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1.
J Phycol ; 55(3): 730-732, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817008

RESUMO

The two most toxic Gambierdiscus species identified from the Caribbean are G. excentricus and G. silvae. These species are the primary causes of ciguatera fish poisoning and likely contribute disproportionately to the toxicity of marine food webs. While Gambierdiscus species are difficult to distinguish using light or scanning electron microscopy, reliable species-specific molecular identification methods have been developed and used successfully to identify a number of other Gambierdiscus species. Corresponding species-specific assays are not yet available for G. excentricus and G. silvae, which imposes limitations on species identification and related ecological studies. The following note describes species-specific polymerase chain reaction assays for G. excentricus and G. silvae that can be used for these purposes.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Ciguatoxinas , Dinoflagelados , Animais , Região do Caribe , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
2.
Harmful Algae ; 77: 81-92, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005804

RESUMO

Despite the long history of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) events in Alaska, little is known about the seasonal distribution and abundance of the causative organism, Alexandrium, or the environmental factors that govern toxic bloom development. To address this issue, a five year study (2012-2017) was undertaken in Kachemak Bay and lower Cook Inlet Alaska to determine how the occurrence of Alexandrium catenella, the dominant PSP-causing Alexandrium species, was influenced by temperature, salinity, nutrient concentrations, and other environmental factors. Cell concentrations from 572 surface water samples were estimated using quantitative PCR. Monthly sampling revealed a seasonal pattern of A. catenella bloom development that was positively correlated with water temperature. Prevailing salinity conditions did not significantly affect abundance, nor was nutrient limitation a direct factor. Elevated cell concentrations were detected in 35 samples from Kachemak Bay (100-3050 cell eq. L-1) while a maximum abundance of 67 cell eq. L-1 was detected in samples from lower Cook Inlet sites. Monitoring data showed average water temperatures in Kachemak Bay increased by ∼2 °C over the course of the study and were accompanied by an increase in Alexandrium abundance. Based on these findings, 7-8 °C appears to represent a temperature threshold for significant bloom development in Kachemak Bay, with the greatest risk of shellfish toxicity occurring when temperatures exceed 10-12 °C. The role of temperature is further supported by time series data from the Alaska Coastal Current (station GAK1), which showed that summertime shellfish toxicity events in Kachemak Bay generally followed periods of anomalously high winter water temperatures. These data indicate monitoring changes in water temperatures may be used as an early warning signal for subsequent development of shellfish toxicity in Kachemak Bay.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Alaska , Baías , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Dinâmica Populacional , Frutos do Mar/análise
3.
Harmful Algae ; 73: 30-43, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29602505

RESUMO

A brown tide bloom of Aureoumbra lagunensis developed in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba during a period of drought in 2013 that followed heavy winds and rainfall from Hurricane Sandy in late October 2012. Based on satellite images and water turbidity measurements, the bloom appeared to initiate in January 2013. The causative species (A. lagunensis) was confirmed by microscopic observation, and pigment and genetic analyses of bloom samples collected on May 28 of that year. During that time, A. lagunensis reached concentrations of 900,000 cells ml-1 (28 ppm by biovolume) in the middle portion of the Bay. Samples could not be collected from the northern (Cuban) half of the Bay because of political considerations. Subsequent sampling of the southern half of the Bay in November 2013, April 2014, and October 2014 showed persistent lower concentrations of A. lagunensis, with dominance shifting to the cyanobacterium Synechococcus (up to 33 ppm in April), an algal group that comprised a minor bloom component on May 28. Thus, unlike the brown tide bloom in Laguna Madre, which lasted 8 years, the bloom in Guantánamo Bay was short-lived, much like recent blooms in the Indian River, Florida. Although hypersaline conditions have been linked to brown tide development in the lagoons of Texas and Florida, observed euhaline conditions in Guantánamo Bay (salinity 35-36) indicate that strong hypersalinity is not a requirement for A. lagunensis bloom formation. Microzooplankton biomass dominated by ciliates was high during the observed peak of the brown tide, and ciliate abundance was high compared to other systems not impacted by brown tide. Preferential grazing by zooplankton on non-brown tide species, as shown in A. lagunensis blooms in Texas and Florida, may have been a factor in the development of the Cuban brown tide bloom. However, subsequent selection of microzooplankton capable of utilizing A. lagunensis as a primary food source may have contributed to the short-lived duration of the brown tide bloom in Guantánamo Bay.


