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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150091, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution exposure has been associated with higher mortality risk in numerous studies. We assessed potential variability in the magnitude of this association for non-accidental, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and lung cancer mortality in a country-wide administrative cohort by exposure assessment method and by adjustment for geographic subdivisions. METHODS: We used the Belgian 2001 census linked to population and mortality register including nearly 5.5 million adults aged ≥30 (mean follow-up: 9.97 years). Annual mean concentrations for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC) and ozone (O3) were assessed at baseline residential address using two exposure methods; Europe-wide hybrid land use regression (LUR) models [100x100m], and Belgium-wide interpolation-dispersion (RIO-IFDM) models [25x25m]. We used Cox proportional hazards models with age as the underlying time scale and adjusted for various individual and area-level covariates. We further adjusted main models for two different area-levels following the European Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS); NUTS-1 (n = 3), or NUTS-3 (n = 43). RESULTS: We found no consistent differences between both exposure methods. We observed most robust associations with lung cancer mortality. Hazard Ratios (HRs) per 10 µg/m3 increase for NO2 were 1.060 (95%CI 1.042-1.078) [hybrid LUR] and 1.040 (95%CI 1.022-1.058) [RIO-IFDM]. Associations with non-accidental, respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease mortality were generally null in main models but were enhanced after further adjustment for NUTS-1 or NUTS-3. HRs for non-accidental mortality per 5 µg/m3 increase for PM2.5 for the main model using hybrid LUR exposure were 1.023 (95%CI 1.011-1.035). After including random effects HRs were 1.044 (95%CI 1.033-1.057) [NUTS-1] and 1.076 (95%CI 1.060-1.092) [NUTS-3]. CONCLUSION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with higher lung cancer mortality risk but not consistently with the other studied causes. Magnitude of associations varied by adjustment for geographic subdivisions, area-level socio-economic covariates and less by exposure assessment method.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Censos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
2.
Diabet Med ; : e14742, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes poses a heavy burden on patients due to its progressive and chronic nature; it requires continuous management to promote a high-quality and long life. Disease management is especially challenging in emergency settings. We examined how displaced people with diabetes experienced managing their illness before and throughout the process of fleeing their home communities and seeking resettlement in Europe. DESIGN: We designed an interview instrument with closed- and open-ended questions about diabetes diagnosis and management before fleeing the home country, during migration, stays in transit countries and reception in the European Union. We interviewed 20 asylum-seekers living in Belgian reception centres with diagnosed diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: Primary topics emerging from interviews were availability, accessibility, and quality. Belgium was described as a setting with high availability, accessibility and quality of diabetes management components (medication, tools, care) compared with other settings before and during migration. Even in Belgium, maintaining a healthy diet as an asylum-seeker was difficult. Other concerns such as safety, other health issues and the asylum request itself often outweighed diabetes management. CONCLUSIONS: Displaced people in non-Western countries need attention for nutrition and diabetes medicine, so aid agencies should consider providing for those needs. For people seeking asylum in the West and living in temporary facilities, care should be paid to the dietary options available for those with diabetes. For irregular migrants, diabetes can be deadly, and resources should be made available for their basic diabetes needs, even if they are not eligible for regular health services.

3.
Eur J Popul ; 37(3): 603-624, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421447

RESUMO

Belgium is a country with a long and diverse history of migration. Given the diverse context of immigration to Belgium, reasons for return migration will most likely vary as well. With this study, we want to quantify the return migration of Belgium's immigrants and assess whether socio-economic, sociodemographic and health factors are related to return migration. Individually linked census and register data comprising the total Belgian first-generation immigrant population aged 25+ were used. Age-standardized emigration rates (ASER) by migrant origin and gender were calculated for the period 2001-2011. Additionally, relative return migration differences were calculated by country of origin and gender, adjusted for age group, length of stay, household composition, socio-economic indicators (education, home ownership and employment status) and self-rated health in 2001. Return migration was most common among immigrants from Spanish descent and from the neighbouring countries and higher among men than among women. Return migration was highly selective in terms of older age, lower length of stay in Belgium, not living with a partner or children, being high-educated, unemployed and in good health. Key issues for future research include examining the reasons for return migration, identifying the country of destination and accounting for household characteristics.

