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1.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-6, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468877

RESUMO

Purpose: The transtheoretical model (TTM) of behavioral change posits that individuals move through five stages of change when adopting new behaviors: pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of patients with HIV/AIDS within a Ugandan fishing community in the different physical activity (PA) stages. We also explored differences in variables, motives, and barriers for PA across the stages.Methods: In total, 256 individuals (77 men, 40.5 ± 10.3 years) completed the Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise Questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. They were also asked about their most important PA motive and barrier.Results: Seventy-five individuals (29%) were in the (pre-)preparatory stages, 140 (55%) in the action and 41 (16%) in the maintenance stage. Those in the (pre-)preparatory stages had higher PHQ-9 total scores (p < 0.001) and were more likely to report barriers than those in the later stages (p < 0.001). Compared with those in the (pre-)preparatory stage, patients in the action stage experienced less body weakness (p = 0.015).Conclusions: Depression and barriers to PA should be considered in people with HIV/AIDS in low-resource settings when implementing interventions to assist them to become more active.Implications for rehabilitationPeople with HIV/AIDS are among the most physically inactive clinical populations.Clinicians should consider depression when motivating patients with HIV in low resourced settings to become active.Clinicians should consider body weakness when motivating patients with HIV in low resourced settings to become active.

2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 128, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366824

RESUMO

Interruptions to time spent sitting can ameliorate detrimental metabolic-health consequences of high volumes of sedentary time, but their potential mental health benefits have not been examined. We used the Swedish Health Profile Assessment database, a general health assessment offered to all employees working for companies or organisations connected to occupational and health services. Cross-sectional analyses examined data from 40,550 employees (60% male, mean age = 42 years), collected in 2017-2019. Participants reported the proportion of time (almost always; 75% of the time; 50% of the time; 25% of the time; and almost never) usually spent in leisure-time sedentary behaviours; and, separately, the frequency (never; rarely; sometimes; often; and very often) of interruptions (every 30 min) to sedentary time. Logistic regression models assessed associations of sedentary time, and the frequency of interruptions to sedentary time, with depression/anxiety symptoms. Fully adjusted models included physical exercise. Compared to those in the lowest sedentary time category, those in the medium and high categories had 1.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.40-1.66) and 3.11 (95% CI = 2.82-3.42) higher odds of frequent depression/anxiety symptoms, respectively. Compared to those who never/rarely interrupted their sedentary time, those who reported interruptions sometimes, often and very often had 0.72 (95% CI = 0.65-0.80), 0.59 (95% CI = 0.53-0.65), and 0.53 (95% CI = 0.46-0.59) lower odds of depression/anxiety symptoms, respectively. In stratified analyses, more frequent interruptions to sedentary time were associated with lower odds of depression/anxiety symptoms, except among those in the lowest interruptions categories (never/25% of the time). More regularly interrupting sitting during leisure-time may reduce the odds of experiencing symptoms of depression and anxiety.

3.
Preprint em Inglês | PREPRINT-SCIELO | ID: pps-526

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the associations of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), vigorous physical activity (VPA), moderate physical activity (MPA), and sedentary behavior (SB) with depressive, anxiety, and co-occurring depressive and anxiety symptoms (D&A) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil.Methods: Cross-sectional online survey in self-isolating people. Self-reported MVPA, VPA, MPA, and SB (exposures), and depressive and anxiety symptoms (Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories [BDI and BAI]) were collected. Associations of MVPA, VPA, MPA, and SB with prevalent depressive (BDI>9), anxiety (BAI>7), and D&A (BDI>9+BAI>7) symptoms were investigated using logistic regressions, presented as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Linear regressions were performed testing associations with symptom severity. Models were adjusted for confounding factors. Results: Participants (n=937, females=72.3%) performing ≥30min/day MVPA or ≥15min/day VPA had lower odds of prevalent depressive (ORMVPA=0.71, 95%CI=0.53-0.96; ORVPA=0.60, 95%CI=0.43-0.82), anxiety (ORMVPA=0.71, 95%CI=0.54-0.96; ORVPA=0.70, 95%CI=0.51-0.96), and co-occurring D&A symptoms (ORMVPA=0.71, 95%CI=0.52-0.96; ORVPA=0.59, 95%CI=0.41-0.83). People spending ≥10h/day sedentary were more likely to have depressive symptoms (OR=1.39,95%CI=1.02-1.90). Each hour spent sedentary corresponded to 0.22 (95%CI=0.10-0.33) points and 0.16 (95%CI=0.02-0.31) points higher on the BDI and BAI, respectively.Conclusion: Higher MVPA and VPA levels are associated with lower odds of depressive, anxiety and D&A symptoms. Higher SB is associated with higher odds of depressive symptoms.

