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1.
J Child Neurol ; : 883073819870944, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559893

RESUMO

Aicardi Goutières syndrome is a monogenic interferonopathy caused by abnormalities in the intracellular nucleic acid sensing machinery (TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR1, or IFIH1). Most individuals affected by Aicardi Goutières syndrome exhibit some degree of neurologic impairment, from spastic paraparesis with relatively preserved cognition to tetraparesis and severe intellectual disability. Because of this heterogeneity, it is important to fully characterize the developmental trajectory in Aicardi Goutières syndrome. To characterize the clinical presentation in Aicardi Goutières syndrome, early features were collected from an international cohort of children (n = 100) with genetically confirmed Aicardi Goutières syndrome. There was a heterogeneous age of onset, with overlapping clusters of presenting symptoms: altered mental status, systemic inflammatory symptoms, and acute neurologic disability. Next, we created genotype-specific developmental milestone acquisition curves. Individuals with microcephaly or TREX1-related Aicardi Goutières syndrome secondary were the most severely affected and less likely to reach milestones, including head control, sitting, and nonspecific mama/dada. Individuals affected by SAMHD1, IFIH1, and ADAR attained the most advanced milestones, with 44% achieving verbal communication and 31% independently ambulating. Retrospective function scales (Gross Motor Function Classification System, Manual Ability Classification System, and Communication Function Classification System) demonstrated that two-thirds of the Aicardi Goutières syndrome population are severely affected. Our results suggest multifactorial influences on developmental trajectory, including a strong contribution from genotype. Further studies are needed to identify the additional factors that influence overall outcomes to better counsel families and to design clinical trials with appropriate clinical endpoints.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 925-935, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982609

RESUMO

Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) plays key roles in regulating development and function of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, including microglia and osteoclasts. Mono-allelic mutations of CSF1R are known to cause hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS), an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Here, we report seven affected individuals from three unrelated families who had bi-allelic CSF1R mutations. In addition to early-onset HDLS-like neurological disorders, they had brain malformations and skeletal dysplasia compatible to dysosteosclerosis (DOS) or Pyle disease. We identified five CSF1R mutations that were homozygous or compound heterozygous in these affected individuals. Two of them were deep intronic mutations resulting in abnormal inclusion of intron sequences in the mRNA. Compared with Csf1r-null mice, the skeletal and neural phenotypes of the affected individuals appeared milder and variable, suggesting that at least one of the mutations in each affected individual is hypomorphic. Our results characterized a unique human skeletal phenotype caused by CSF1R deficiency and implied that bi-allelic CSF1R mutations cause a spectrum of neurological and skeletal disorders, probably depending on the residual CSF1R function.

3.
Pediatr Dev Pathol ; : 1093526619837797, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952201

RESUMO

Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a rare syndrome characterized by calcification, diffuse demyelination, and variable degree of brain atrophy. The syndrome is genetically heterogeneous with mutations in 7 genes, including TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR1, and IFIH1 (interferon-induced helicase c domain-containing protein 1) associated with the syndrome, so far. These mutations lead to the overproduction of α-interferon within the central nervous system. Mutations in IFIH1 have been recently described in a subset of AGS, with only 1 previous report of neuropathological findings. We report neuropathological findings in a second case of AGS with a known mutation in IFIH1 gene. The patient is a 16-year-old adolescent boy with early-onset symptoms that progressed to profound loss of cognitive and motor functions. The patient experienced sudden cardiopulmonary arrest at the age of 16 years. At autopsy, the cause of death was determined to be pulmonary thromboembolism. Neuropathological examination revealed microcephaly (brain weight: 916 g) with relatively mild brain atrophy on gross examination. Microscopic examination revealed multifocal calcifications limited to small to medium central nervous system arteries (no evidence of calcification in other organs), involving bilateral cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. Ultrastructural examination showed Calcospherules limited to the vessel walls and the perivasulcar area without evidence of neuronal ferrugination or tubuloreticular bodies. The extent of calcifications was variable across different brain regions, resembling findings in previously reported cases and correlated with the extent of IFIH1 protein expression (data derived from Allen Brain Institute). AGS is a rare cause of brain calcifications that can closely mimic congenital and neonatal infections such as Rubella and similar infections.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 40(8): 1013-1029, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021519

