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1.
Environ Int ; 158: 106906, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607040

RESUMO

FLEXiGUT is the first large-scale exposomics study focused on chronic low-grade inflammation. It aims to characterize human life course environmental exposure to assess and validate its impact on gut inflammation and related biological processes and diseases. The cumulative influences of environmental and food contaminants throughout the lifespan on certain biological responses related to chronic gut inflammation will be investigated in two Flemish prospective cohorts, namely the "ENVIRONAGE birth cohort", which provides follow-up from gestation to early childhood, and the "Flemish Gut Flora Project longitudinal cohort", a cohort of adults. The exposome will be characterised through biomonitoring of legacy and emerging contaminants, mycotoxins and markers of air pollution, by analysing the available metadata on nutrition, location and activity, and by applying state-of-the-art -omics techniques, including metagenomics, metabolomics and DNA adductomics, as well as the assessment of telomere length and measurement of inflammatory markers, to encompass both exposure and effect. Associations between exposures and health outcomes will be uncovered using an integrated -omics data analysis framework comprising data exploration, pre-processing, dimensionality reduction and data mining, combined with machine learning-based pathway analysis approaches. This is expected to lead to a more profound insight in mechanisms underlying disease progression (e.g. metabolic disorders, food allergies, gastrointestinal cancers) and/or accelerated biological ageing.

2.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2100536, 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648231

RESUMO

SCOPE: IgE-mediated food allergies (IgE-FA) are characterized by an ever-increasing prevalence, currently reaching up to 10.4% of children in the European Union. Metabolomics has the potential to provide a deeper understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms behind IgE-FA. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this work, literature was systematically searched using Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and Embase, from January 2010 until May 2021 including human and animal metabolomic studies on multiple biofluids (urine, blood, feces). In total, 15 studies on IgE-FA were retained and a dataset of 277 potential biomarkers was compiled for in-depth pathway mapping. Decreased IDO-1 activity was hypothesized due to altered plasma levels of tryptophan and its metabolites in IgE-FA children. In feces of children prior to IgE-FA, aberrant metabolization of sphingolipids and histidine was noted. Decreased fecal levels of (branched) SCFAs compelled a shift towards aerobic glycolysis and suggested dysbiosis, associated with an immune system shift towards Th2 responses. During animal anaphylaxis a similar switch towards glycolysis was observed, combined with increased ketogenic pathways. Additionally, altered histidine, purine, pyrimidine and lipid pathways were observed. CONCLUSION: To conclude, this work confirms the unprecedented opportunities of metabolomics and supports the in-depth pathophysiological qualification in the quest towards improved diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for IgE-FA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1177: 338760, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482897

RESUMO

Beta-lactam antibiotics are of vital importance for the treatment of infections in a broad range of patients. Although most systemically administered antibiotics will be excreted renally, a fraction will reach the gastro-intestinal tract, affecting the intestinal microbiome by eradicating a wide range of bacterial species while facilitating the growth of antimicrobial-resistant species. A better understanding of the kinetics of beta-lactam antibiotics in the gastro-intestinal tract is essential to study their role in the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and to help develop future therapies to prevent damage to, or restore, the intestinal microbiome. Analysis of beta-lactam antibiotics in faeces is particularly challenging due to the heterogeneous nature of the matrix, rapid degradation of some beta-lactam antibiotics in faeces and very strong ion suppression when using mass spectrometry. Sample preparation was optimized using a sequential strategy of experimental designs. It resulted in lyophilization, a MOPS buffer system and the addition of the beta-lactamase inhibitor avibactam to minimize degradation of antibiotics allowing sensitive quantification. The developed liquid chromatography method with high-resolution mass spectrometric detection was successfully validated according to bioanalytical EMA guidelines and had a linear range of 1-200 µg g-1 lyophilized faeces for amoxicillin, piperacillin and meropenem; and 0.5-100 µg g-1 lyophilized faeces for tazobactam. Despite the highly complex and heterogeneous composition of faeces, the accuracy (0.1-15%) and precision (1.7-12.1%) were in line with those obtained for quantification methods of beta-lactam antibiotics in plasma, the golden standard matrix for therapeutic drug monitoring. The applicability of the method was illustrated by successful quantification of piperacillin and tazobactam in faeces from an intensive care unit patient receiving piperacillin/tazobactam in a continuous intravenous infusion. Both piperacillin and tazobactam were still present six days after discontinuation of the therapy.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina , Piperacilina , Antibacterianos , Cromatografia Líquida , Fezes , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Meropeném , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tazobactam
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17249, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446738