4.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-8, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285708

RESUMO

Purpose: This qualitative study explores the barriers, personal characteristics/resources, and environmental factors that experienced physiotherapists identify as relevant in the assessment and treatment of persons living with schizophrenia, and whether the identified aspects are represented in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Sets for schizophrenia.Methods: A three-round Delphi study with physiotherapists was conducted between April and July 2018. In the first round, participants had to list all the aspects they considered to be relevant when assessing and/or treating individuals with schizophrenia, and they were asked six open-ended questions. Their responses were linked to categories. In the second and third rounds, physiotherapists had to judge whether each category/personal factor was relevant for describing functioning in schizophrenia.Results: Thirteen of 22 eligible physiotherapists from eight countries responded to the first round, and 10 completed all three rounds. Eighty-two (84.5%) of the 97 categories in the Comprehensive Core Set for schizophrenia and all 25 categories in the Brief Core Set were considered relevant. A total of five categories were additionally identified.Conclusions: The barriers, personal characteristics/resources, and environmental factors from the physiotherapists' perspective have been identified. The results largely confirm the content validity of the Core Sets for schizophrenia.Implications for rehabilitationThis study shows which barriers, personal characteristics/resources, and environmental factors in persons with schizophrenia are relevant from physiotherapists' perspective and should be integrated in the rehabilitation process.The content validity of the Comprehensive and Brief Core Sets for schizophrenia is largely supported from the physiotherapists' perspective and therefore could be used in the assessment of functioning in persons with schizophrenia.The Comprehensive and Brief ICF Core Sets for schizophrenia could be used to plan and assess multidisciplinary rehabilitation interventions.

5.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of hospitalized fall or hip fracture among older adults using mental health services. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Residents of a South London catchment aged >60 years receiving specialist mental health care between 2008 and 2016. MEASURES: Falls and/or a hip fracture leading to hospitalization were ascertained from linked national records. Incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were age- and gender-standardized to the catchment population. Multivariable survival analyses were applied investigating falls and/or hip fractures as outcomes. RESULTS: In 22,103 older adults, incidence rates were 60.1 per 1000 person-years for hospitalized falls and 13.7 per 1000 person-years for hip fractures, representing standardized IRRs of 2.17 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.07-2.28] and 4.18 (3.79-4.60), respectively. The IRR for falls was high in those with substance-use disorder [IRR = 6.72 (5.35-8.33)], bipolar disorder [IRR = 3.62 (2.50-5.05)], depression [IRR = 2.28 (2.00-2.59)], and stress-related disorders [IRR = 2.57 (2.10-3.11)]. Hip fractures were increased in all populations (IRR > 2.5), with greatest risk in substance use disorders [IRR = 12.64 (7.22-20.52)], dementia [IRR = 4.38 (3.82-5.00)], and delirium [IRR = 4.03 (3.00-5.29)]. Comparing mental disorder subgroups with each other, after the adjustment for 25 potential confounders, patients with dementia and substance use had a significantly increased risk of falls, and patients with dementia also had an increased risk of hip fractures. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Older people using mental health services have more than double the incidence of falls and 4 times the incidence of hip fractures compared to the general population. Although incidences differ between diagnostic subgroups, all groups have a higher incidence than the general population. Targeted interventions to prevent falls and hip fractures among older adult mental health service users are urgently needed.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151034