RESUMO

SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by alterations in the SATB2 gene. Here we present a review of published pathogenic variants in the SATB2 gene to date and report 38 novel alterations found in 57 additional previously unreported individuals. Overall, we present a compilation of 120 unique variants identified in 155 unrelated families ranging from single nucleotide coding variants to genomic rearrangements distributed throughout the entire coding region of SATB2. Single nucleotide variants predicted to result in the occurrence of a premature stop codon were the most commonly seen (51/120 = 42.5%) followed by missense variants (31/120 = 25.8%). We review the rather limited functional characterization of pathogenic variants and discuss current understanding of the consequences of the different molecular alterations. We present an expansive phenotypic review along with novel genotype-phenotype correlations. Lastly, we discuss current knowledge of animal models and present future prospects. This review should help provide better guidance for the care of individuals diagnosed with SAS.

5.
J Biol Chem ; 294(18): 7445-7459, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898877

RESUMO

RNA polymerase III (Pol III) is an essential enzyme responsible for the synthesis of several small noncoding RNAs, a number of which are involved in mRNA translation. Recessive mutations in POLR3A, encoding the largest subunit of Pol III, cause POLR3-related hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (POLR3-HLD), characterized by deficient central nervous system myelination. Identification of the downstream effectors of pathogenic POLR3A mutations has so far been elusive. Here, we used CRISPR-Cas9 to introduce the POLR3A mutation c.2554A→G (p.M852V) into human cell lines and assessed its impact on Pol III biogenesis, nuclear import, DNA occupancy, transcription, and protein levels. Transcriptomic profiling uncovered a subset of transcripts vulnerable to Pol III hypofunction, including a global reduction in tRNA levels. The brain cytoplasmic BC200 RNA (BCYRN1), involved in translation regulation, was consistently affected in all our cellular models, including patient-derived fibroblasts. Genomic BC200 deletion in an oligodendroglial cell line led to major transcriptomic and proteomic changes, having a larger impact than those of POLR3A mutations. Upon differentiation, mRNA levels of the MBP gene, encoding myelin basic protein, were significantly decreased in POLR3A-mutant cells. Our findings provide the first evidence for impaired Pol III transcription in cellular models of POLR3-HLD and identify several candidate effectors, including BC200 RNA, having a potential role in oligodendrocyte biology and involvement in the disease.

6.
Hum Mutat ; 40(5): 619-630, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740813

RESUMO

The lipid phosphatase gene FIG4 is responsible for Yunis-Varón syndrome and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Type 4J, a peripheral neuropathy. We now describe four families with FIG4 variants and prominent abnormalities of central nervous system (CNS) white matter (leukoencephalopathy), with onset in early childhood, ranging from severe hypomyelination to mild undermyelination, in addition to peripheral neuropathy. Affected individuals inherited biallelic FIG4 variants from heterozygous parents. Cultured fibroblasts exhibit enlarged vacuoles characteristic of FIG4 dysfunction. Two unrelated families segregate the same G > A variant in the +1 position of intron 21 in the homozygous state in one family and compound heterozygous in the other. This mutation in the splice donor site of exon 21 results in read-through from exon 20 into intron 20 and truncation of the final 115 C-terminal amino acids of FIG4, with retention of partial function. The observed CNS white matter disorder in these families is consistent with the myelination defects in the FIG4 null mouse and the known role of FIG4 in oligodendrocyte maturation. The families described here the expanded clinical spectrum of FIG4 deficiency to include leukoencephalopathy.

