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1.
Neural Netw ; 144: 164-175, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500255

RESUMO

Modern feedforward convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can now solve some computer vision tasks at super-human levels. However, these networks only roughly mimic human visual perception. One difference from human vision is that they do not appear to perceive illusory contours (e.g. Kanizsa squares) in the same way humans do. Physiological evidence from visual cortex suggests that the perception of illusory contours could involve feedback connections. Would recurrent feedback neural networks perceive illusory contours like humans? In this work we equip a deep feedforward convolutional network with brain-inspired recurrent dynamics. The network was first pretrained with an unsupervised reconstruction objective on a natural image dataset, to expose it to natural object contour statistics. Then, a classification decision head was added and the model was finetuned on a form discrimination task: squares vs. randomly oriented inducer shapes (no illusory contour). Finally, the model was tested with the unfamiliar "illusory contour" configuration: inducer shapes oriented to form an illusory square. Compared with feedforward baselines, the iterative "predictive coding" feedback resulted in more illusory contours being classified as physical squares. The perception of the illusory contour was measurable in the luminance profile of the image reconstructions produced by the model, demonstrating that the model really "sees" the illusion. Ablation studies revealed that natural image pretraining and feedback error correction are both critical to the perception of the illusion. Finally we validated our conclusions in a deeper network (VGG): adding the same predictive coding feedback dynamics again leads to the perception of illusory contours.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4839, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376673

RESUMO

The ability to maintain a sequence of items in memory is a fundamental cognitive function. In the rodent hippocampus, the representation of sequentially organized spatial locations is reflected by the phase of action potentials relative to the theta oscillation (phase precession). We investigated whether the timing of neuronal activity relative to the theta brain oscillation also reflects sequence order in the medial temporal lobe of humans. We used a task in which human participants learned a fixed sequence of pictures and recorded single neuron and local field potential activity with implanted electrodes. We report that spikes for three consecutive items in the sequence (the preferred stimulus for each cell, as well as the stimuli immediately preceding and following it) were phase-locked at distinct phases of the theta oscillation. Consistent with phase precession, spikes were fired at progressively earlier phases as the sequence advanced. These findings generalize previous findings in the rodent hippocampus to the human temporal lobe and suggest that encoding stimulus information at distinct oscillatory phases may play a role in maintaining sequential order in memory.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/citologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Lobo Temporal/citologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Trends Neurosci ; 44(9): 692-704, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001376

RESUMO

Recent advances in deep learning have allowed artificial intelligence (AI) to reach near human-level performance in many sensory, perceptual, linguistic, and cognitive tasks. There is a growing need, however, for novel, brain-inspired cognitive architectures. The Global Workspace Theory (GWT) refers to a large-scale system integrating and distributing information among networks of specialized modules to create higher-level forms of cognition and awareness. We argue that the time is ripe to consider explicit implementations of this theory using deep-learning techniques. We propose a roadmap based on unsupervised neural translation between multiple latent spaces (neural networks trained for distinct tasks, on distinct sensory inputs and/or modalities) to create a unique, amodal Global Latent Workspace (GLW). Potential functional advantages of GLW are reviewed, along with neuroscientific implications.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Inteligência Artificial , Encéfalo , Cognição , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação
4.
Neuroimage ; 237: 118173, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000403

RESUMO

Recent advances in neuroscience have challenged the view of conscious visual perception as a continuous process. Behavioral performance, reaction times and some visual illusions all undergo periodic fluctuations that can be traced back to oscillatory activity in the brain. These findings have given rise to the idea of a discrete sampling mechanism in the visual system. In this study we seek to investigate the causal relationship between occipital alpha oscillations and Temporal Order Judgements using neural entrainment via rhythmic TMS in 18 human subjects (9 females). We find that certain phases of the entrained oscillation facilitate temporal order perception of two visual stimuli, whereas others hinder it. Our findings support the idea that the visual system periodically compresses information into discrete packages within which temporal order information is lost. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Neural entrainment via TMS serves as a valuable tool to interfere with cortical rhythms and observe changes in perception. Here, using α-rhythmic TMS-pulses, we demonstrate the effect of the phase of entrained oscillations on performance in a temporal order judgment task. In extension of previous work, we 1. causally influenced brain rhythms far more directly using TMS, and 2. showed that previous results on discrete perception cannot simply be explained by rhythmic fluctuations in visibility. Our findings support the idea that the temporal organization of visual processing is discrete rather than continuous, and is causally modulated by cortical rhythms. To our knowledge, this is the first study providing causal evidence via TMS for an endogenous periodic modulation of time perception.