RESUMO

The present study aimed to assess the association between sedentary behavior and sarcopenia among adults aged ≥65 years. Cross-sectional data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed. Sarcopenia was defined as having low skeletal muscle mass and either a slow gait speed or a weak handgrip strength. Self-reported sedentary behavior was assessed as a continuous variable (hours per day) and also as a categorical variable (0-<4, 4-<8, 8-<11, ≥11 hours/day). Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to assess the association between sedentary behavior and sarcopenia. Analyses using the overall sample and country-wise samples were conducted. A total of 14,585 participants aged ≥65 years were included in the analysis. Their mean age was 72.6 (standard deviation, 11.5) years and 55% were females. Compared to sedentary behavior of 0-<4 hours/day, ≥11hours/day was significantly associated with 2.14 (95% CI = 1.06-4.33) times higher odds for sarcopenia. The country-wise analysis showed that overall, a one-hour increase in sedentary behavior per day was associated with 1.06 (95% CI = 1.04-1.10) times higher odds for sarcopenia, while the level of between-country heterogeneity was low (I2 = 12.9%). Public health and healthcare practitioners may wish to target reductions in sedentary behavior to aid in the prevention of sarcopenia in older adults.

7.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We summarized and compared meta-analyses of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions targeting physical health outcomes among people with dementia. DESIGN: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: People with dementia, confirmed through validated assessment measures. METHODS: Major databases were searched until October 21, 2019. Effect sizes [standardized mean difference (SMD)/Hedges g or risk ratio (RR)] were compared separately. RESULTS: Of 3773 search engine hits, 4 meta-analyses were included, representing 31 meta-analyzed trials and 10,054 study participants. Although meta-analyses were generally of adequate high quality, meta-analyzed studies were less so. Nutritional supplements were the only one to show a weight-increasing effect [SMD 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-0.68, ie, medium effect; N = 12, n = 748]. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are associated with an increased risk for weight loss (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5‒3.0; N = 9, n = 7010). For the treatment of pain, sensory stimulation has a medium effect (SMD -0.58, 95% CI -0.99 to -0.17; N = 6, n = 199), whereas physical activity has a small effect (SMD -0.24, 95% CI -1.06 to 0.59; N = 2, n = 75). When exploring the characteristics of the psychosocial interventions, group-based interventions demonstrated a medium (SMD -0.55, 95% CI -1.02 to -0.09; N = 6, n = 157) and individual psychosocial interventions a small effect (SMD -0.27, 95% CI -1.06 to 0.53; N = 2, n = 55). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Despite frequent physical comorbidities, the current evidence for pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions in people with dementia to prevent and treat these conditions is still in its infancy, and larger trials targeting a wide range of physical health outcomes are urgently needed. Based on the SMDs and RRs, nutritional supplements can be recommended as an intervention to treat malnutrition. Clinicians should be careful in treating patients with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, as it shows medium weight reducing effects. For the treatment of comorbid pain, sensory stimulation and psychosocial interventions are recommended.

8.
Prev Med ; 133: 106021, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044415

RESUMO

Sedentary behaviors (SB) can be associated with poorer mental health, but it remains unclear whether contexts for these behaviors may be important. We assessed relationships of SB in leisure-time and occupational contexts with frequent symptoms of depression and anxiety. Data originate from the Swedish Health Profile Assessment (HPA) database, a health assessment offered to employees working for companies or organizations connected to healthcare services. Analyses are based on data from 2017 onwards (N = 23,644; 57% male, mean age = 42 years). Two self-report questions assessed proportions of time spent in SB in leisure contexts and in the occupational setting. Logistic regressions examined relationships of SB in each context with the self-reporting of frequent symptoms of depression/anxiety. A separate model for the leisure plus occupational SB was also generated. Fully-adjusted models included exercise frequency. Compared to those reporting that they were 'almost never' sedentary in leisure-time contexts, a detrimental dose-response with frequent depression/anxiety symptoms was observed with increasing proportions of sedentary time: 50% of the time (OR = 1.44; 1.23-1.70), 75% (OR = 2.95; 2.45-3.54), almost always (OR = 3.85; 2.84-5.22). For occupational SB, the only associations were among those who reported being sedentary almost always, compared to almost never (OR = 1.47; 1.25-1.73). Associations of 'overall' SB with depression/anxiety symptoms mirrored the dose-response relationship for leisure-time SB. Exercise frequency attenuated the association for leisure-time SB only, but it remained statistically significant. Adults who spend ≥50% of their leisure-time in sedentary pursuits experience more frequent symptoms of depression and anxiety, compared to those who are less sedentary in that context.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 266: 135-142, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056867