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most lethal disease worldwide. Despite an urgent need for therapeutic advance, selective target identification in a preclinical phase is hampered by molecular and metabolic variations between cellular models. To foster optimal model selection from a translational perspective, we performed untargeted ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry-based polar metabolomics and lipidomics to non-transformed (CCD841-CON and FHC) and transformed (HCT116, HT29, Caco2, SW480 and SW948) colon cell lines as well as tissue samples from ten colorectal cancer patients. This unveiled metabolic signatures discriminating the transformed from the non-transformed state. Metabolites involved in glutaminolysis, tryptophan catabolism, pyrimidine, lipid and carnitine synthesis were elevated in transformed cells and cancerous tissue, whereas those involved in the glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle, urea cycle and redox reactions were lowered. The degree of glutaminolysis and lipid synthesis was specific to the colon cancer cell line at hand. Thus, our study exposed pathways that are specifically associated with the transformation state and revealed differences between colon cancer cell lines that should be considered when targeting cancer-associated pathways.

5.
Nat Protoc ; 16(9): 4327-4354, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341579

RESUMO

Of the many metabolites involved in any clinical condition, only a narrow range of biomarkers is currently being used in the clinical setting. A key to personalized medicine would be to extend this range. Metabolic fingerprinting provides a more comprehensive insight, but many methods used for metabolomics analysis are too complex and time-consuming to be diagnostically useful. Here, a rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) system for direct ex vivo real-time analysis of biofluids with minor sample pretreatment is detailed. The REIMS can be linked to various laser wavelength systems (such as optical parametric oscillator or CO2 laser) and with automation for high-throughput analysis. Laser-induced sample evaporation occurs within seconds through radiative heating with the plume guided to the MS instrument. The presented procedure includes (i) laser setup with automation, (ii) analysis of biofluids (blood/urine/stool/saliva/sputum/breast milk) and (iii) data analysis. We provide the optimal settings for biofluid analysis and quality control, enabling sensitive, precise and robust analysis. Using the automated setup, 96 samples can be analyzed in ~35-40 min per ionization mode, with no intervention required. Metabolic fingerprints are made up of 2,000-4,000 features, for which relative quantification can be achieved at high repeatability when total ion current normalization is applied. With saliva and feces as example matrices, >70% of features had a coefficient of variance ≤30%. However, to achieve acceptable long-term reproducibility, additional normalizations by, e.g., LOESS are recommended, especially for positive ionization.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Líquidos Corporais/química , Humanos , Lasers de Gás , Lasers de Estado Sólido
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16167, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373532

RESUMO

Hirschsprung's disease (HD) is a congenital structural abnormality of the colon seen in approximately 1 to 5000 live births. Despite surgical correction shortly after presentation, up to 60% of patients will express long-term gastrointestinal complaints, including potentially life-threatening Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC). In this study fecal samples from postoperative HD patients (n = 38) and their healthy siblings (n = 21) were analysed using high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry aiming to further unravel the nature of the chronic gastrointestinal disturbances. Furthermore, within the patient group, we compared the faecal metabolome between patients with and without a history of HAEC as well as those diagnosed with short or long aganglionic segment. Targeted analysis identified several individual metabolites characteristic for all HD patients as well as those with a history of HAEC and long segment HD. Moreover, multivariate models based on untargeted data established statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences in comprehensive faecal metabolome in the patients' cohort as a whole and in patients with a history of HAEC. Pathway analysis revealed the most impact on amino sugar, lysine, sialic acid, hyaluronan and heparan sulphate metabolism in HD, as well as impaired tyrosine metabolism in HAEC group. Those changes imply disruption of intestinal mucosal barrier due to glycosaminoglycan breakdown and dysbiosis as major metabolic changes in patients' group and should be further explored for potential diagnostic or treatment targets.