Assuntos
Baías , Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Cuba , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oxigênio/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Salinidade , Água do Mar/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura Ambiente , Ondas de Maré , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Mar Drugs ; 16(4)2018 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29642418

RESUMO

The sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Toxopneustidae, Echinoids) is a source of protein for many islanders in the Indo-West Pacific. It was previously reported to occasionally cause ciguatera-like poisoning; however, the exact nature of the causative agent was not confirmed. In April and July 2015, ciguatera poisonings were reported following the consumption of T.gratilla in Anaho Bay (Nuku Hiva Island, Marquesas archipelago, French Polynesia). Patient symptomatology was recorded and sea urchin samples were collected from Anaho Bay in July 2015 and November 2016. Toxicity analysis using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) detected the presence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in T.gratilla samples. Gambierdiscus species were predominant in the benthic assemblages of Anaho Bay, and G.polynesiensis was highly prevalent in in vitro cultures according to qPCR results. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses revealed that P-CTX-3B was the major ciguatoxin congener in toxic sea urchin samples, followed by 51-OH-P-CTX-3C, P-CTX-3C, P-CTX-4A, and P-CTX-4B. Between July 2015 and November 2016, the toxin content in T.gratilla decreased, but was consistently above the safety limit allowed for human consumption. This study provides evidence of CTX bioaccumulation in T.gratilla as a cause of ciguatera-like poisoning associated with a documented symptomatology.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera/etiologia , Ciguatoxinas/análise , Dinoflagelados , Ouriços-do-Mar/microbiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/toxicidade , Idoso , Animais , Baías , Bioensaio/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/prevenção & controle , Ciguatoxinas/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polinésia/epidemiologia , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Alimentos Crus/toxicidade , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos
5.
Toxins (Basel) ; 10(1)2017 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267222

RESUMO

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood (fish and marine invertebrates) contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus. The report of a CFP-like mass-poisoning outbreak following the consumption of Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod) from Anaho Bay on Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas archipelago, French Polynesia) prompted field investigations to assess the presence of CTXs in T. niloticus. Samples were collected from Anaho Bay, 1, 6 and 28 months after this poisoning outbreak, as well as in Taiohae and Taipivai bays. Toxicity analysis using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) detected the presence of CTXs only in Anaho Bay T. niloticus samples. This is consistent with qPCR results on window screen samples indicating the presence of Gambierdiscus communities dominated by the species G. polynesiensis in Anaho Bay. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses revealed that P-CTX-3B was the major congener, followed by P-CTX-3C, P-CTX-4A and P-CTX-4B in toxic samples. Between July 2014 and November 2016, toxin content in T. niloticus progressively decreased, but was consistently above the safety limit recommended for human consumption. This study confirms for the first time T. niloticus as a novel vector of CFP in French Polynesia.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Ciguatoxinas/análise , Gastrópodes/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciguatoxinas/toxicidade , Dinoflagelados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Camundongos , Polinésia
6.
Harmful Algae ; 55: 137-149, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28073527