7.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1652-1656, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568308

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Brain malformations caused by 17p13.3 deletions include lissencephaly with deletions of the larger Miller-Dieker syndrome region or smaller deletions of only PAFAH1B1, white matter changes, and a distinct syndrome due to deletions including YWHAE and CRK but sparing PAFAH1B1. We sought to understand the significance of 17p13.3 deletions between the YWHAE/CRK and PAFAH1B1 loci. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical features of six individuals from five families with 17p13.3 deletions between and not including YWHAE/CRK and PAFAH1B1 identified among individuals undergoing clinical chromosomal microarray testing or research genome sequencing. RESULTS: Five individuals from four families had multifocal white matter lesions while a sixth had a normal magnetic resonance image. A combination of our individuals and a review of those in the literature with white matter changes and deletions in this chromosomal region narrows the overlapping region for this brain phenotype to ~345 kb, including 11 RefSeq genes, with RTN4RL1 haploinsufficiency as the best candidate for causing this phenotype. CONCLUSION: While previous literature has hypothesized dysmorphic features and white matter changes related to YWHAE, our cohort contributes evidence to the presence of additional genetic changes within 17p13.3 required for proper brain development.

8.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 14(12): 749, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442924

RESUMO

In the original version of this Review published online and in print, the contribution of attendees of the International Neuroimmune Meeting to the content of the Review was not acknowledged. The author list has been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of this article to acknowledge that the Review was written on behalf of attendees of the International Neuroimmune Meeting, and the names of the attendees have been added to the HTML version.

9.
Mol Genet Metab ; 125(4): 351-358, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219631

RESUMO

While pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a potentially life threatening complication of many inflammatory conditions, an association between Aicardi Goutières syndrome (AGS), a rare genetic cause of interferon (IFN) overproduction, and the development of PH has not been characterized to date. We analyzed the cardiac function of individuals with AGS enrolled in the Myelin Disorders Bioregistry Project using retrospective chart review (n = 61). Additional prospective echocardiograms were obtained when possible (n = 22). An IFN signature score, a marker of systemic inflammation, was calculated through the measurement of mRNA transcripts of type I IFN-inducible genes (interferon signaling genes or ISG). Pathologic analysis was performed as available from autopsy samples. Within our cohort, four individuals were identified to be affected by PH: three with pathogenic gain-of-function mutations in the IFIH1 gene and one with heterozygous TREX1 mutations. All studied individuals with AGS were noted to have elevated IFN signature scores (Mann-Whitney p < .001), with the highest levels in individuals with IFIH1 mutations (Mann-Whitney p < .0001). We present clinical and histologic evidence of PH in a series of four individuals with AGS, a rare interferonopathy. Importantly, IFIH1 and TREX1 may represent a novel cause of PH. Furthermore, these findings underscore the importance of screening all individuals with AGS for PH.

11.
Pediatr Neurol ; 84: 21-26, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We attempted to characterize the health-related quality of life in patients with genetically determined leukoencephalopathies as it relates to the severity of clinical features and the presence or absence of a precise molecular diagnosis. METHODS: Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory model (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Self- and Proxy-reports) on 59 patients diagnosed with genetically determined leukoencephalopathies. In total, 38 male and 21 female patients ranging from one to 32 years of age (mean nine years), as well as their parents, completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory health-related quality of life measures. In addition, participants completed detailed standardized clinical assessments or questionnaires. The correlation between health-related quality of life results and the severity of the clinical features, as well as the presence or absence of a molecular diagnosis, were analyzed. RESULTS: Patients with more severe clinical features showed statistically significant lower total Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory scores. More specifically, lower health-related quality of life was noted in children with sialorrhea, gastrostomy, and dystonia and in children who use a wheelchair. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with more severe clinical features experience a lower quality of life. Our study further highlights the importance of addressing both physical and psychosocial issues and discussing perception of quality of life with both parents and children. A larger multicenter prospective study will be needed to further define the burden of these diseases and to identify modifiable factors.