RESUMO

AIMS: We analyzed the joint association of high ultra-processed food ingestion and sedentary behavior (SB) with anxiety-induced sleep disturbance among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: Data from the Brazilian Scholar Health Survey, a nationally representative survey of 9th grade adolescents [mean: 14.28 years (range: 11-18 years)] conducted in 2015 (n = 100,648) were used. Self-reported anxiety-induced sleep disturbance, SB (TV viewing and total sitting time), and frequency of ingestion of different ultra-processed foods were collected. Age, ethnicity, type of city (capital or interior), region of the country, and habitual physical activity (global scholar survey questionnaire) were covariates. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations. RESULTS: High ultra-processed food ingestion plus low SB [boys:OR:1.44(99%CI:1.16-1.79), girls:OR:1.41(99%CI:1.22-1.63)] were risk factors for anxiety-induced sleep disturbance. The highest risk of anxiety-induced sleep disturbance was observed among those who joint high ultra-processed food ingestion with high SB [boys:OR:1.85(99%CI:1.46-2.35), girls:OR:1.62(99%CI:1.39-1.89)]. In addition, the interaction of high ultra-processed food ingestion with TV-viewing substantially increased the odds of anxiety-induced sleep disturbance [boys:OR:2.03(99%CI:1.61-2.56), girls:OR:2.04(99%CI:1.76-2.36)]. CONCLUSIONS: Both the high consumption of ultra-processed foods and SB (especially TV-viewing) appear to be independently associated with anxiety-induced sleep disturbance in both sexes. However, the co-occurrence of both negative lifestyle behaviors is associated with a substantial increase in the risk of anxiety-induced sleep disturbance. Future longitudinal research is required to confirm/refute our findings and explore potential mechanisms.

10.
J Affect Disord ; 266: 311-318, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent suicide is a global public health concern. Given that physical activity has a positive effect in the prevention and treatment of common psychiatric disorders, it may also protect against suicides. However, global data examining associations between physical activity and suicide attempts among adolescents are lacking, and sex-specific associations remain poorly understood. Thus, we assessed the association between physical activity and suicide attempts among adolescents aged 12-15 year from 48 countries. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey, which included 136,857 adolescents [mean age (SD) 13.8 (1.0) years; 48.9% girls] were analyzed. Suicide attempt was defined as at least one suicide attempt in the past 12 months. Physical activity was assessed by the PACE+ Adolescent Physical Activity Measure and participants were dichotomized into those who do and do not comply with the World Health Organization physical activity recommendations (60 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity daily). Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were conducted to assess the associations. RESULTS: Meeting physical activity guidelines was associated with lower odds for suicide attempts in boys (OR=0.78; 95%CI=0.70-0.86), but higher odds for suicide attempts in girls (OR=1.22; 95%CI=1.10-1.35). The associations for boys and girls were relatively consistent across countries. LIMITATIONS: Causality or temporal associations cannot be established due to the cross-sectional nature of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Engagement in physical activity may be an effective strategy for prevention of suicide attempts for boys but not for girls. Future studies should investigate the factors that lead to this sex difference.

11.
Prev Med ; 132: 106007, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001307

RESUMO

Data on the association between informal caregiving and physical activity (PA) levels are scarce, especially from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Furthermore, previous research has yielded conflicting results. Thus, we investigated this association in adults from 38 LMICs. Data from the World Health Survey (WHS), a cross-sectional, predominantly nationally representative survey conducted in 2002-2004, were analyzed. PA was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and participants were dichotomized into those who do (≥150 min of moderate-to-vigorous PA per week) and do not (<150 min = low PA) comply with the World Health Organization PA recommendations. Those who provided help to a relative or friend (adult or child), because this person has a long-term physical or mental illness or disability, or is getting old and weak in the past year were considered to be informal caregivers. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations. There were 204,315 adults aged ≥18 years from 38 LMICs included in this study [mean (standard deviation) age 38.6 (16.1) years; 50.7% female]. Overall, the prevalence of caregiving and low PA was 19.5% and 29.9%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, caregivers were at a lower risk for low PA compared to non-caregivers (OR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.72-0.86). Engagement in greater number of caregiving activities was associated with lower odds for low PA dose-dependently. Informal caregiving was associated with higher levels of PA in adults in LMICs. Future studies of longitudinal design are warranted to understand causality and the underlying mechanisms of this association.

