically developing (TD) participants. In contrast, the motor skills requiring a high level of visuomotor coordination were considerably degraded in RTS participants compared to TD participants. We also found that cognitive status was significantly correlated with performance for tasks requiring a higher level of visuomotor coordination in RTS but not TD participants. Our study demonstrates a reduction in the motor performance of RTS participants and a link between the level of intellectual disability and motor capacities.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Locomoção , Masculino , Postura
8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(12): 3069-3082, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27648933

RESUMO

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a developmental disorder characterized by a typical face and distal limbs abnormalities, intellectual disability, and a vast number of other features. Two genes are known to cause RSTS, CREBBP in 60% and EP300 in 8-10% of clinically diagnosed cases. Both paralogs act in chromatin remodeling and encode for transcriptional co-activators interacting with >400 proteins. Up to now 26 individuals with an EP300 mutation have been published. Here, we describe the phenotype and genotype of 42 unpublished RSTS patients carrying EP300 mutations and intragenic deletions and offer an update on another 10 patients. We compare the data to 308 individuals with CREBBP mutations. We demonstrate that EP300 mutations cause a phenotype that typically resembles the classical RSTS phenotype due to CREBBP mutations to a great extent, although most facial signs are less marked with the exception of a low-hanging columella. The limb anomalies are more similar to those in CREBBP mutated individuals except for angulation of thumbs and halluces which is very uncommon in EP300 mutated individuals. The intellectual disability is variable but typically less marked whereas the microcephaly is more common. All types of mutations occur but truncating mutations and small rearrangements are most common (86%). Missense mutations in the HAT domain are associated with a classical RSTS phenotype but otherwise no genotype-phenotype correlation is detected. Pre-eclampsia occurs in 12/52 mothers of EP300 mutated individuals versus in 2/59 mothers of CREBBP mutated individuals, making pregnancy with an EP300 mutated fetus the strongest known predictor for pre-eclampsia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação a CREB/genética , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/genética , Adulto , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/patologia , Deleção de Sequência
9.
Ann Neurol ; 78(6): 871-86, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26288984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is caused by mutations in the SACS gene. SACS encodes sacsin, a protein whose function remains unknown, despite the description of numerous protein domains and the recent focus on its potential role in the regulation of mitochondrial physiology. This study aimed to identify new mutations in a large population of ataxic patients and to functionally analyze their cellular effects in the mitochondrial compartment. METHODS: A total of 321 index patients with spastic ataxia selected from the SPATAX network were analyzed by direct sequencing of the SACS gene, and 156 patients from the ATAXIC project presenting with congenital ataxia were investigated either by targeted or whole exome sequencing. For functional analyses, primary cultures of fibroblasts were obtained from 11 patients carrying either mono- or biallelic variants, including 1 case harboring a large deletion encompassing the entire SACS gene. RESULTS: We identified biallelic SACS variants in 33 patients from SPATAX, and in 5 nonprogressive ataxia patients from ATAXIC. Moreover, a drastic and recurrent alteration of the mitochondrial network was observed in 10 of the 11 patients tested. INTERPRETATION: Our results permit extension of the clinical and mutational spectrum of ARSACS patients. Moreover, we suggest that the observed mitochondrial network anomalies could be used as a trait biomarker for the diagnosis of ARSACS when SACS molecular results are difficult to interpret (ie, missense variants and heterozygous truncating variant). Based on our findings, we propose new diagnostic definitions for ARSACS using clinical, genetic, and cellular criteria.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias , Espasticidade Muscular/diagnóstico , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/congênito , Adolescente , Adulto , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Espasticidade Muscular/genética , Espasticidade Muscular/patologia , Espasticidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/diagnóstico , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/genética , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/patologia , Ataxias Espinocerebelares/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur J Med Genet ; 57(11-12): 639-42, 2014 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25234363

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant, multi-system, neurocutaneous disorder that predisposes to the development of benign and malignant tumors with a birth incidence rate of 1 in 2500-3000. 50% of cases are sporadic. The diagnosis is exclusively based on clinical assessment with clinical diagnostic criteria such as café-au-lait spots, neurofibromas, axillary or groin freckling, Lisch nodules, optic pathway glioma, bony dysplasia and first-degree relative with NF1. We report a family with NF1 in which two members presented atypical clinical features in addition to the classical diagnostic criteria. Three relatives affected by NF1, a father and two of his three sons, are described. The clinical diagnosis was originally worn in all three cases, with the association many spots café-au -lait over the entire body and some axillary freckling as well as first-degree relative. One case presented an Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) type 2 at 10 years of age diagnosed before the revelation of bicytopenia associated pallor and isolated asthenia. A second case presented a nephrotic syndrome at 4 years of age due to the association of hydrops with headache and asthenia. Direct sequencing of NF1 led to identify the familial mutation, a previously unreported heterozygous missense mutation c.3443C > A, p.Ala1148Glu in exon 20 which segregated with all three affected patients. The family described in this report confirms the high clinical variability of NF1, even intrafamilial, and raises the question as to whether rare features such as AML and nephrotic syndrome are associated with NF1. Some NF1 patients presenting glomerular diseases or AML have rarely been reported, but due to the small number of cases described the mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. However, it seems important to be aware of the possible occurrence of nephritic syndrome and/or malignant blood diseases in NF1 patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome Nefrótica/diagnóstico , Neurofibromatose 1/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Manchas Café com Leite/diagnóstico , Manchas Café com Leite/genética , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Síndrome Nefrótica/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Linhagem
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