RESUMO

In this study, inter- and intraspecific genetic diversity within the marine harmful dinoflagellate genus Coolia Meunier was evaluated using isolates obtained from the tropics to subtropics in both Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. The aim was to assess the phylogeographic history of the genus and to clarify the validity of established species including Coolia malayensis. Phylogenetic analysis of the D1-D2 LSU rDNA sequences identified six major lineages (L1-L6) corresponding to the morphospecies Coolia malayensis (L1), C. monotis (L2), C. santacroce (L3), C. palmyrensis (L4), C. tropicalis (L5), and C. canariensis (L6). A median joining network (MJN) of C. malayensis ITS2 rDNA sequences revealed a total of 16 haplotypes; however, no spatial genetic differentiation among populations was observed. These MJN results in conjunction with CBC analysis, rDNA phylogenies and geographical distribution analyses confirm C. malayensis as a distinct species which is globally distributed in the tropical to warm-temperate regions. A molecular clock analysis using ITS2 rDNA revealed the evolutionary history of Coolia dated back to the Mesozoic, and supports the hypothesis that historical vicariant events in the early Cenozoic drove the allopatric differentiation of C. malayensis and C. monotis.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/classificação , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Filogenia , Evolução Biológica , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Dinoflagelados/genética , Especiação Genética , Variação Genética , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 27(1): 117-20, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25525146

RESUMO

A voided urine sample, obtained from a 13-year-old intact male dog residing in a laboratory animal research facility, was observed to contain biflagellate protozoa 5 days following an episode of gross hematuria. The protozoa were identified as belonging to the class Kinetoplastea on the basis of light microscopic observation of Wright-Giemsa-stained urine sediment in which the kinetoplast was observed basal to 2 anterior flagella. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using primers corresponding with conserved regions within the 18S ribosomal RNA gene of representative kinetoplastid species identified nucleotide sequences with 100% identity to Parabodo caudatus. Parabodo caudatus organisms were unable to be demonstrated cytologically or by means of PCR in samples collected from the dog's environment. The dog had a history of 50 complete urinalyses performed over the 12-year period preceding detection of P. caudatus, and none of these were noted to contain protozoa. Moreover, the gross hematuria that was documented 5 days prior to detection of P. caudatus had never before been observed in this dog. Over the ensuing 2.5 years of the dog's life, 16 additional complete urinalyses were performed, none of which revealed the presence of protozoa. Bodonids are commonly found in soil as well as in freshwater and marine environments. However, P. caudatus, in particular, has a 150-year-long, interesting, and largely unresolved history in people as either an inhabitant or contaminant of urine. This historical conundrum is revisited in the current description of P. caudatus as recovered from the urine of a dog.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Infecções por Euglenozoa/veterinária , Hematúria/veterinária , Kinetoplastida/genética , Kinetoplastida/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Doenças do Cão/urina , Cães , Infecções por Euglenozoa/parasitologia , Infecções por Euglenozoa/urina , Hematúria/parasitologia , Hematúria/urina , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
8.
J Phycol ; 48(4): 902-15, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27009001

RESUMO

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a serious health problem in tropical regions and is caused by the bioaccumulation of lipophilic toxins produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus. Gambierdiscus species are morphologically similar and are difficult to distinguish from one another even when using scanning electron microscopy. Improved identification and detection methods that are sensitive and rapid are needed to identify toxic species and investigate potential distribution and abundance patterns in relation to incidences of CFP. This study presents the first species-specific, semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays that can be used to address these questions. These assays are specific for five Gambierdiscus species and one undescribed ribotype. The assays utilized a SYBR green format and targeted unique sequences found within the SSU, ITS, and the D1/D3 LSU ribosomal domains. Standard curves were constructed using known concentrations of cultured cells and 10-fold serial dilutions of rDNA PCR amplicons containing the target sequence for each specific assay. Assay sensitivity and accuracy were tested using DNA extracts purified from known concentrations of multiple Gambierdiscus species. The qPCR assays were used to assess Gambierdiscus species diversity and abundance in samples collected from nearshore areas adjacent to Ft. Pierce and Jupiter, Florida USA. The results indicated that the practical limit of detection for each assay was 10 cells per sample. Most interestingly, the qPCR analysis revealed that as many as four species of Gambierdiscus were present in a single macrophyte sample.

