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1.
Nanotechnology ; 31(25): 255603, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056974

RESUMO

The patterned growth of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and their lateral heterostructures is paramount for the fabrication of application-oriented electronics and optoelectronics devices. However, the large scale patterned growth of TMDs remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate the synthesis of patterned polycrystalline 2D MoS2 thin films on device ready SiO2/Si substrates, eliminating any etching and transfer steps using a combination of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) and thermal sulfurization. As an inherent advantage of ALD, precise thickness control ranging from a monolayer to few-layered MoS2 has been achieved. Furthermore, uniform films with exceptional conformality over 3D structures are obtained. Finally, the approach has been leveraged to obtain in-plane lateral heterostructures of 2D MoS2 and WS2 thin films over a large area which opens up an avenue for their direct integration in future nano- and opto-electronic device applications.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(3): 3873-3885, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880425

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as WS2 are promising materials for nanoelectronic applications. However, growth of the desired horizontal basal-plane oriented 2D TMD layers is often accompanied by the growth of vertical nanostructures that can hinder charge transport and, consequently, hamper device application. In this work, we discuss both the formation and suppression of vertical nanostructures during plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of WS2. Using scanning transmission electron microscopy studies, formation pathways of vertical nanostructures are established for a two-step (AB-type) PEALD process. Grain boundaries are identified as the principal formation centers of vertical nanostructures. Based on the obtained insights, we introduce an approach to suppress the growth of vertical nanostructures, wherein an additional step (C)-a chemically inert Ar plasma or a reactive H2 plasma-is added to the original two-step (AB-type) PEALD process. This approach reduces the vertical nanostructure density by 80%. It was confirmed that suppression of vertical nanostructures goes hand in hand with grain size enhancement. The vertical nanostructure density reduction consequently lowers film resistivity by an order of magnitude. Insights obtained in this work can contribute toward devising additional pathways, besides plasma treatments, for suppressing the growth of vertical nanostructures and improving the material properties of 2D TMDs that are relevant for nanoelectronic device applications.

3.
Nanoscale ; 11(47): 22860-22870, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755517

RESUMO

Texture has a significant impact on several key properties of transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) films. Films with in-plane oriented grains have been successfully implemented in nano- and opto-electronic devices, whereas, films with out-of-plane oriented material have shown excellent performance in catalytic applications. It will be demonstrated that the texture of nanocrystalline TMD films can be determined with polarized Raman spectroscopy. A model describing the impact of texture on the Raman response of 2D-TMDs will be presented. For the specific case of MoS2, the model was used to quantify the impact of texture on the relative strength of the A1g and E12g modes in both the unpolarized and polarized Raman configuration. Subsequently, the capability to characterize texture by polarized Raman was demonstrated on various MoS2 films grown by atomic-layer deposition (ALD) and validated by complementary transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron based 2D grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) measurements. This also revealed how the texture evolved during ALD growth of MoS2 and subsequent annealing of the films. The insights presented in this work allow a deeper understanding of Raman spectra of nanocrystalline TMDs and enable a rapid and non-destructive method to probe texture.

4.
Chem Mater ; 31(14): 5104-5115, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371869

RESUMO

Edge-enriched transition metal dichalcogenides, such as WS2, are promising electrocatalysts for sustainable production of H2 through the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The reliable and controlled growth of such edge-enriched electrocatalysts at low temperatures has, however, remained elusive. In this work, we demonstrate how plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) can be used as a new approach to nanoengineer and enhance the HER performance of WS2 by maximizing the density of reactive edge sites at a low temperature of 300 °C. By altering the plasma gas composition from H2S to H2 + H2S during PEALD, we could precisely control the morphology and composition and, consequently, the edge-site density as well as chemistry in our WS2 films. The precise control over edge-site density was verified by evaluating the number of exposed edge sites using electrochemical copper underpotential depositions. Subsequently, we demonstrate the HER performance of the edge-enriched WS2 electrocatalyst, and a clear correlation among plasma conditions, edge-site density, and the HER performance is obtained. Additionally, using density functional theory calculations we provide insights and explain how the addition of H2 to the H2S plasma impacts the PEALD growth behavior and, consequently, the material properties, when compared to only H2S plasma.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(5): 5526-5535, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624886