4.
SSM Popul Health ; 14: 100797, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997246

RESUMO

Introduction: Belgium has noted a significant excess mortality during the first COVID-19 wave. Research in other countries has shown that people with migrant origin are disproportionally affected. Belgium has an ethnically diverse and increasingly ageing population and is therefore particularly apt to study differential mortality by migrant group during this first wave of COVID-19. Data and methods: We used nationwide individually-linked data from the Belgian National Register providing sociodemographic indicators and mortality; and the administrative census of 2011 providing indicators of socioeconomic position. Age-standardized all-cause mortality rates (ASMRs) were calculated during the first COVID-19 wave (weeks 11-20 in 2020) and compared with ASMRs during weeks 11-20 in 2019 to calculate excess mortality by migrant origin, age and gender. For both years, relative inequalities were calculated by migrant group using Poisson regression, with and without adjustment for sociodemographic and socioeconomic indicators. Results: Among the middle-aged, ASMRs revealed increased mortality in all origin groups, with significant excess mortality for Belgians and Sub-Saharan African men. At old age, excess mortality up to 60% was observed for all groups. In relative terms, most male elderly migrant groups showed higher mortality than natives, as opposed to 2019 and to women. Adding the control variables decreased this excess mortality. Discussion: This study underlined important inequalities in overall and excess mortality in specific migrant communities, especially in men. Tailor-made policy measures and communication strategies should be set-up taking into account the particular risks to which groups are exposed.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 328, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immigrants make up an important share of European populations which has led to a growing interest in research on migrants' health. Many studies have assessed migrants' cancer mortality patterns, yet few have studied incidence differences. This paper will probe into histology-specific lung cancer incidence by migrant origin aiming to enhance the knowledge on lung cancer aetiology and different risk patterns among population groups. METHODS: We used data on all lung cancer diagnoses during 2004-2013 delivered by the Belgian Cancer Registry individually linked with the 2001 Belgian Census and the Crossroads Bank for Social Security. Absolute and relative inequalities in overall and histology-specific lung cancer incidence have been calculated for first-generation Italian, Turkish and Moroccan migrant men aged 50-74 years compared to native Belgian men. RESULTS: Moroccan men seemed to be the most advantaged group. Both in absolute and relative terms they consistently had lower overall and histology-specific lung cancer incidence rates compared with native Belgian men, albeit less clear for adenocarcinoma. Turkish men only showed lower overall lung cancer incidence when adjusting for education. On the contrary, Italian men had higher incidence for overall lung cancer and squamous cell carcinoma, which was explained by adjusting for education. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking habits are likely to explain the results for Moroccan men who had lower incidence for smoking-related histologies. The full aetiology for adenocarcinoma is still unknown, yet the higher incidence among Italian men could point to differences in occupational exposures, e.g. to carcinogenic radon while working in the mines.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Health Place ; 68: 102514, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571898