12.
Psychiatry Res ; 284: 112751, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the barriers, benefits and correlates of physical activity (PA) in outpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). METHODS: Data were collected from outpatients under treatment for MDD at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Barriers and benefits were assessed with the Exercise Barriers/Benefits Scale (EBBS). Objective and self-reported PA were assessed with pedometers and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), respectively. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 65 outpatients (82% female; mean age = 50.9 years; SD = 10.1). Improvement in physical performance was the most reported benefit (mean = 3.00; SD = 0.3) while the most reported barrier was physical exertion (mean = 2.95; SD = 0.4). Depression symptom severity was negatively correlated with life enhancement (r = -0.337; p = 0.009), physical performance (r=-0.348; p = 0.007), psychological outlook (r=-0.364; p = 0.005), social interaction (r=-0.317; p = 0.015) and preventive health (r=-0.352; p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Physical exertion is the most perceived barrier for PA in people with MDD. Symptom severity is associated with higher barrier levels, whilst higher current PA levels are associated with more benefits and lesser barriers. Interventions targeting PA promotion should consider the identified benefits and barriers when developing PA programs for people with MDD in outpatient settings.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health of the caregivers is crucial to sustain informal care provision, while multimorbidity is an important health risk concept. However, studies on the association between informal caregiving and physical multimorbidity are currently lacking. Therefore, we investigated this association in adults from 48 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 242,952 adults (mean age 38.4 years) participating in the World Health Survey 2002-2004 were analyzed. Informal caregivers were considered those who provided help in the past year to a relative or friend (adult or child) who has a long-term physical or mental illness or disability, or is getting old and weak. Nine physical conditions were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between informal caregiving and physical multimorbidity, while the between-country heterogeneity in this relationship was studied with country-wise analyses. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of informal caregiving and physical multimorbidity (i.e, ≥2 physical conditions) was 19.2% and 13.2%, respectively. Overall, caregivers had 1.40 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.29-1.52] times higher odds for physical multimorbidity. This association was particularly pronounced in younger caregivers [e.g., 18-44 years: odds ratio (OR)=1.54; 95%CI=1.37-1.72], while this association was not statistically significant among those aged ≥65 years (OR=1.19; 95%CI=0.98-1.44). Country-wise analyses corroborated these findings and there was a negligible level of between-country heterogeneity (I2=24.0%). CONCLUSIONS: In LMICs, informal caregivers (especially young caregivers) were more likely to have physical multimorbidity. This should be taken into account in policies that address the health and wellbeing of informal caregivers.

14.
Psychosom Med ; 82(1): 39-46, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence suggests that handgrip strength (a proxy for muscular fitness) is associated with better cognitive performance in people with major depressive disorder (MDD). The underlying processes are unclear, although hippocampal volume (HCV) reductions and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) have been implicated. Therefore, we investigated the associations between handgrip strength and various brain region volumes and WMHs in MDD and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional analysis of handgrip strength and neuroimaging data from the UK Biobank. Generalized linear models were used to assess the relationship between grip strength and gray matter, white matter, total brain volume, left and right hippocampus volume, and WMHs in MDD and HCs, adjusting for age, sex, education, and body weight. RESULTS: The sample included 527 people with MDD (54.3 ± 7.3 years, 37.2% male) and 1764 HCs (56.6 ± 7.2 years, 53% male). In MDD, stronger handgrip was significantly associated with increased left (coefficient ± SE = 108.1 ± 27.6, t = 3.92) and right (76.8 ± 30.4, t = 2.53) HCV. In HCs, only right HCV related to handgrip strength (44.8 ± 18.1, t = 2.47). Interaction analyses found stronger associations between grip strength and HCV in MDD compared with HCs, for both hippocampal regions. Stronger handgrip was associated with reduced WMHs in people with MDD (-0.24 ± 0.07, t = -3.24) and HCs (-0.11 ± 0.04, t = -2.47). Maximal handgrip strength was not associated with gray matter, white matter, or total brain volumes in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Stronger grip strength is associated with greater left and right HCV and reduced WMHs in MDD. Future research should investigate directionality and consider if interventions targeting strength/muscular fitness can improve brain health and reduce the neurocognitive abnormalities associated with MDD.