5.
eNeuro ; 8(3)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903182

RESUMO

Numerous theories propose a key role for brain oscillations in visual perception. Most of these theories postulate that sensory information is encoded in specific oscillatory components (e.g., power or phase) of specific frequency bands. These theories are often tested with whole-brain recording methods of low spatial resolution (EEG or MEG), or depth recordings that provide a local, incomplete view of the brain. Opportunities to bridge the gap between local neural populations and whole-brain signals are rare. Here, using representational similarity analysis (RSA) in human participants we explore which MEG oscillatory components (power and phase, across various frequency bands) correspond to low or high-level visual object representations, using brain representations from fMRI, or layer-wise representations in seven recent deep neural networks (DNNs), as a template for low/high-level object representations. The results showed that around stimulus onset and offset, most transient oscillatory signals correlated with low-level brain patterns (V1). During stimulus presentation, sustained ß (∼20 Hz) and γ (>60 Hz) power best correlated with V1, while oscillatory phase components correlated with IT representations. Surprisingly, this pattern of results did not always correspond to low-level or high-level DNN layer activity. In particular, sustained ß band oscillatory power reflected high-level DNN layers, suggestive of a feed-back component. These results begin to bridge the gap between whole-brain oscillatory signals and object representations supported by local neuronal activations.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Percepção Visual , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos
6.
Neurosci Conscious ; 2021(1): niab007, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815830

RESUMO

Alpha rhythms (∼10Hz) in the human brain are classically associated with idling activities, being predominantly observed during quiet restfulness with closed eyes. However, recent studies demonstrated that alpha (∼10Hz) rhythms can directly relate to visual stimulation, resulting in oscillations, which can last for as long as one second. This alpha reverberation, dubbed perceptual echoes (PE), suggests that the visual system actively samples and processes visual information within the alpha-band frequency. Although PE have been linked to various visual functions, their underlying mechanisms and functional role are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the relationship between conscious perception and the generation and the amplitude of PE. Specifically, we displayed two coloured Gabor patches with different orientations on opposite sides of the screen, and using a set of dichoptic mirrors, we induced a binocular rivalry between the two stimuli. We asked participants to continuously report which one of two Gabor patches they consciously perceived, while recording their EEG signals. Importantly, the luminance of each patch fluctuated randomly over time, generating random sequences from which we estimated two impulse-response functions (IRFs) reflecting the PE generated by the perceived (dominant) and non-perceived (suppressed) stimulus, respectively. We found that the alpha power of the PE generated by the consciously perceived stimulus was comparable with that of the PE generated during monocular vision (control condition) and higher than the PE induced by the suppressed stimulus. Moreover, confirming previous findings, we found that all PEs propagated as a travelling wave from posterior to frontal brain regions, irrespective of conscious perception. All in all our results demonstrate a correlation between conscious perception and PE, suggesting that the synchronization of neural activity plays an important role in visual sampling and conscious perception.

7.
Neuroimage ; 237: 118053, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930536

RESUMO

The visual Impulse Response Function (IRF) can be estimated by cross-correlating random luminance sequences with concurrently recorded EEG. It typically contains a strong 10 Hz oscillatory component, suggesting that visual information reverberates in the human brain as a "perceptual echo". The neural origin of these echoes remains unknown. To address this question, we recorded EEG and fMRI in two separate sessions. In both sessions, a disk whose luminance followed a random (white noise) sequence was presented in the upper left quadrant. Individual IRFs were derived from the EEG session. These IRFs were then used as "response templates" to reconstruct an estimate of the EEG during the fMRI session, by convolution with the corresponding random luminance sequences. The 7-14 Hz (alpha, the main frequency component of the IRF) envelope of the reconstructed EEG was finally used as an fMRI regressor, to determine which brain voxels co-varied with the oscillations elicited by the luminance sequence, i.e., the "perceptual echoes". The reconstructed envelope of EEG alpha was significantly correlated with BOLD responses in V1 and V2. Surprisingly, this correlation was visible outside, but not within the directly (retinotopically) stimulated region. We tentatively interpret this lack of alpha modulation as a BOLD saturation effect, since the overall stimulus-induced BOLD response was inversely related, across voxels, to the signal variability over time. In conclusion, our results suggest that perceptual echoes originate in early visual cortex, driven by widespread activity in V1 and V2, not retinotopically restricted, but possibly reflecting the propagation of a travelling alpha wave.