RESUMO

We studied the role of 'ethnic density' in the neighbourhood for tobacco-related cancer mortality among five migrant origin groups in urban Belgium. Using full population linked census data, multilevel Poisson models were applied to model effects of three linear and categorical indicators of same-origin presence for each origin group, and to test effect mediation by migrant generation and educational level. We first of all found that increased same migrant-origin presence in the neighbourhood had protective effects on tobacco-related cancer mortality for men in most groups. Second, only Turkish men had a mortality disadvantage when Turkish concentration was higher. Third, effects were not detected across all indicators of same-origin presence, nor among most groups of women. Finally, for several groups, neighbourhood effects were mediated by generational status and educational level.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Migrantes , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Censos , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tabaco
7.
Environ Int ; 148: 106365, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that residing close to green space reduce mortality rates. We investigated the relationship between long-term exposure to residential green space and non-accidental and cardio-respiratory mortality. METHODS: We linked the Belgian 2001 census to population and mortality register follow-up data (2001-2011) among adults aged 30 years and older residing in the five largest urban areas in Belgium (n = 2,185,170 and mean follow-up time 9.4 years). Residential addresses were available at baseline. Exposure to green space was defined as 1) surrounding greenness (2006) [normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI2)] within buffers of 300 m, 500 m, and 1000 m; 2) surrounding green space (2006) [Urban Atlas (UA) and CORINE Land Cover (CLC)] within buffers of 300 m, 500 m, and 1000 m; and 3) perceived neighborhood green space (2001). Cox proportional hazards models with age as the underlying time scale were used to probe into cause-specific mortality (non-accidental, respiratory, COPD, cardiovascular, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and cerebrovascular). Models were adjusted for several sociodemographic variables (age, sex, marital status, country of birth, education level, employment status, and area mean income). We further adjusted our main models for annual mean (2010) values of ambient air pollution (PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and BC, one at a time), and we additionally explored potential mediation with the aforementioned pollutants. RESULTS: Higher degrees of residential green space were associated with lower rates of non-accidental and respiratory mortality. In fully adjusted models, hazard ratios (HR) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in NDVI 500 m buffer (IQR: 0.24) and UA 500 m buffer (IQR: 0.31) were 0.97 (95%CI 0.96-0.98) and 0.99 (95%CI 0.98-0.99) for non-accidental mortality, and 0.95 (95%CI 0.93-0.98) and 0.97 (95%CI 0.96-0.99) for respiratory mortality. For perceived neighborhood green space, HRs were 0.93 (95%CI 0.92-0.94) and 0.94 (95%CI 0.91-0.98) for non-accidental and respiratory mortality, respectively. The observed lower mortality risks associated with residential exposure to green space were largely independent from exposure to ambient air pollutants. CONCLUSION: We observed evidence for lower mortality risk in associations with long-term residential exposure to green space in most but not all studied causes of death in a large representative cohort for the five largest urban areas in Belgium. These findings support the importance of the availability of residential green space in urban areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Censos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Seguimentos , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Material Particulado
8.
Environ Res ; 191: 110032, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living in green areas has been associated with several health benefits; however, the available evidence on such benefits for hypertension is still limited. This study aimed to investigate and compare the association between residential exposure to greenspace and hypertension in Barcelona, Spain and Brussels, Belgium. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on data from the 2016 Barcelona Health Interview Survey (HIS) (n = 3400) and the 2013 Belgian HIS (n = 2335). Both surveys were harmonized in terms of outcomes, confounders and exposure assessment. Residential exposure to greenspace was characterized as 1) surrounding greenspace (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index 2 (MSAVI2)) across buffers of 100 m, 300 m, and 500 m; 2) surrounding green space across 300 m and 500 m buffers; and 3) Euclidean distance to the nearest green space. Our outcome was self-reported hypertension. We developed logistic regression models to evaluate the city-specific association between each greenspace measure and hypertension, adjusting for relevant covariates. RESULTS: One interquartile range (IQR) increase in residential distance to the nearest green space was associated with higher risk of hypertension in Barcelona [odds ratio (OR): 1.15; 95%CI 1.03-1.29 (IQR: 262.2)], but not in Brussels [OR: 0.95; 95%CI 0.77-1.17 (IQR: 215.2)]. Stratified analyses suggested stronger associations in older participants (≥65 years) for both cities. Findings for residential surrounding green space and greenspace were not conclusive. However, in Brussels, we found protective associations in older participants for both residential surrounding greenspace metrics [NDVI 300 m buffer OR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.32-0.81 (IQR: 0.21) and MSAVI2 300 m buffer OR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.32-0.83 (IQR: 0.18)]. We did not find any indication for the modification of our evaluated associations by sex and education level. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that living closer to greenspace could be associated with lower risk of hypertension, particularly in older age. Future research is needed to replicate our findings in other settings and shed light on potential underlying mechanism(s).