7.
Water Res ; 202: 117422, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280807

RESUMO

The anaerobic digestion microbiome has been puzzling us since the dawn of molecular methods for mixed microbial community analysis. Monitoring of the anaerobic digestion microbiome can either take place via a non-targeted holistic evaluation of the microbial community through fingerprinting or by targeted monitoring of selected taxa. Here, we compared four different microbial community fingerprinting methods, i.e., amplicon sequencing, metaproteomics, metabolomics and cytomics, in their ability to characterise the full-scale anaerobic digestion microbiome. Cytometric fingerprinting through cytomics reflects a, for anaerobic digestion, novel, single cell-based approach of direct microbial community fingerprinting by flow cytometry. Three different digester types, i.e., sludge digesters, digesters treating agro-industrial waste and dry anaerobic digesters, each reflected different operational parameters. The α-diversity analysis yielded inconsistent results, especially for richness, across the different methods. In contrast, ß-diversity analysis resulted in comparable profiles, even when translated into phyla or functions, with clear separation of the three digester types. In-depth analysis of each method's features i.e., operational taxonomic units, metaproteins, metabolites, and cytometric traits, yielded certain similar features, yet, also some clear differences between the different methods, which was related to the complexity of the anaerobic digestion process. In conclusion, cytometric fingerprinting through flow cytometry is a reliable, fast method for holistic monitoring of the anaerobic digestion microbiome, and the complementary identification of key features through other methods could give rise to a direct interpretation of anaerobic digestion process performance.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Microbiota , Anaerobiose , Metano , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Esgotos
8.
Amino Acids ; 53(8): 1269-1277, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264387

RESUMO

Carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide present in an omnivorous diet, has been shown to ameliorate the development of metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes (T2D) and early- and advanced-stage diabetic nephropathy in different rodent models. Anserine, its methylated analogue, is more bio-available in humans upon supplementation without affecting its functionality. In this work, we investigated the effect of oral supplementation with anserine or carnosine on circulating and tissue anserine and carnosine levels and on the development of T2D and diabetic nephropathy in BTBR ob/ob mice. BTBR ob/ob mice were either supplemented with carnosine or anserine in drinking water (4 mM) for 18 weeks and compared with non-supplemented BTBR ob/ob and wild-type (WT) mice. Circulating and kidney, but not muscle, carnosine, and anserine levels were enhanced by supplementation with the respective dipeptides in ob/ob mice compared to non-treated ob/ob mice. The evolution of fasting blood glucose, insulin, fructosamine, triglycerides, and cholesterol was not affected by the supplementation regimens. The albumin/creatine ratio, glomerular hypertrophy, and mesangial matrix expansion were aggravated in ob/ob vs. WT mice, but not alleviated by supplementation. To conclude, long-term supplementation with anserine elevates circulating and kidney anserine levels in diabetic mice. However, anserine supplementation was not able to attenuate the development of T2D or diabetic nephropathy in BTBR ob/ob mice. Further research will have to elucidate whether anserine can attenuate milder forms of T2D or metabolic syndrome.

9.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 32(6): 1393-1401, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980015

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry has established itself as a powerful tool in the chemical, biological, medical, environmental, and agricultural fields. However, experimental approaches and potential application areas have been limited by a traditional reliance on sample preparation, extraction, and chromatographic separation. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry methods have addressed this challenge but are still somewhat restricted in requirements for sample manipulation to make it suitable for analysis. These limitations are particularly restrictive in view of the move toward high-throughput and automated analytical workflows. To address this, we present what we consider to be the first automated sample-preparation-free mass spectrometry platform utilizing a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser for sample thermal desorption linked to the rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (LA-REIMS) methodology. We show that the pulsatile operation of the CO2 laser is the primary factor in achieving high signal-to-noise ratios. We further show that the LA-REIMS automated platform is suited to the analysis of three diverse biological materials within different application areas. First, clinical microbiology isolates were classified to species level with an accuracy of 97.2%, the highest accuracy reported in current literature. Second, fecal samples from a type 2 diabetes mellitus cohort were analyzed with LA-REIMS, which allowed tentative identification of biomarkers which are potentially associated with disease pathogenesis and a disease classification accuracy of 94%. Finally, we showed the ability of the LA-REIMS system to detect instances of adulteration of cooking oil and determine the geographical area of production of three protected olive oil products with 100% classification accuracy.

10.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915836

RESUMO

State-of-the-art virus detection technology has advanced a lot, yet technology to evaluate the impacts of viruses on bee physiology and health is basically lacking. However, such technology is sorely needed to understand how multi-host viruses can impact the composition of the bee community. Here, we evaluated the potential of hemolymph metabolites as biomarkers to identify the viral infection status in bees. A metabolomics strategy based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry was implemented. First, we constructed a predictive model for standardized bumble bees, in which non-infected bees were metabolically differentiated from an overt Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) infection (R2Y = 0.993; Q2 = 0.906), as well as a covert slow bee paralysis virus (SBPV) infection (R2Y = 0.999; Q2 = 0.875). Second, two sets of potential biomarkers were identified, being descriptors for the metabolomic changes in the bee's hemolymph following viral infection. Third, the biomarker sets were evaluated in a new dataset only containing wild bees and successfully discriminated virus infection versus non-virus infection with an AUC of 0.985. We concluded that screening hemolymph metabolite markers can underpin physiological changes linked to virus infection dynamics, opening promising avenues to identify, monitor, and predict the effects of virus infection in a bee community within a specific environment.