9.
Toxicon ; 56(5): 711-30, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20561539

RESUMO

Dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus produce toxins that bioaccumulate in tropical and sub-tropical fishes causing ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Little is known about the diversity and distribution of Gambierdiscus species, the degree to which individual species vary in toxicity, and the role each plays in causing CFP. This paper presents the first global distribution of Gambierdiscus species. Phylogenetic analyses of the existing isolates indicate that five species are endemic to the Atlantic (including the Caribbean/West Indies and Gulf of Mexico), five are endemic to the tropical Pacific, and that two species, Gambierdiscus carpenteri and Gambierdiscus caribaeus are globally distributed. The differences in Gambierdiscus species composition in the Atlantic and Pacific correlated with structural differences in the ciguatoxins reported from Atlantic and Pacific fish. This correlation supports the hypothesis that Gambierdiscus species in each region produce different toxin suites. A literature survey indicated a >100-fold variation in toxicity among species compared with a 2 to 9-fold within species variation due to changing growth conditions. These observations suggest that CFP events are driven more by inherent differences in species toxicity than by environmental modulation. How variations in species toxicity may affect the development of an early warning system for CFP is discussed.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Ciguatera/induzido quimicamente , Ciguatoxinas/toxicidade , Dinoflagelados/patogenicidade , Dinoflagelados/classificação , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 88(2): 169-75, 2010 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20225678

RESUMO

Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) caused by the oomycete Aphanomyces invadans is an invasive, opportunistic disease of both freshwater and estuarine fishes. Originally documented as the cause of mycotic granulomatosis of ornamental fishes in Japan and as the cause of EUS of fishes in southeast Asia and Australia, this pathogen is also present in estuaries and freshwater bodies of the Atlantic and gulf coasts of the USA. We describe a mass mortality event of 343 captive juvenile bullseye snakehead Channa marulius collected from freshwater canals in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Clinical signs appeared within the first 2 d of captivity and included petechiae, ulceration, erratic swimming, and inappetence. Histological examination revealed hyphae invading from the skin lesions deep into the musculature and internal organs. Species identification was confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Despite therapeutic attempts, 100% mortality occurred. This represents the first documented case of EUS in bullseye snakehead fish collected from waters in the USA. Future investigation of the distribution and prevalence of A. invadans within the bullseye snakehead range in south Florida may give insight into this pathogen-host system.


Assuntos
Aphanomyces/isolamento & purificação , Dermatite/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Perciformes , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Dermatite/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite/epidemiologia , Dermatite/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Florida/epidemiologia , /epidemiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Cutânea/microbiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/veterinária
11.
J Phycol ; 44(1): 232-40, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27041058

RESUMO

As part of a long-term study of benthic dinoflagellates from the Belizean barrier reef system, we report a new species: Prorocentrum levis M. A. Faust, Kibler, Vandersea, P. A. Tester et Litaker sp. nov. P. levis cells are oval in valve view and range in size from 40 to 44 µm long and 37 to 40 µm wide. Each valve surface is smooth, with 221-238 valve pores and 99-130 marginal pores. These pores are uniformly small and range in diameter from 0.13 to 0.19 µm. Asexual reproduction in P. levis is atypical, occurring within a hyaline envelope, and produces long branching chains of adherent cells. A phylogenetic analysis of SSU rDNA indicated that of the Prorocentrum species sequenced so far, P. levis was most closely related to P. concavum. P. levis produces okadaic acid and dinophysis toxin-2 (DTX2). Further, SEM observations and SSU rDNA sequence for P. belizeanum M. A. Faust, which was isolated at the same time, are also presented.

12.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 73(3): 219-26, 2007 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17330741