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Parques Recreativos , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Int J Cancer ; 147(2): 350-360, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597195

RESUMO

Foreign and native populations differ in terms of breast cancer outcomes. Studies rarely distinguish between premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer, although the risk profile is different; nor between migrants of the first and second generation (FG and SG), which is crucial to examine genetic and environmental influences on breast cancer. This research fills these gaps by investigating patterns in breast cancer incidence and survival in different migrant groups by menopausal and migrant generational status, taking various risk factors into account. To this end, individually linked data from the 2001 census, the Belgian Cancer Registry and the Crossroads Bank for Social Security are used. Age-standardised incidence rates and incidence rate ratios are calculated by migrant background group, stratified according to ages 30-50 (premenopausal) and 50-70 (postmenopausal). Incidence rate ratios are examined with and without taking reproductive factors and socioeconomic position (SEP) into account. Relative survival percentages and relative excess risks of dying among premenopausal and postmenopausal patients are computed with and without controlling for the stage at diagnosis and SEP. Premenopausal breast cancer is further examined by migrant generational status. Breast cancer incidence is lower among non-European migrants compared to Belgians. Keeping SEP and known risk factors constant reduces much, but not all of the observed discrepancies. A risk convergence between SG migrants and Belgians for the development of premenopausal breast cancer is observed. Premenopausal breast cancer survival is worse among Moroccan patients due to a higher stage at diagnosis. This disadvantage is concentrated in the FG.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa/etnologia , Pré-Menopausa/etnologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Migrantes/classificação
10.
Arch Public Health ; 77: 42, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583101

RESUMO

Background: So far knowledge about undocumented migrant health status is poor. The objective of this study is to compare patterns in causes of death between undocumented migrants and legal residents, of both migrant and non-migrant origin. Method: Using cause-of-death data, we compared undocumented migrants with Belgian residents and documented migrants through logistic regression analyses.. Results: This study shows that male undocumented migrants have a significantly higher risk of death from cardiovascular diseases compared to male Belgian residents (OR: 1.37) and documented migrants (OR: 2.17). Male undocumented migrants also have an increased risk of dying from external causes of death compared to documented migrants (OR: 1.93). Furthermore, we found a lower risk of suicidal death in undocumented migrants compared to Belgian residents (OR men: 0.29, OR women: 0.15). Conclusions: We found important differences in underlying causes of death between undocumented migrants and residents in Belgium. These findings urge us to claim improved healthcare provision for undocumented migrants in Belgium. Trial registration: Medical ethics committee UZ Jette, Brussels, Belgium - Registration date: 18/05/2016 - Registration number: B.U.N. 143201628279.

11.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 96, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Belgium has a long history of migration. As the migrant population is ageing, it is crucial thoroughly to document their health. Many studies that have assessed this, observed a migrant mortality advantage. This study will extend the knowledge by probing into the interaction between migrant mortality and gender, and to assess the role of socioeconomic position indicators in this paradox. METHODS: Individually linked data of the 2001 Belgian Census, the National Register and death certificates for 2001-2011 were used. Migrant origin was based on both own and parents' origin roots. We included native Belgians and migrants from the largest migrant groups aged 25 to 65 years. Absolute and relative mortality differences by migrant origin were calculated for the most common causes of death. Moreover, the Poisson models were adjusted for educational attainment, home ownership and employment status. RESULTS: We observed a migrant mortality advantage for most causes of death and migrant groups, which was strongest among men. Adjusting for socioeconomic position generally increased the migrant mortality advantage, however with large differences by gender, migrant origin, socioeconomic position indicator and causes of death. CONCLUSIONS: Adjusting for socioeconomic position even accentuated the migrant mortality advantage although the impact varied by causes of death, migrant origin and gender. This highlights the importance of including multiple socioeconomic position indicators when studying mortality inequalities. Future studies should unravel morbidity patterns too since lower mortality not necessarily implies better health. The observed migrant mortality advantage suggests there is room for improvement. However, it is essential to organize preventative and curative healthcare that is equally accessible across social and cultural strata.