RESUMO

Ultrathin metal oxides prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) have gained utmost attention as moisture and thermal stress barrier layers in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). We have recently shown that 10 cycles of ALD Al2O3 deposited directly on top of the CH3NH3PbI3- xCl x perovskite material, are effective in delivering a superior PSC performance with 18% efficiency (compared to 15% of the Al2O3-free cell) with a long-term humidity-stability of more than 60 days. Motivated by these results, the present contribution focuses on the chemical modification which the CH3NH3PbI3- xCl x perovskite undergoes upon growth of ALD Al2O3. Specifically, we combine in situ Infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies during film growth, together with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the ALD Al2O3/perovskite interface. The IR-active signature of the NH3+ stretching mode of the perovskite undergoes minimal changes upon exposure to ALD cycles, suggesting no diffusion of ALD precursor and co-reactant (Al(CH3)3 and H2O) into the bulk of the perovskite. However, by analyzing the difference between the IR spectra associated with the Al2O3 coated perovskite and the pristine perovskite, respectively, changes occurring at the surface of perovskite are monitored. The abstraction of either NH3 or CH3NH2 from the perovskite surface is observed as deduced by the development of negative N-H bands associated with its stretching and bending modes. The IR investigations are corroborated by XPS study, confirming the abstraction of CH3NH2 from the perovskite surface, whereas no oxidation of its inorganic framework is observed within the ALD window process investigated in this work. In parallel, the growth of ALD Al2O3 on perovskite is witnessed by the appearance of characteristic IR-active Al-O-Al phonon and (OH)-Al═O stretching modes. Based on the IR and XPS investigations, a plausible growth mechanism of ALD Al2O3 on top of perovskite is presented.

6.
Nanoscale ; 10(18): 8615-8627, 2018 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696289

RESUMO

Low-temperature controllable synthesis of monolayer-to-multilayer thick MoS2 with tuneable morphology is demonstrated by using plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The characteristic self-limiting ALD growth with a growth-per-cycle of 0.1 nm per cycle and digital thickness control down to a monolayer are observed with excellent wafer scale uniformity. The as-deposited films are found to be polycrystalline in nature showing the signature Raman and photoluminescence signals for the mono-to-few layered regime. Furthermore, a transformation in film morphology from in-plane to out-of-plane orientation of the 2-dimensional layers as a function of growth temperature is observed. An extensive study based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is presented to unravel the nucleation mechanism of MoS2 on SiO2/Si substrates at 450 °C. In addition, a model elucidating the film morphology transformation (at 450 °C) is hypothesized. Finally, the out-of-plane oriented films are demonstrated to outperform the in-plane oriented films in the hydrogen evolution reaction for water splitting applications.

7.
Ultramicroscopy ; 182: 233-242, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28734230

RESUMO

A combined X-ray and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) instrument is presented that enables the local detection of X-ray absorption on surfaces in a gas environment. To suppress the collection of ion currents generated in the gas phase, coaxially shielded STM tips were used. The conductive outer shield of the coaxial tips can be biased to deflect ions away from the tip core. When tunneling, the X-ray-induced current is separated from the regular, 'topographic' tunneling current using a novel high-speed separation scheme. We demonstrate the capabilities of the instrument by measuring the local X-ray-induced current on Au(1 1 1) in 800 mbar Ar.

8.
Langmuir ; 28(1): 350-7, 2012 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22081861

RESUMO

We have examined the role of substrate temperature on the surface reaction mechanisms during the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al(2)O(3) from trimethyl aluminum (TMA) in combination with an O(2) plasma and O(3) over a substrate temperature range of 70-200 °C. The ligand-exchange reactions were investigated using in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Consistent with our previous work on ALD of Al(2)O(3) from an O(2) plasma and O(3) [Rai, V. R.; Vandalon, V.; Agarwal, S. Langmuir 2010, 26, 13732], both -OH groups and carbonates were the chemisorption sites for TMA over the entire temperature range explored. The concentration of surface -CH(3) groups after the TMA cycle was, however, strongly dependent on the surface temperature and the type of oxidizer, which in turn influenced the corresponding growth per cycle. The combustion of surface -CH(3) ligands was not complete at 70 °C during O(3) exposure, indicating that an O(2) plasma is a relatively stronger oxidizing agent. Further, in O(3)-assisted ALD, the ratio of mono- and bidentate carbonates on the surface after O(3) exposure was dependent on the substrate temperature.

9.
Langmuir ; 26(17): 13732-5, 2010 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20806961

RESUMO

We have elucidated the reaction mechanism and the role of the reactive intermediates in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide from trimethyl aluminum in conjunction with O(3) and an O(2) plasma. In situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data show that both -OH groups and carbonates are formed on the surface during the oxidation cycle. These carbonates, once formed on the surface, are stable to prolonged O(3) exposure in the same cycle. However, in the case of plasma-assisted ALD, the carbonates decompose upon prolonged O(2) plasma exposure via a series reaction kinetics of the type, A (CH(3)) --> B (carbonates) --> C (Al(2)O(3)). The ratio of -OH groups to carbonates on the surface strongly depends on the oxidizing agent, and also the duration of the oxidation cycle in plasma-assisted ALD. However, in both O(3) and O(2) plasma cycles, carbonates are a small fraction of the total number of reactive sites compared to the hydroxyl groups.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio/química , Oxigênio/química , Ozônio/química , Propriedades de Superfície
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