Assuntos
Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Varroidae/virologia , Viroses/veterinária , Vírus/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Hemolinfa/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 6184-6196, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843191

RESUMO

To date, few studies have examined the role of sea spray aerosols (SSAs) in human exposure to harmful and beneficial marine compounds. Two groups of phycotoxins (brevetoxins and ovatoxins) have been reported to induce respiratory syndromes during harmful algal blooms. The aerosolization and coastal air concentrations of other common marine phycotoxins have, however, never been examined. This study provides the first (experimental) evidence and characterization of the aerosolization of okadaic acid (OA), homoyessotoxin, and dinophysistoxin-1 using seawater spiked with toxic algae combined with the realistic SSA production in a marine aerosol reference tank (MART). The potential for aerosolization of these phycotoxins was highlighted by their 78- to 1769-fold enrichment in SSAs relative to the subsurface water. To obtain and support these results, we first developed an analytical method for the determination of phycotoxin concentrations in SSAs, which showed good linearity (R2 > 0.99), recovery (85.3-101.8%), and precision (RSDs ≤ 17.2%). We also investigated natural phycotoxin air concentrations by means of in situ SSA sampling with concurrent aerosolization experiments using natural seawater in the MART. This approach allowed us to indirectly quantify the (harmless) magnitude of OA concentrations (0.6-51 pg m-3) in Belgium's coastal air. Overall, this study provides new insights into the enriched aerosolization of marine compounds and proposes a framework to assess their airborne exposure and effects on human health.


Assuntos
Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Água do Mar , Aerossóis , Humanos , Oceanos e Mares , Água
12.
Metabolites ; 11(2)2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668448

RESUMO

Gram-negative bacteria have a well-known impact on the disease state of neonatal calves and their mortality. This study was the first to implement untargeted metabolomics on calves' fecal samples to unravel the effect of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this context, calves were challenged with LPS and administered with fish oil, nanocurcumin, or dexamethasone to evaluate treatment effects. Ultra-high-performance liquid-chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) was employed to map fecal metabolic fingerprints from the various groups before and after LPS challenge. Based on the generated fingerprints, including 9650 unique feature ions, significant separation according to LPS group was achieved through orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (Q2 of 0.57 and p-value of 0.022), which allowed the selection of 37 metabolites as bacterial endotoxin markers. Tentative identification of these markers suggested that the majority belonged to the subclass of the carboxylic acid derivatives-amino acids, peptides, and analogs-and fatty amides, with these subclasses playing a role in the metabolism of steroids, histidine, glutamate, and folate. Biological interpretations supported the revealed markers' potential to aid in disease diagnosis, whereas beneficial effects were observed following dexamethasone, fish oil, and nanocurcumin treatment.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 777: 146055, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684757

RESUMO

A promising concept for sampling contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) using a home-made Simple Teabag Equilibrium Passive Sampler (STEPS) containing hydrophilic divinylbenzene (h-DVB) sorbent is presented and evaluated for application in estuarine systems. The uptake of a multi-class mixture of CECs with a broad polarity range (Log P ranging from -0.1 to 9.9) was investigated in static exposure batch experiments. Sampling rates (Rs) and equilibrium partitioning coefficients (Ksw) were determined for up to 74 CECs. Fast uptake (Rs = 0.3-12 L d-1) was noticed and the STEPS attained equilibrium partitioning after 1 to 2 weeks of exposure, with Log Ksw ranging from 4.1 to 6.5 L kg-1. Field application of this novel h-DVB containing STEPS, followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry, revealed the presence of up to 40 steroidal hormones, (alkyl)phenols, phthalates, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides in the Belgian Part of the North Sea. The measured trace concentrations (from 0.003 ng L-1 to 1.9 µg L-1) and good precision (average RSD < 30%, n = 3) demonstrate the STEPS as fit-for-purpose for micropollutant analysis in the marine environment.