Assuntos
Emprego/história , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade/história , Mortalidade/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos/história , Migrantes/história , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica/etnologia , Atestado de Óbito , Feminino , Previsões , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 410, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Belgium has a large migrant community that is increasingly ageing. As migrants may have faced environmental and social exposures before, during and after migration, they may have experienced an accelerated epidemiological transition. Studying mortality differentials between the migrant and native population may therefore allow for a better understanding of the aetiology of diseases. While many studies have assessed migrant mortality, few have looked into the role of gender or the trend over time. Therefore, this study aims to probe into mortality differences between the native and migrant population for all major causes of death (COD) during the 1990s and 2000s. We will discriminate between all major migrant groups and men and women as they have different migration histories. METHODS: Individually linked data of the Belgian Census, the National Register and death certificates for the periods 1991-1997 and 2001-2008 were used. Migrant origin was based on both own and parents' origin, hereby maximizing the population with migrant roots. We included native Belgians and migrants from the largest migrant groups aged 25 to 65 years. Both absolute and relative mortality differences by migrant origin were calculated for the most common COD. RESULTS: We generally observed a migrant advantage for overall, cause-specific and cancer-specific mortality, with infection-related cancer mortality being the only exception. The effect was particularly strong for lifestyle-related COD, non-western migrants, and men. Over time, mortality declined among native Belgian men and women, yet remained stable for several migrant groups. This converging trend was largely due to smoking and reduced reproductive behaviour among migrants. CONCLUSIONS: The migrant mortality advantage stresses that there is room for improvement in the area of health in Belgium. Since the largest differences between native Belgians and migrants were observed for lifestyle-related diseases, and there is a tendency towards convergence of mortality over time, primary prevention tackling the most vulnerable groups remains crucial. Moreover, efforts should be made to ensure equal access to health care among the social and cultural strata.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Mortalidade/tendências , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr ; 49(6): 232-243, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456699

RESUMO

We analysed differences in healthy life expectancy at age 50 (HLE50) between migrants and non-migrants in Belgium, the Netherlands, and England and Wales, and their trends over time between 2001 and 2011 in the latter two countries. Population, mortality and health data were derived from registers, census or surveys. HLE50 was calculated for non-migrants, western and non-western migrants by sex. We applied decomposition techniques to determine whether differences in HLE50 between origin groups and changes in HLE50 over time were attributable to either differences in mortality or health. The results show that in all three countries and among both sexes, older migrants, in particular those from non-western origin, could expect to live fewer years in good health than older non-migrants, mainly because of differences in self-rated health. Differences in HLE50 between migrants and non-migrants diminished over time in the Netherlands, but they increased in England and Wales. Improvements in HLE50 over time were mainly attributable to mortality decline. Interventions aimed at reducing the health and mortality inequalities between older migrants and non-migrants should focus on prevention, and target especially non-western migrants.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Expectativa de Vida , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Bélgica , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , País de Gales
14.
Int J Cancer ; 142(1): 23-35, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877332

RESUMO

Our study explores the association between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and all-cancer and site-specific cancer mortality. Data on all Belgian residents are retrieved from a population-based dataset constructed from the 2001 census linked to register data on emigration and mortality for 2001-2011. The study population contains all men and women aged 40 years or older during follow-up. Individual SEP is measured using education, employment status and housing conditions. Neighborhood SEP is measured by a deprivation index (in quintiles). Directly age-standardized mortality rates and multilevel Poisson models are used to estimate the association between individual SEP and neighborhood deprivation and mortality from all-cancer and cancer of the lung, colon and rectum, pancreas, prostate and female breast. The potential confounding role of population density is assessed using multilevel models as well. Our findings show an increase in mortality from all-cancer and site-specific cancer by decreasing level of individual SEP for both men and women. In addition, individuals living in highly deprived neighborhoods experience significantly higher mortality from all-cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and female colorectal cancer after controlling for individual SEP. Male colorectal and prostate cancer and female breast cancer are not associated with neighborhood deprivation. Population density acts as a confounder for female lung cancer only. Our study indicates that deprivation at both the individual and neighborhood level is associated with all-cancer mortality and mortality from several cancer sites. More research into the role of life-style related and clinical factors is necessary to gain more insight into causal pathway.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/mortalidade , Densidade Demográfica , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível
15.
BMJ Open ; 7(11): e015216, 2017 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29133313