12.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 14(7): 433-445, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925924

RESUMO

Immune-mediated disorders of the CNS in children are a complex group of demyelinating, inflammatory, parainfectious and postinfectious disorders with heterogeneous pathobiological mechanisms and clinical manifestations, often associated with fundamental derangement in immune regulation. In this Review, we aim to provide an update on our knowledge of neuroimmune disorders and highlight areas of research that are priorities for improving clinical management. We outline the clinical features of neuroimmune disorders, the current approaches to their treatment and new approaches in development. We then consider the pathological features, including biomarkers, pathological mechanisms and genetics, and discuss the value of immune assays in clinical investigation and basic research. On the basis of current knowledge and techniques, we propose four research priorities: rigorous and consistent collection of core clinical data, cooperative investigation of treatments, development of biological assays and genetic studies. These priorities should help us to achieve the shared goal of precision medicine for neuroimmune disorders. However, multicentre research and the creation of clinical consortia for these rare disorders will be necessary, and we hope that this Review serves as a call to action that is timely given current exciting advances in neuroimmune therapeutics.

13.
J Child Neurol ; 33(10): 642-650, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882456

RESUMO

Leukodystrophies and genetic leukoencephalopathies are a heterogeneous group of heritable disorders that affect the glial-axonal unit. As more patients with unsolved leukodystrophies and genetic leukoencephalopathies undergo next generation sequencing, causative mutations in genes leading to central hypomyelination are being identified. Two such individuals presented with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy, and central hypomyelination with early respiratory failure. Whole exome sequencing identified biallelic mutations in the CNTNAP1 gene: homozygous c.1163G>C (p.Arg388Pro) and compound heterozygous c.967T>C (p.Cys323Arg) and c.319C>T (p.Arg107*). Sural nerve and quadriceps muscle biopsies demonstrated progressive, severe onion bulb and axonal pathology. By ultrastructural evaluation, septate axoglial paranodal junctions were absent from nodes of Ranvier. Serial brain magnetic resonance images revealed hypomyelination, progressive atrophy, and reduced diffusion in the globus pallidus in both patients. These 2 families illustrate severe progressive peripheral demyelinating neuropathy due to the absence of septate paranodal junctions and central hypomyelination with neurodegeneration in CNTNAP1-associated arthrogryposis multiplex congenita.

14.
Brain Pathol ; 28(3): 399-407, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740948

RESUMO

Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is an early-onset, autoimmune and genetically heterogeneous disorder with severe neurologic injury. Molecular studies have established that autosomal recessive mutations in one of the following genes are causative: TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR1 and IFIH1/MDA5. The phenotypic presentation and pathophysiology of AGS is associated with over-production of the cytokine Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) and its downstream signaling, characterized as type I interferonopathy. Astrocytes are one of the major source of IFN in the central nervous system (CNS) and it is proposed that they could be key players in AGS pathology. Astrocytes are the most ubiquitous glial cell in the CNS and perform a number of crucial and complex functions ranging from formation of blood-brain barrier, maintaining ionic homeostasis, metabolic support to synapse formation and elimination in healthy CNS. Involvement of astrocytic dysfunction in neurological diseases-Alexander's disease, Epilepsy, Alzheimer's and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-has been well-established. It is now known that compromised astrocytic function can contribute to CNS abnormalities and severe neurodegeneration, nevertheless, its contribution in AGS is unclear. The current review discusses known molecular and cellular pathways for AGS mutations and how it stimulates IFN-α signaling. We shed light on how astrocytes might be key players in the phenotypic presentations of AGS and emphasize the cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous role of astrocytes. Understanding the contribution of astrocytes will help reveal mechanisms underlying interferonopathy and develop targeted astrocyte specific therapeutic treatments in AGS.