8.
eNeuro ; 8(1)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239271

RESUMO

The development of deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has recently led to great successes in computer vision, and CNNs have become de facto computational models of vision. However, a growing body of work suggests that they exhibit critical limitations on tasks beyond image categorization. Here, we study one such fundamental limitation, concerning the judgment of whether two simultaneously presented items are the same or different (SD) compared with a baseline assessment of their spatial relationship (SR). In both human subjects and artificial neural networks, we test the prediction that SD tasks recruit additional cortical mechanisms which underlie critical aspects of visual cognition that are not explained by current computational models. We thus recorded electroencephalography (EEG) signals from human participants engaged in the same tasks as the computational models. Importantly, in humans the two tasks were matched in terms of difficulty by an adaptive psychometric procedure; yet, on top of a modulation of evoked potentials (EPs), our results revealed higher activity in the low ß (16-24 Hz) band in the SD compared with the SR conditions. We surmise that these oscillations reflect the crucial involvement of additional mechanisms, such as working memory and attention, which are missing in current feed-forward CNNs.


Assuntos
Atenção , Eletroencefalografia , Cognição , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Resolução de Problemas
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22172, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335190

RESUMO

In recent years artificial neural networks achieved performance close to or better than humans in several domains: tasks that were previously human prerogatives, such as language processing, have witnessed remarkable improvements in state of the art models. One advantage of this technological boost is to facilitate comparison between different neural networks and human performance, in order to deepen our understanding of human cognition. Here, we investigate which neural network architecture (feedforward vs. recurrent) matches human behavior in artificial grammar learning, a crucial aspect of language acquisition. Prior experimental studies proved that artificial grammars can be learnt by human subjects after little exposure and often without explicit knowledge of the underlying rules. We tested four grammars with different complexity levels both in humans and in feedforward and recurrent networks. Our results show that both architectures can "learn" (via error back-propagation) the grammars after the same number of training sequences as humans do, but recurrent networks perform closer to humans than feedforward ones, irrespective of the grammar complexity level. Moreover, similar to visual processing, in which feedforward and recurrent architectures have been related to unconscious and conscious processes, the difference in performance between architectures over ten regular grammars shows that simpler and more explicit grammars are better learnt by recurrent architectures, supporting the hypothesis that explicit learning is best modeled by recurrent networks, whereas feedforward networks supposedly capture the dynamics involved in implicit learning.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Idioma , Aprendizagem , Modelos Teóricos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Adulto , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
10.
eNeuro ; 7(6)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168617

RESUMO

Traveling waves have been studied to characterize the complex spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain. Several studies have suggested that the propagation direction of α traveling waves can be task dependent. For example, a recent electroencephalography (EEG) study from our group found that forward waves (i.e., occipital to frontal, FW waves) were observed during visual processing, whereas backward waves (i.e., frontal to occipital, BW waves) mostly occurred in the absence of sensory input. These EEG recordings, however, were obtained from different experimental sessions and different groups of subjects. To further examine how the waves' direction changes between task conditions, 13 human participants were tested on a target detection task while EEG signals were recorded simultaneously. We alternated visual stimulation (5-s display of visual luminance sequences) and resting state (5 s of black screen) within each single trial, allowing us to monitor the moment-to-moment progression of traveling waves. As expected, the direction of α waves was closely linked with task conditions. First, FW waves from occipital to frontal regions, absent during rest, emerged as a result of visual processing, while BW waves in the opposite direction dominated in the absence of visual inputs, and were reduced (but not eliminated) by external visual inputs. Second, during visual stimulation (but not rest), both waves coexisted on average, but were negatively correlated. In summary, we conclude that the functional role of α traveling waves is closely related with their propagating direction, with stimulus-evoked FW waves supporting visual processing and spontaneous BW waves involved more in top-down control.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Estimulação Luminosa , Descanso , Percepção Visual
12.
Elife ; 92020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043883

RESUMO

Psychedelic drugs are potent modulators of conscious states and therefore powerful tools for investigating their neurobiology. N,N, Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) can rapidly induce an extremely immersive state of consciousness characterized by vivid and elaborate visual imagery. Here, we investigated the electrophysiological correlates of the DMT-induced altered state from a pool of participants receiving DMT and (separately) placebo (saline) while instructed to keep their eyes closed. Consistent with our hypotheses, results revealed a spatio-temporal pattern of cortical activation (i.e. travelling waves) similar to that elicited by visual stimulation. Moreover, the typical top-down alpha-band rhythms of closed-eyes rest were significantly decreased, while the bottom-up forward wave was significantly increased. These results support a recent model proposing that psychedelics reduce the 'precision-weighting of priors', thus altering the balance of top-down versus bottom-up information passing. The robust hypothesis-confirming nature of these findings imply the discovery of an important mechanistic principle underpinning psychedelic-induced altered states.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Estado de Consciência/efeitos dos fármacos , Alucinógenos/administração & dosagem , N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Ritmo alfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Feminino , Alucinógenos/sangue , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/sangue , N,N-Dimetiltriptamina/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 217, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256310