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study probes into site-specific cancer mortality inequalities by employment and occupational group among Belgians, adjusted for other indicators of socioeconomic (SE) position. DESIGN: This cohort study is based on record linkage between the Belgian censuses of 1991 and 2001 and register data on emigration and mortality for 01/10/2001 to 31/12/2011. SETTING: Belgium. PARTICIPANTS: The study population contains all Belgians within the economically active age (25-65 years) at the census of 1991. OUTCOME MEASURES: Both absolute and relative measures were calculated. First, age-standardised mortality rates have been calculated, directly standardised to the Belgian population. Second, mortality rate ratios were calculated using Poisson's regression, adjusted for education, housing conditions, attained age, region and migrant background. RESULTS: This study highlights inequalities in site-specific cancer mortality, both related to being employed or not and to the occupational group of the employed population. Unemployed men and women show consistently higher overall and site-specific cancer mortality compared with the employed group. Also within the employed group, inequalities are observed by occupational group. Generally manual workers and service and sales workers have higher site-specific cancer mortality rates compared with white-collar workers and agricultural and fishery workers. These inequalities are manifest for almost all preventable cancer sites, especially those cancer sites related to alcohol and smoking such as cancers of the lung, oesophagus and head and neck. Overall, occupational inequalities were less pronounced among women compared with men. CONCLUSIONS: Important SE inequalities in site-specific cancer mortality were observed by employment and occupational group. Ensuring financial security for the unemployed is a key issue in this regard. Future studies could also take a look at other working regimes, for instance temporary employment or part-time employment and their relation to health.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Censos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Cancer Causes Control ; 28(8): 829-840, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28677024

RESUMO

PURPOSE: According to the "fundamental cause theory", emerging knowledge on health-enhancing behaviours and technologies results in persisting and even widening health disparities, favouring the higher socioeconomic groups. This study aims to assess (trends in) socioeconomic inequalities in site-specific cancer mortality in Belgian women. METHODS: Data were derived from record linkage between the Belgian census and register data on mortality for 1991-1997 and 2001-2008 for all Belgian female inhabitants aged 50-79 years. Both absolute and relative inequalities by education and housing conditions were calculated. RESULTS: The results revealed persisting socioeconomic inequalities in total and site-specific cancer mortality. As expected, these inequalities were larger for the more preventable cancer sites. Generally, socioeconomic inequalities remained quite stable between the 1990s and the 2000s, although for some preventable cancer sites (e.g., uterus and oesophagus) a significant increase in inequality was observed. CONCLUSIONS: These persisting socioeconomic inequalities are likely due to differences in exposure to risk factors and unhealthy behaviours, and access and utilization of healthcare across the social strata. Since equality in health should be a priority for a fair public health policy, efforts to reduce inequalities in risk behaviours and access and use of health care should remain high on the agenda.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/mortalidade , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
BMC Cancer ; 17(1): 470, 2017 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28679369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the "fundamental cause" theory, emerging knowledge on health-enhancing behaviours and technologies results in health disparities. This study aims to assess (trends in) educational inequalities in site-specific cancer mortality in Belgian men in the 1990s and the 2000s using this framework. METHODS: Data were derived from record linkage between the Belgian censuses of 1991 and 2001 and register data on mortality. The study population comprised all Belgian men aged 50-79 years during follow-up. Both absolute and relative inequality measures have been calculated. RESULTS: Despite an overall downward trend in cancer mortality, educational differences are observed for the majority of cancer sites in the 2000s. Generally, inequalities are largest for mortality from preventable cancers. Trends over time in inequalities are rather stable compared with the 1990s. CONCLUSIONS: Educational differences in site-specific cancer mortality persist in the 2000s in Belgium, mainly for cancers related to behavioural change and medical interventions. Policy efforts focussing on behavioural change and healthcare utilization remain crucial in order to tackle these increasing inequalities.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Educação em Saúde , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/história , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Vigilância da População , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Eur J Public Health ; 27(1): 111-116, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28177447