14.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 65(7): e2000463, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550692

RESUMO

SCOPE: The consumption of red and processed meat, and not white meat, associates with the development of various Western diseases such as colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes. This work aims at unraveling novel meat-associated mechanisms that are involved in disease development. METHODS AND RESULTS: A non-hypothesis driven strategy of untargeted metabolomics is applied to assess colon tissue from rats (fed a high dose of beef vs. white meat) and from pigs (fed red/processed meat vs. white meat), receiving a realistic human background diet. An increased carnitine metabolism is observed, which is reflected by higher levels of acylcarnitines and 3-dehydroxycarnitine (rats and pigs) and trimethylamine-N-oxide (rats). While 3-dehydroxycarnitine is higher in HT29 cells, incubated with colonic beef digests, acylcarnitine levels are reduced. This suggests an altered response from colon cancer cell line towards meat-induced oxidative stress. Moreover, metabolic differences between rat and pigs are observed in N-glycolylneuraminic acid incorporation, prostaglandin, and fatty acid synthesis. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates elevated (acyl)carnitine metabolism in colon tissue of animals that follow a red meat-based diet, providing mechanistic insights that may aid in explaining the nutritional-physiological correlation between red/processed meat and Western diseases.

15.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138291

RESUMO

In order to investigate the effect and appropriate dose of prebiotics, this study evaluated the effect of two levels of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) in cats. Twenty-four healthy adult cats were divided into three groups: no-XOS control diet with 1% cellulose; low XOS supplementation (LXOS) with 0.04% XOS and 0.96% cellulose; and high XOS supplementation (HXOS) with 0.40% XOS and 0.60% cellulose. Both XOS groups increased blood 3-hydroxybutyryl carnitine levels and decreased hexadecanedioyl carnitine levels. Both XOS treatments displayed an increased bacterial abundance of Blautia, Clostridium XI, and Collinsella and a decreased abundance of Megasphaera and Bifidobacterium. LXOS groups increased fecal pH and bacterial abundance of Streptococcus and Lactobacillus, decreased blood glutaryl carnitine concentration, and Catenibacterium abundance. HXOS group showed a more distinct microbiome profile and higher species richness, and an increased bacterial abundance of Subdoligranulum, Ruminococcaceae genus (unassigned genus), Erysipelotrichaceae genus, and Lachnospiraceae. Correlations between bacterial abundances and blood and fecal parameters were also observed. In conclusion, XOS could benefit feline gut health by altering microbiota; its effects dependant on the dose. The higher-dose XOS increased bacterial populations that possibly promoted intestinal fermentation, while the lower dose altered populations of carbohydrate-metabolic microbiota and possibly modulated host metabolism. Low-dose prebiotics may become a trend in future studies.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bactérias , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucuronatos/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gatos , Feminino
16.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241048, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119670

RESUMO

To prevent transmission of the pathogenic chytrid fungi Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), hygiene protocols prescribe the single use of disposable gloves for handling amphibians. We discovered that rinse water from nitrile gloves instantly kills 99% of Bd and Bsal zoospores. Transmission experiments using midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans) and Bd, and Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) and Bsal, show that the use of the same pair of gloves for 2 subsequent individuals does not result in significant transmission of any chytrid fungus. In contrast, handling infected amphibians bare-handed caused transmission of Bsal in 4 out of 10 replicates, but did not result in transmission of Bd. Based on the manufacturer's information, high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and colorimetric tests, calcium lactate and calcium nitrate were identified as compounds with antifungal activity against both Bd and Bsal. These findings corroborate the importance of wearing gloves as an important sanitary measure in amphibian disease prevention. If the highly recommended single use of gloves is not possible, handling multiple post-metamorphic amphibians with the same pair of nitrile gloves should still be preferred above bare-handed manipulation.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Quitridiomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Luvas Protetoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene/normas , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Compostos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Quitridiomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quitridiomicetos/patogenicidade , Humanos , Lactatos/farmacologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/transmissão , Nitratos/farmacologia
17.
Meat Sci ; : 108333, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067082

RESUMO

Increasing demands are being placed on meat producers to verify more about their product with regards to safety, quality and authenticity. There are many methods that can detect aspects of these parameters in meat, yet most are too slow to keep up with the demands of modern meat processing plants and supply chains. A new technology, Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS), has the potential to bridge the gap between advanced laboratory measurements and technology that can screen for quality, safety and authenticity parameters in a single measurement. Analysis with REIMS generates a detailed mass spectral fingerprint representative of a meat sample without the need for sample processing. REIMS has successfully been used to detect species fraud, detect use of hormones in meat animals, monitor meat processing and to detect off flavours such as boar taint. The aim of this review is to summarize these and other applications to highlight the potential of REIMS for meat analysis. Sampling methods and important considerations for data analysis are discussed as well as limitations of the technology and remaining challenges for practical adoption.