15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(6): 1443-1448, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696782

RESUMO

Early-onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs) are a genetically heterogeneous collection of severe epilepsies often associated with psychomotor regression. Mutations in SZT2, a known seizure threshold regulator gene, are a newly identified cause of EOEE. We present an individual with EOEE, macrocephaly, and developmental regression with compound heterozygous mutations in SZT2 as identified by whole exome sequencing. Serial imaging characterized the novel finding of progressive loss of central myelination. This case expands our clinical understanding of the SZT2-phenotype and emphasizes the role of this gene in the diagnostic investigation for EOEE and leukoencephalopathies.

16.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 148: 669-692, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478607

RESUMO

Unique clinical presentations and magnetic resonance imaging patterns can help differentiate the various adult presentations of leukodystrophies and leukoencephalopathies. White-matter disorders are genetically based disorders affecting the central nervous system white matter, with or without peripheral nervous system involvement. These disorders predominantly affect patients in the pediatric population; however, a number of classic leukodystrophies can present in adulthood. Disease progression can be of variable onset with a broad range of symptoms, usually progressing from cognitive dysfunction. Recognition of specific disorders can have important implications for treatment, involvement of multidisciplinary services, and important conversations surrounding social issues the families may face. The focus of this chapter is to highlight the adult presentations of the classic childhood-onset leukodystrophies as well as to describe leukodystrophies which predominantly present in adulthood.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Leucoencefalopatias , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Leucoencefalopatias/patologia
17.
Mol Genet Metab ; 123(3): 337-346, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29397290

RESUMO

Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is an ultra-rare neurodegenerative disorder that results in defective sulfatase post-translational modification. Sulfatases in the body are activated by a unique protein, formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE) that is encoded by SUMF1. When FGE is absent or insufficient, all 17 known human sulfatases are affected, including the enzymes associated with metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), several mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS II, IIIA, IIID, IVA, VI), chondrodysplasia punctata, and X-linked ichthyosis. As such, individuals demonstrate a complex and severe clinical phenotype that has not been fully characterized to date. In this report, we describe two individuals with distinct clinical presentations of MSD. Also, we detail a comprehensive systems-based approach to the management of individuals with MSD, from the initial diagnostic evaluation to unique multisystem issues and potential management options. As there have been no natural history studies to date, the recommendations within this report are based on published studies and consensus opinion and underscore the need for future research on evidence-based outcomes to improve management of children with MSD.

18.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 14(2): 94-105, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29302065

RESUMO

The leukodystrophies are a group of inherited white matter disorders with a heterogeneous genetic background, considerable phenotypic variability and disease onset at all ages. This Review focuses on leukodystrophies with major prevalence or primary onset in adulthood. We summarize 20 leukodystrophies with adult presentations, providing information on the underlying genetic mutations and on biochemical assays that aid diagnosis, where available. Definitions, clinical characteristics, age of onset, MRI findings and treatment options are all described, providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of the various adulthood leukodystrophies. We highlight the distinction between adult-onset leukodystrophies and other inherited disorders with white matter involvement, and we propose a diagnostic pathway for timely recognition of adulthood leukodystrophies in a routine clinical setting. In addition, we provide detailed clinical information on selected adult-onset leukodystrophies, including X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, metachromatic leukodystrophy, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids, autosomal dominant adult-onset demyelinating leukodystrophy, adult polyglucosan body disease, and leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. Ultimately, this Review aims to provide helpful suggestions to identify treatable adulthood leukodystrophies at an early stage in the disease course.