RESUMO

Amyloodiniosis, caused by the dinoflagellate ectoparasite Amyloodinium ocellatum, is one of the most serious diseases affecting marine fish in warm and temperate waters. Current diagnostic methods rely entirely on the microscopic identification of parasites on the skin or gills of infested fish. However, subclinical infestations usually go undetected, while no method of detecting the free-swimming, infective (dinospore) stage has been devised. Targeting the parasite's ribosomal DNA region, we have developed a sensitive and specific PCR assay that can detect as little as a single cell from any of the 3 stages of the parasite's life cycle (trophont, tomont, dinospore). This assay performs equally well in a simple artificial seawater medium and in natural seawater containing a plankton community assemblage. The assay is also not inhibited by gill tissue. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of 5 A. ocellatum isolates, obtained from fish in the Red Sea (Israel), eastern Mediterranean Sea (Israel), Adriatic Sea (Italy), Gulf of Mexico (Florida), and from an unknown origin, revealed insignificant variation, indicating that all isolates were the same species. However, 3 of these isolates propagated in cell culture varied in behavior and morphology, and these differences were consistent during at least 2 yr in culture. Thus, our findings do not eliminate the possibility that different strains are in fact 'subspecies' or lower taxa, which may also differ in pathogenic and immunogenic characteristics, environmental tolerance, and other features.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/genética , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA/química , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Dinoflagelados/isolamento & purificação , Ectoparasitoses/diagnóstico , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Infecções por Protozoários/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Esporos de Protozoários/citologia
13.
J Parasitol ; 93(5): 1006-15, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18163333

RESUMO

All dinoflagellates that infest the skin and gills of fish have traditionally been placed within the class Blastodiniphyceae. Their relatedness was primarily based upon a similar mode of attachment to the host, i.e., attachment disc with holdfasts. Results of recent molecular genetic analyses have transferred these parasites, including Amyloodinium, to the class Dinophyceae, subclass Peridiniphycidae. In our study, a small subunit rDNA gene from a parasitic dinoflagellate that has features diagnostic for species in the genus Piscinoodinium, i.e., typical trophont with attachment disc having rhizocysts, infesting the skin of freshwater tropical fish, places this organism within the dinophycean subclass Gymnodiniphycidae. This suggests a close relationship of Piscinoodinium spp. to dinoflagellates that include symbionts, e.g., species of Symbiodinium, and free-living algae, e.g., Gymnodinium spp. These molecular and morphological data suggest that evolution of this mode of fish ectoparasitism occurred independently in 2 distantly related groups of dinoflagellates, and they further suggest that the taxonomic status of parasites grouped as members of Piscinoodinium requires major revision.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Dinoflagelados/classificação , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes Listrados/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/análise , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Dinoflagelados/genética , Dinoflagelados/isolamento & purificação , Dinoflagelados/ultraestrutura , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/patologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Infecções por Protozoários/patologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
J Aquat Anim Health ; 19(1): 14-26, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18236628

RESUMO

In the spring of 1998, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute received numerous reports of lesioned or ulcerated fish primarily from the St. Lucie Estuary on the southeast coast of Florida, an area known since the late 1970s for lesions of the ulcerative mycosis (UM) type. From these and archived reports, as well as others received from different areas of Florida, we documented that diseased specimens had randomly distributed skin ulcers (usually reddened or hemorrhagic) with raised irregular margins and, in some cases, deeply penetrating hyphae in the surrounding muscle tissue. Since 1998, 256 fish (comprising 18 species) with ulcerative lesions (from 15 different locations) were confirmed with hyphae in fresh squash preparation or by histological evaluation. Squash preparations revealed nonseptate, sparsely branching, thick-walled hyphae; histological sections revealed mycotic granulomas in the dermis that occasionally penetrated into the skeletal muscle. These pathological characteristics were consistent with UM caused by the oomycete Aphanomyces invadans in Southeast Asia, Japan, Australia, and the United States. For specific identification, six isolates from ulcerated fish were cultured and prepared for molecular characterization using established diagnostic methods. Ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis identified three isolates as Aphanomyces invadans, one as the oomycete Achlya bisexualis, and two as the ascomycete Phialemonium dimorphosporum. A more extensive survey of 67 ulcerated skin samples from fish collected between 1998 and 2003 was performed using a polymerase chain reaction assay specific for Aphanomyces invadans. Of these, 26 (38.8%) samples from seven fish species and nine collection locations were positive. Confirmation of UM associated with Aphanomyces invadans represents new host records in Florida for the sheepshead Archosargus probatocephalus, striped mullet Mugil cephalus, white mullet Mugil curema, silver perch Bairdiella chrysoura, black drum Pogonias cromis, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and American shad Alosa sapidissima.