18.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(9)2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957708

RESUMO

Trained expert panels are used routinely in boar taint research, with varying protocols for training of panelists and scoring methods. We describe a standardized process for training and scoring, to contribute to standardize the olfactory detection of boar taint. Three experiments are described in which we (1) evaluate the importance of training and the effect of the previous sample, (2) determine detection thresholds on strips and in fat for our panel, and (3) test priming panelists before boar taint evaluation. For the final evaluation of boar taint, we propose a consistent three-person evaluation scoring on a 0-4 scale using a final mean score of 0.5 as the cut-off for boar taint. This gave an optimal sensitivity of 0.81 and a specificity of 0.56 compared to chemical cut-offs. Even limited training proved useful, but priming assessors with strips did not improve the evaluation of fat samples. Detection thresholds were higher in fat compared to strips, except for indole. We recommend panelists to always smell a non-tainted control sample after a tainted one as a 'reset' mechanism, before continuing. For longitudinal studies, we additionally advise to set up an expert panel with a fixed number of assessors performing each evaluation in duplicate.

19.
Food Res Int ; 136: 109585, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846614

RESUMO

Because of the large diversity in processed meat products and the potential involvement of oxidation processes in the association between red and processed meat consumption and chronic diseases, the concentration of oxidation products after gastrointestinal digestion of commercial luncheon meat products was investigated. A broad spectrum of meat products (n = 24), displaying large variation in macro- and micronutrient composition and processing procedures, was digested in vitro by simulating digestion fluids of the human gastrointestinal tract. Lipid and protein oxidation was assessed in the meat products before digestion and in the corresponding digests by measurement of free malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, hexanal and protein carbonyl compounds. Compared to an unprocessed cooked pork mince, that was included as a reference in the digestion experiment, levels of lipid oxidation products were low in the digests of most meat products. Only the digests of Parma ham had slightly higher or comparable levels as the reference pork. In contrast, protein carbonyl compounds were comparable or up to 6 times higher in the processed meat products compared to the reference pork. Particularly raw-cooked and precooked-cooked meat products and corresponding digests had higher protein carbonyl levels, but also lower protein contents and higher fat to protein ratios. In conclusion, most luncheon meat products and corresponding digests contained lower amounts of free lipid oxidation products, but more protein carbonyl compounds compared to the reference pork.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Lipídeos , Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Carbonilação Proteica , Carne Vermelha/análise , Suínos
20.
Talanta ; 217: 121043, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498888

RESUMO

Ambient ionization-based techniques hold great potential for rapid point-of-care applicable metabolic fingerprinting of tissue and fluids. Hereby, feces represents a unique biospecimen as it integrates the complex interactions between the diet, gut microbiome and host, and is therefore ideally suited to study the involvement of the diet-gut microbiome axis in metabolic diseases and their treatments at a molecular level. We present a new method for rapid (<10 s) metabolic fingerprinting of feces, i.e. laser-assisted rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (LA-REIMS) with an Nd:YAG laser (2940 nm) and quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer as main components. The LA-REIMS method was implemented on mimicked crude feces samples from individuals that were assigned a state of type 2 diabetes or euglycaemia. Based on the generated fingerprints, enclosing 4923 feature ions, significant segregation according to disease classification was achieved through orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (Q2(Y) of 0.734 and p-value of 1.93e-17) and endorsed by a general classification accuracy of 90.5%. A comparison between the discriminative performance of the novel LA-REIMS and our established ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography high-resolution MS (UHPLC-HRMS) metabolomics and lipidomics methodologies for fingerprinting of stool was performed. Based on the supervised modelling results upon UHPLC-HRMS (Q2(Y) ≥ 0.655 and p-value ≤ 4.11 e-5), equivalent or better discriminative performance of LA-REIMS fingerprinting was concluded. Eventually, comprehensive UHPLC-HRMS was employed to assess metabolic alterations as observed for the defined classes, whereby metformin treatment of the type 2 diabetes patients was considered a relevant study factor to acquire new mechanistic insights. More specifically, ten metabolization products of metformin were identified, with (hydroxylated) triazepinone and metformin-cholesterol reported for the first time in vivo.In conclusion, LA-REIMS was established as an expedient strategy for rapid metabolic fingerprinting of feces, whereby potential implementations may relate, but are not limited to differential diagnosis and treatment efficacy evaluation of metabolic diseases. Yet, LC-HRMS remains essential for in-depth biological interpretation.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Fezes/química , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Lasers , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
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