19.
Brain ; 140(10): 2550-2556, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28969374

RESUMO

Hypomyelinating leukodystrophies are genetically heterogeneous disorders with overlapping clinical and neuroimaging features reflecting variable abnormalities in myelin formation. We report on the identification of biallelic inactivating mutations in NKX6-2, a gene encoding a transcription factor regulating multiple developmental processes with a main role in oligodendrocyte differentiation and regulation of myelin-specific gene expression, as the cause underlying a previously unrecognized severe variant of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy. Five affected subjects (three unrelated families) were documented to share biallelic inactivating mutations affecting the NKX6-2 homeobox domain. A trio-based whole exome sequencing analysis in the first family detected a homozygous frameshift change [c.606delinsTA; p.(Lys202Asnfs*?)]. In the second family, homozygosity mapping coupled to whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous nucleotide substitution (c.565G>T) introducing a premature stop codon (p.Glu189*). In the third family, whole exome sequencing established compound heterozygosity for a non-conservative missense change affecting a key residue participating in DNA binding (c.599G>A; p.Arg200Gln) and a nonsense substitution (c.589C>T; p.Gln197*), in both affected siblings. The clinical presentation was homogeneous, with four subjects having severe motor delays, nystagmus and absent head control, and one individual showing gross motor delay at the age of 6 months. All exhibited neuroimaging that was consistent with hypomyelination. These findings define a novel, severe form of leukodystrophy caused by impaired NKX6-2 function.


Assuntos
Genes Homeobox/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucoencefalopatias/patologia , Leucoencefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(22): 4506-4518, 2017 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973395

RESUMO

Hypomyelinating leukodystrophies are heritable disorders defined by lack of development of brain myelin, but the cellular mechanisms of hypomyelination are often poorly understood. Mutations in TUBB4A, encoding the tubulin isoform tubulin beta class IVA (Tubb4a), result in the symptom complex of hypomyelination with atrophy of basal ganglia and cerebellum (H-ABC). Additionally, TUBB4A mutations are known to result in a broad phenotypic spectrum, ranging from primary dystonia (DYT4), isolated hypomyelination with spastic quadriplegia, and an infantile onset encephalopathy, suggesting multiple cell types may be involved. We present a study of the cellular effects of TUBB4A mutations responsible for H-ABC (p.Asp249Asn), DYT4 (p.Arg2Gly), a severe combined phenotype with hypomyelination and encephalopathy (p.Asn414Lys), as well as milder phenotypes causing isolated hypomyelination (p.Val255Ile and p.Arg282Pro). We used a combination of histopathological, biochemical and cellular approaches to determine how these different mutations may have variable cellular effects in neurons and/or oligodendrocytes. Our results demonstrate that specific mutations lead to either purely neuronal, combined neuronal and oligodendrocytic or purely oligodendrocytic defects that closely match their respective clinical phenotypes. Thus, the DYT4 mutation that leads to phenotypes attributable to neuronal dysfunction results in altered neuronal morphology, but with unchanged tubulin quantity and polymerization, with normal oligodendrocyte morphology and myelin gene expression. Conversely, mutations associated with isolated hypomyelination (p.Val255Ile and p.Arg282Pro) and the severe combined phenotype (p.Asn414Lys) resulted in normal neuronal morphology but were associated with altered oligodendrocyte morphology, myelin gene expression, and microtubule dysfunction. The H-ABC mutation (p.Asp249Asn) that exhibits a combined neuronal and myelin phenotype had overlapping cellular defects involving both neuronal and oligodendrocyte cell types in vitro. Only mutations causing hypomyelination phenotypes showed altered microtubule dynamics and acted through a dominant toxic gain of function mechanism. The DYT4 mutation had no impact on microtubule dynamics suggesting a distinct mechanism of action. In summary, the different clinical phenotypes associated with TUBB4A reflect the selective and specific cellular effects of the causative mutations. Cellular specificity of disease pathogenesis is relevant to developing targeted treatments for this disabling condition.


Assuntos
Neurônios/patologia , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Atrofia/patologia , Gânglios da Base/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Catarata/congênito , Catarata/genética , Catarata/metabolismo , Catarata/patologia , Cerebelo/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Células HeLa , Doenças Desmielinizantes Hereditárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Doenças Desmielinizantes Hereditárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Doenças Desmielinizantes Hereditárias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Humanos , Leucodistrofia Metacromática/genética , Leucodistrofia Metacromática/metabolismo , Leucodistrofia Metacromática/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Microtúbulos/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Bainha de Mielina/genética , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
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