RESUMO

We generally experience a stable visual world in spite of regular disruptions caused by our own movements (saccades, blinks) or by the visual input itself (flashes, occlusions). In trying to understand the mechanisms responsible for this stability, saccades have been particularly well-studied, and a number of peri-saccadic perceptual distortions (spatial and temporal compression, failure to detect target displacement) have been explored. It has been shown that some of these distortions are not saccade specific, but also arise when the visual input is instead abruptly and briefly masked. Here, we demonstrate that another peri-saccadic distortion, the reversal of the temporal order of a pair of brief events, may also be found with masking. Human participants performed a temporal order judgment task, and the timing of stimuli and mask was varied over trials. Perceptual order was reversed on ~25% of the trials at the shortest stimulus to mask intervals. This was not merely a failure of target detection, since participants often reported these reversals with high subjective confidence. These findings update the constraints on models of stability around disruptions.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 925, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066740

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that attention samples space rhythmically through oscillatory interactions in the frontoparietal network. How these attentional fluctuations coincide with spatial exploration/displacement and exploitation/selection by a dynamic attentional spotlight under top-down control is unclear. Here, we show a direct contribution of prefrontal attention selection mechanisms to a continuous space exploration. Specifically, we provide a direct high spatio-temporal resolution prefrontal population decoding of the covert attentional spotlight. We show that it continuously explores space at a 7-12 Hz rhythm. Sensory encoding and behavioral reports are increased at a specific optimal phase w/ to this rhythm. We propose that this prefrontal neuronal rhythm reflects an alpha-clocked sampling of the visual environment in the absence of eye movements. These attentional explorations are highly flexible, how they spatially unfold depending both on within-trial and across-task contingencies. These results are discussed in the context of exploration-exploitation strategies and prefrontal top-down attentional control.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Haplorrinos , Cadeias de Markov , Estimulação Luminosa , Análise Espaço-Temporal
15.
Cereb Cortex Commun ; 1(1): tgaa012, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296091

RESUMO

The visual impulse-response function to random input as measured by EEG is dominated by the perceptual echo, a reverberation of stimulus information in the alpha range believed to represent active rhythmic sampling. How this response is generated on a cortical level is unknown. To characterize the underlying mechanisms, we investigated the echoes' dynamics following short-term visual deprivation, which is known to modify the excitation/inhibition balance in visual cortex. We subjected observers to 150 min of light deprivation (LD) and monocular contrast deprivation (MD). Perceptual echoes were measured by binocular and dichoptic stimulation, respectively, and compared with a baseline condition. Our results show that the echo response is enhanced after LD, but not affected in temporal frequency or spatial propagation. Consistent with previous studies, MD shifted early response (0-150 ms) amplitudes in favor of the deprived eye, but had no systematic effect on the echoes. Our findings demonstrate that the echoes' synchrony scales with cortical excitability, adding to previous evidence that they represent active visual processing. Their insensitivity to modulation at the monocular level suggests they are generated by a larger region of visual cortex. Our study provides further insight into how mechanisms of rhythmic sampling are implemented in the visual system.

16.
PLoS Biol ; 17(10): e3000487, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581198

RESUMO

Predictive coding is a key mechanism to understand the computational processes underlying brain functioning: in a hierarchical network, higher levels predict the activity of lower levels, and the unexplained residuals (i.e., prediction errors) are passed back to higher layers. Because of its recursive nature, we wondered whether predictive coding could be related to brain oscillatory dynamics. First, we show that a simple 2-level predictive coding model of visual cortex, with physiological communication delays between levels, naturally gives rise to alpha-band rhythms, similar to experimental observations. Then, we demonstrate that a multilevel version of the same model can explain the occurrence of oscillatory traveling waves across levels, both forward (during visual stimulation) and backward (during rest). Remarkably, the predictions of our model are matched by the analysis of 2 independent electroencephalography (EEG) datasets, in which we observed oscillatory traveling waves in both directions.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Descanso/fisiologia
17.
Neuroimage ; 203: 116146, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493535