15.
Sports Med ; 50(1): 151-170, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise may improve neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms in people with mental disorders, but the totality of the evidence is unclear. We conducted a meta-review of exercise in (1) serious mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum, bipolar disorder and major depression (MDD)); (2) anxiety and stress disorders; (3) alcohol and substance use disorders; (4) eating disorders (anorexia nervosa bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorders, and (5) other mental disorders (including ADHD, pre/post-natal depression). METHODS: Systematic searches of major databases from inception until 1/10/2018 were undertaken to identify meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of exercise in people with clinically diagnosed mental disorders. In the absence of available meta-analyses for a mental disorder, we identified systematic reviews of exercise interventions in people with elevated mental health symptoms that included non-RCTs. Meta-analysis quality was assessed with the AMSTAR/+. RESULTS: Overall, we identified 27 systematic reviews (including 16 meta-analyses representing 152 RCTs). Among those with MDD, we found consistent evidence (meta-analyses = 8) that exercise reduced depression in children, adults and older adults. Evidence also indicates that exercise was more effective than control conditions in reducing anxiety symptoms (meta-analyses = 3), and as an adjunctive treatment for reducing positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia (meta-analyses = 2). Regarding neurocognitive effects, exercise improved global cognition in schizophrenia (meta-analyses = 1), children with ADHD (meta-analyses = 1), but not in MDD (meta-analyses = 1). Among those with elevated symptoms, positive mental health benefits were observed for exercise in people with pre/post-natal depression, anorexia nervosa/bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol use disorders/substance use disorders. Adverse events were sparsely reported. CONCLUSION: Our panoramic meta-overview suggests that exercise can be an effective adjunctive treatment for improving symptoms across a broad range of mental disorders.

16.
Psychiatry Res ; 287: 112564, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the relationship between sexual behaviors and suicide attempts by using data from 38 countries from four World Health Organization regions. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 116,820 adolescents aged 12-15 years participating in the Global School-based Student Health Survey 2009-2016 were analyzed. Data on sexual behaviors were collected: (i) ever having had intercourse; among those who reported having had intercourse, (ii) multiple (≥2) lifetime sexual partners and (iii) condom use in last sexual intercourse and past 12-month suicide attempts were self-reported. Associations were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of sexual intercourse and suicide attempts were 13.2% and 9.1%, respectively. A positive association between sexual intercourse and suicide attempts was found in 32 of the 38 countries (pooled OR for whole sample 2.12 [95% CI 1.98-2.27]). Having had multiple sexual partners was associated with increased odds of suicide attempts (pooled OR for whole sample 1.58 [1.27-1.96]). Condom non-use was only associated with suicide attempts among boys in the Americas (OR: 1.75 [1.25-2.45]). CONCLUSION: Engaging in sexual intercourse was associated with increased risk of suicide attempt. Moreover, having had multiple sexual partners may also increase the risk of suicide attempts.

17.
Alcohol ; 82: 47-52, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398459

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare the functional exercise capacity of patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) with an age-, gender-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy control group. Thirty patients (22 males, 40.4 ± 10.5 years, illness duration = 9.7 ± 9.3 years) and healthy control subjects (22 males, 40.2 ± 10.7 years) participated. Participants performed a 6-min walk test (6MWT) to assess their functional exercise capacity, were asked about musculoskeletal problems and dyspnea, executed a standing broad jump to assess their muscular strength, and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Patients also filled in the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Our data show that patients with AUD walked a significantly shorter distance on the 6MWT (649.0 ± 72.9 m vs. 724.4 ± 89.0 m, p = 0.001). In patients with AUD, the variance in standing broad jump score explained 43.6% of the variance in the 6MWT score. The current study demonstrates that impaired muscle strength is negatively associated with functional outcomes in patients with AUD. Exercise interventions should be investigated in order to assess whether they can ameliorate muscle strength and daily life functioning of this vulnerable population.