Assuntos
Aphanomyces/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Micoses/veterinária , Úlcera Cutânea/veterinária , Animais , Aphanomyces/isolamento & purificação , DNA Fúngico/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Peixes , Florida/epidemiologia , /microbiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Úlcera Cutânea/epidemiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/microbiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/patologia , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
J Aquat Anim Health ; 19(1): 41-8, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18236631

RESUMO

Based on isolations from naturally infected fish in Florida, we investigated the role of the fungi Aphanomyces invadans, Achlya bisexualis, and Phialemonium dimorphosporum in the etiology of ulcerative mycosis (UM) in striped mullet Mugil cephalus. We injected healthy striped mullet subcutaneously with secondary zoospores of four oomycete isolates: two concentrations (50 and 115 zoospores/mL) of SJR (an endemic isolate of Aphanomyces invadans in American shad Alosa sapidissima from the St. Johns River); two concentrations each of CAL (25 and 65 zoospores/mL) and ACH (1,400 and 2,000 zoospores/mL; endemic isolates of Aphanomyces invadans and Achlyva bisexualis, respectively, in striped mullet from the Caloosahatchee River); and two concentrations of the ascomycete culture MTZ (2,500 and 3,500 zoospores/mL; endemic isolate of P. dimorphosporum from whirligig mullet M. gyrans in the Matanzas Inlet). All fish injected with either concentration of SJR developed granulomatous ulcers after 8 d and died within 21 d. Eighty percent (8/10) of fish injected with the high dose of CAL developed ulcers after 13 d and died within 28 d, but only 30% (3/10) of fish injected with the low dose of CAL developed ulcers. Four of the ulcerated fish died within 28 d, and the remaining fish were terminated after 32 d. Fish injected with zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans developed ulcers that were grossly and histologically similar to those observed in naturally infected striped mullet with UM from several estuaries or rivers in Florida. These hemorrhagic skin ulcers were characterized by myonecrosis and the presence of mycotic granulomas. None of the fish injected with ACH, MTZ, or sterile water developed ulcers. This study fulfilled Koch's postulates and demonstrated that ulcers could be experimentally induced in striped mullet after exposure via injection to secondary zoospores of an endemic Florida strain of Aphanomyces invadans.


Assuntos
Achlya/patogenicidade , Aphanomyces/patogenicidade , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/veterinária , Smegmamorpha/microbiologia , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/mortalidade , /mortalidade , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/mortalidade , Micoses/veterinária , Úlcera Cutânea/microbiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/mortalidade , Esporos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Esporos Fúngicos/patogenicidade
16.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 72(2): 1551-7, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16461710

RESUMO

The pathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces invadans is the primary etiological agent in ulcerative mycosis, an ulcerative skin disease caused by a fungus-like agent of wild and cultured fish. We developed sensitive PCR and fluorescent peptide nucleic acid in situ hybridization (FISH) assays to detect A. invadans. Laboratory-challenged killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) were first tested to optimize and validate the assays. Skin ulcers of Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) from populations found in the Pamlico and Neuse River estuaries in North Carolina were then surveyed. Results from both assays indicated that all of the lesioned menhaden (n = 50) collected in September 2004 were positive for A. invadans. Neither the FISH assay nor the PCR assay cross-reacted with other closely related oomycetes. These results provided strong evidence that A. invadans is the primary oomycete pathogen in ulcerative mycosis and demonstrated the utility of the assays. The FISH assay is the first molecular assay to provide unambiguous visual confirmation that hyphae in the ulcerated lesions were exclusively A. invadans.


Assuntos
Aphanomyces/genética , Aphanomyces/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/veterinária , Micoses/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Animais , Aphanomyces/patogenicidade , Sequência de Bases , DNA Fúngico/genética , Peixes , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Micoses/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Úlcera Cutânea/microbiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/veterinária , Especificidade da Espécie
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