RESUMO

Background: Suicidal behaviour has long been recognized to vary widely between countries. Yet, rates of suicidal behaviour do not only vary between, but also within countries. Gender and socioeconomic differences in suicidal behaviour are well established, but the literature on suicidal behaviour and migrants is sparse, particularly in Belgium. The present study maps out the occurrence of suicide mortality across three of the largest migrant groups (Italians, Turks and Moroccans) versus the native population in Belgium, and verifies whether this association persists after accounting for socioeconomic variables. Methods: Census-linked mortality follow-up data covering the period 2001­2011 were used to probe into suicide mortality. To compare absolute differences by migrant background, indirect standardisation analyses were carried out. To assess relative differences, Cox proportional hazards models were performed. Analyses were restricted to 18- to 64-year-olds. Results: Belgian men and women have the highest suicide mortality risk, persons of Moroccan/Turkish origin the lowest, and Italians are somewhere in between. When migration generation is considered, the risk is higher for second-generation groups compared to that of the first-generation. Accounting for socioeconomic determinants, the difference between the native population and the various nationality groups intensifies. Conclusion: Although the risk is generally lower for minorities compared to the majority population, the results across migration generations underscore minorities' increased vulnerability to suicide over time. Future research should focus on understanding the risks and protective factors of suicidal behaviour across different nationality groups. This way, tailored policy recommendations can be developed in order to tackle the burden of suicide.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade/etnologia , Suicídio/etnologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/etnologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Turquia/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Oral Oncol ; 61: 76-82, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27688108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess to what extent individual and area-level socioeconomic position (SEP) are associated to head and neck cancer (HNC) mortality and to what extent they contribute to regional variation in HNC mortality in Belgium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on men aged 40-64 are collected from a population based dataset based on the 2001 Belgian census linked to register data on emigration and mortality for 2001-2011. Individual SEP is measured using education, employment status and housing conditions. Deprivation at municipal level is measured by a deprivation index. Absolute mortality differences are estimated by age standardised mortality rates. Multilevel Poisson models are used to estimate the association and interaction between HNC mortality and individual and area-level SEP, and to estimate the regional variation in HNC mortality. RESULTS: HNC mortality rates are significantly higher for men with a low SEP and men living in deprived areas. Cross-level interactions indicate that the association between individual SEP and HNC mortality is conditional on area deprivation. HNC mortality in deprived areas is especially high among high-SEP men. As a result, social disparities appear to be smaller in more deprived areas. Regional variation in HNC mortality was significant. Population composition partially explains this regional variation, while area deprivation and cross-level interactions explains little. CONCLUSION: Both individual and area-level deprivation are important determinants of HNC mortality. Underlying trends in incidence and survival, and risk factors, such as alcohol and tobacco use, should be explored further.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos
20.
BMC Public Health ; 16: 493, 2016 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27287541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ample studies have observed an adverse association between individual socioeconomic position (SEP) and lung cancer mortality. Moreover, the presence of a partner has shown to be a crucial determinant of health. Yet, few studies have assessed whether partner's SEP affects health in addition to individual SEP. This paper will study whether own SEP (education), partner's SEP (partner's education) and own and partner's SEP combined (housing conditions), are associated with lung cancer mortality in Belgium. METHODS: Data consist of the Belgian 2001 census linked to register data on cause-specific mortality for 2001-2011. The study population includes all married or cohabiting Belgian inhabitants aged 40-84 years. Age-standardized lung cancer mortality rates (direct standardization) and mortality rate ratios (Poisson regression) were computed for the different SEP groups. RESULTS: In men, we observed a clear inverse association between all SEP indicators (own and partner's education, and housing conditions) and lung cancer mortality. Men benefit from having a higher educated partner in terms of lower lung cancer mortality rates. These observations hold for both middle-aged and older men. For women, the picture is less uniform. In middle-aged and older women, housing conditions is inversely associated with lung cancer mortality. As for partner's education, for middle-aged women, the association is rather weak whereas for older women, there is no such association. Whereas the educational level of middle-aged women is inversely associated with lung cancer mortality, in older women this association disappears in the fully adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS: Both men and women benefit from being in a relationship with a high-educated partner. It seems that for men, the educational level of their partner is of great importance while for women the housing conditions is more substantial. Both research and policy interventions should allow for the family level as well.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Censos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Casamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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