18.
Pediatr Obes ; 15(1): e12571, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the association between overweight/obesity and bullying victimization among adolescents are scarce from low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the associations between overweight/obesity and bullying victimization in 41 low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey were analysed. Data on past 30-day bullying victimization (including type) and body mass index based on measured weight and height were collected. The 2007 WHO Child Growth reference was used to define overweight and obesity. Multivariable logistic regression (multinomial and binary) and meta-analyses based on country-wise estimates were conducted. Data on 114 240 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years were analysed (mean age [SD], 13.8 [1.0] y; 48.8% girls). RESULTS: Among girls, compared with normal weight, overweight (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.16; between-country heterogeneity I2  = 0.0%) and obesity (OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.34; I2  = 0.0%) were associated with significantly higher odds for any bullying victimization, but no significant association was observed among boys. However, overweight and obesity were both associated with significantly increased odds for bullying by being made fun of because of physical appearance among both sexes-obesity (vs normal weight): girls OR = 3.42 (95% CI, 2.49-4.71); boys OR = 2.38 (95% CI, 1.67-3.37). CONCLUSIONS: Effective strategies to reduce bullying of children with overweight/obesity are needed in low- and middle-income countries.

19.
AIDS Care ; 32(6): 758-761, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284727

RESUMO

This study explored the efficacy of physical activity (PA) counseling in inactive patients with HIV/AIDS and a co-morbid mental health disorder living in a Ugandan fishing community. We investigated associations between changes in PA, sedentary behavior, mental health burden and quality of life (QoL) following an 8-week once per week PA counseling program using the self-determination theory and motivational interviewing framework. In total 41 (33 women) patients (39.8 ± 10.9years) completed the Simple Physical Activity Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire pre- and post-intervention. Large effect sizes were found for reductions in time spent sedentary (Cohen's d = 2.85) and reductions in depressive symptoms (Cohen's d = 1.47). We also found large effect sizes for increases in time spent walking (Cohen's d = 1.38), in incidental PA such as household chores (Cohen's d = 1.69), and physical health (Cohen's d = 1.38), psychological health (Cohen's d = 0.95), and social relationships. (Cohen's d = 1.39). The more time spent sedentary decreased, the more the psychological health increased (r = -0.33, P = 0.037). In sedentary patients with HIV/AIDS and a co-morbid mental disorder, the mental health burden reduces and QoL improves following PA counseling. Controlled studies are however needed to confirm our findings.

20.
Psychiatry Res ; 284: 112675, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757637

RESUMO

Longitudinal prospective cohorts have suggested that physical activity (PA) may be a protective factor against psychosis and schizophrenia. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted. The study aims to examine the prospective relationship between PA and incident psychosis/schizophrenia. Major databases were searched from inception to July 2019 for prospective studies that calculated the odds ratio (OR) or the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of incident psychosis/schizophrenia in people with higher PA against people with lower PA. Methodological quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted, for OR and AOR, separately. Across 4 cohorts (N = 30,025 median males = 50%, median follow-up = 32 years), people with high self-reported PA (versus low PA) were at reduced odds of developing psychosis/schizophrenia (OR = 0.73, 95%CI 0.532 to 0.995, p = 0.047). Analysis including 2 cohorts presenting AOR were not statistically significant (AOR = 0.59, 95%CI 0.253 to 1.383, p = 0.226). Overall study quality was high (mean NOS = 7.0). The literature on the topic is scarce, whilst crude analysis suggests that PA may be a protective factor against the emergence of psychosis/schizophrenia, but when adjusting for covariates, the association is no longer significant. Further studies with objective physical activity and adjustment for confounders are needed.

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