RESUMO

Rhythmic visual stimuli (flicker) elicit rhythmic brain responses at the frequency of the stimulus, and attention generally enhances these oscillatory brain responses (steady state visual evoked potentials, SSVEPs). Although SSVEP responses have been tested for flicker frequencies up to 100 Hz [Herrmann, 2001], effects of attention on SSVEP amplitude have only been reported for lower frequencies (up to ~30 Hz), with no systematic comparison across a wide, finely sampled frequency range. Does attention modulate SSVEP amplitude at higher flicker frequencies (gamma band, 30-80 Hz), and is attentional modulation constant across frequencies? By isolating SSVEP responses from the broadband EEG signal using a multivariate spatiotemporal source separation method, we demonstrate that flicker in the alpha and gamma bands elicit strongest and maximally phase stable brain responses (resonance), on which the effect of attention is opposite: positive for gamma and negative for alpha. Finding subject-specific gamma resonance frequency and a positive attentional modulation of gamma-band SSVEPs points to the untapped potential of flicker as a non-invasive tool for studying the causal effects of interactions between visual gamma-band rhythmic stimuli and endogenous gamma oscillations on perception and attention.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa , Atenção/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Ritmo Gama , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto Jovem
18.
eNeuro ; 6(3)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175148

RESUMO

Visual search, looking for a target embedded among distractors, has long been used to study attention. Current theories postulate a two-stage process in which early visual areas perform feature extraction, whereas higher-order regions perform attentional selection. Such a model implies iterative communication between low- and high-level regions to sequentially select candidate targets in the array, focus attention on these elements, and eventually permit target recognition. This leads to two independent predictions: (1) high-level, attentional regions and (2) early visual regions should both be involved periodically during the search. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the frontal eye field (FEF) in humans, known to be involved in attentional selection, at various delays while observers performed a difficult, attentional search task. We observed a periodic pattern of interference at ∼6 Hz (theta) suggesting that the FEF is periodically involved during this difficult search task. We further compared this result with two previous studies (Dugué et al., 2011, 2015a) in which a similar TMS procedure was applied over the early visual cortex (V1) while observers performed the same task. This analysis revealed the same pattern of interference, i.e., V1 is periodically involved during this difficult search task, at the theta frequency. Past V1 evidence reappraised for this paper, together with our current FEF results, confirm both of our independent predictions, and suggest that difficult search is supported by low- and high-level regions, each involved periodically at the theta frequency.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
19.
Commun Biol ; 2: 193, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123717

RESUMO

Although distinct categories are reliably decoded from fMRI brain responses, it has proved more difficult to distinguish visually similar inputs, such as different faces. Here, we apply a recently developed deep learning system to reconstruct face images from human fMRI. We trained a variational auto-encoder (VAE) neural network using a GAN (Generative Adversarial Network) unsupervised procedure over a large data set of celebrity faces. The auto-encoder latent space provides a meaningful, topologically organized 1024-dimensional description of each image. We then presented several thousand faces to human subjects, and learned a simple linear mapping between the multi-voxel fMRI activation patterns and the 1024 latent dimensions. Finally, we applied this mapping to novel test images, translating fMRI patterns into VAE latent codes, and codes into face reconstructions. The system not only performed robust pairwise decoding (>95% correct), but also accurate gender classification, and even decoded which face was imagined, rather than seen.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado Profundo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Redes Neurais de Computação , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Adulto , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Análise de Componente Principal , Probabilidade , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Neurosci ; 39(27): 5369-5376, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061089

RESUMO

Pupil size under constant illumination reflects brain arousal state, and dilates in response to novel information, or surprisal. Whether this response can be observed regardless of conscious perception is still unknown. In the present study, male and female adult humans performed an implicit learning task across a series of three experiments. We measured pupil and brain-evoked potentials to stimuli that violated transition statistics but were not relevant to the task. We found that pupil size dilated following these surprising events, in the absence of awareness of transition statistics, and only when attention was allocated to the stimulus. These pupil responses correlated with central potentials, evoking an anterior cingulate origin. Arousal response to surprisal outside the scope of conscious perception points to the fundamental relationship between arousal and information processing and indicates that pupil size can be used to track the progression of implicit learning.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Pupil size dilates following increase in mental effort, surprise, or more generally global arousal. However, whether this response arises as a conscious response or reflects a more fundamental mechanism outside the scrutiny of awareness is still unknown. Here, we demonstrate that unexpected changes in the environment, even when processed unconsciously and without being relevant to the task, lead to an increase in arousal levels as reflected by the pupillary response. Further, we show that the concurrent electrophysiological response shares similarities with mismatch negativity, suggesting the involvement of anterior cingulate cortex. All in all, our results establish novel insights about the mechanisms driving global arousal levels, and it provides new possibilities for reliably measuring unconscious processes.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Inconsciente Psicológico , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Conscientização , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
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