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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073458

RESUMO

Cytotoxic CD4+ T cells (CD4 CTL) are terminally differentiated T helper cells that contribute to autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. We developed a novel triple co-culture transwell assay to study mutual interactions between CD4 CTL, conventional TH cells, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) simultaneously. We show that, while CD4 CTL are resistant to suppression by Tregs in vitro, the conditioned medium of CD4 CTL accentuates the suppressive phenotype of Tregs by upregulating IL-10, Granzyme B, CTLA-4, and PD-1. We demonstrate that CD4 CTL conditioned medium skews memory TH cells to a TH17 phenotype, suggesting that the CD4 CTL induce bystander polarization. In our triple co-culture assay, the CD4 CTL secretome promotes the proliferation of TH cells, even in the presence of Tregs. However, when cell-cell contact is established between CD4 CTL and TH cells, the proliferation of TH cells is no longer increased and Treg-mediated suppression is restored. Taken together, our results suggest that when TH cells acquire cytotoxic properties, these Treg-resistant CD4 CTL affect the proliferation and phenotype of conventional TH cells in their vicinity. By creating such a pro-inflammatory microenvironment, CD4 CTL may favor their own persistence and expansion, and that of other potentially pathogenic TH cells, thereby contributing to pathogenic responses in autoimmune disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Adulto , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Feminino , Granzimas/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Células Th17/citologia
2.
Stem Cells Dev ; 27(2): 65-84, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267140

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells with immunosuppressive and trophic support functions. While MSCs from different sources frequently display a similar appearance in culture, they often show differences in their surface marker and gene expression profiles. Although bone marrow is considered the "gold standard" tissue to isolate classical MSCs (BM-MSC), MSC-like cells are currently also derived from more easily accessible extra-embryonic tissues such as the umbilical cord. In this study, we defined the best way to isolate MSCs from the Wharton's jelly of the human umbilical cord (WJ-MSC) and assessed the mesenchymal and immunological phenotype of BM-MSC and WJ-MSC. Moreover, the gene expression profile of established WJ-MSC cultures was compared to two different bone marrow-derived stem cell populations (BM-MSC and multipotent adult progenitor cells or MAPC®). We observed that explant culturing of Wharton's jelly matrix is superior to collagenase tissue digestion for obtaining mesenchymal-like cells, with explant isolated cells displaying increased expansion potential. While being phenotypically similar to adult MSCs, WJ-MSC show a different gene expression profile. Gene ontology analysis revealed that genes associated with cell adhesion, proliferation, and immune system functioning are enriched in WJ-MSC. In vivo transplantation confirms their immune modulatory effect on T cells, similar to BM-MSC and MAPC. Furthermore, WJ-MSC intrinsically overexpress genes involved in neurotrophic support and their secretome induces neuronal maturation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to a greater extent than BM-MSC. This signature makes WJ-MSC an attractive candidate for cell-based therapy in neurodegenerative and immune-mediated central nervous system disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Ontologia Genética , Imunomodulação , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Adesão Celular/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/citologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais
3.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1160, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28979263

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the leading cause of chronic neurological disability in young adults. The clinical disease course of MS varies greatly between individuals, with some patients progressing much more rapidly than others, making prognosis almost impossible. We previously discovered that cytotoxic CD4+ T cells (CD4+ CTL), identified by the loss of CD28, are able to migrate to sites of inflammation and that they contribute to tissue damage. Furthermore, in an animal model for MS, we showed that these cells are correlated with inflammation, demyelination, and disability. Therefore, we hypothesize that CD4+ CTL drive progression of MS and have prognostic value. To support this hypothesis, we investigated whether CD4+ CTL are correlated with worse clinical outcome and evaluated the prognostic value of these cells in MS. To this end, the percentage of CD4+CD28null T cells was measured in the blood of 176 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (=baseline). Multimodal evoked potentials (EP) combining information on motoric, visual, and somatosensoric EP, as well as Kurtzke expanded disability status scale (EDSS) were used as outcome measurements at baseline and after 3 and 5 years. The baseline CD4+CD28null T cell percentage is associated with EP (P = 0.003, R2 = 0.28), indicating a link between these cells and disease severity. In addition, the baseline CD4+CD28null T cell percentage has a prognostic value since it is associated with EP after 3 years (P = 0.005, R2 = 0.29) and with EP and EDSS after 5 years (P = 0.008, R2 = 0.42 and P = 0.003, R2 = 0.27). To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first direct link between the presence of CD4+ CTL and MS disease severity, as well as its prognostic value. Therefore, we further elaborate on two important research perspectives: 1° investigating strategies to block or reverse pathways in the formation of these cells resulting in new treatments that slow down MS disease progression, 2° including immunophenotyping in prediction modeling studies to aim for personalized medicine.

4.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 663, 2017 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28386103

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a latent virus which causes chronic activation of the immune system. Here, we demonstrate that cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory CD4+CD28null T cells are only present in CMV seropositive donors and that CMV-specific Immunoglobulin (Ig) G titers correlate with the percentage of these cells. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with CMVpp65 peptide resulted in the expansion of pre-existing CD4+CD28null T cells. In vivo, we observed de novo formation, as well as expansion of CD4+CD28null T cells in two different chronic inflammation models, namely the murine CMV (MCMV) model and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model for multiple sclerosis (MS). In EAE, the percentage of peripheral CD4+CD28null T cells correlated with disease severity. Pre-exposure to MCMV further aggravated EAE symptoms, which was paralleled by peripheral expansion of CD4+CD28null T cells, increased splenocyte MOG reactivity and higher levels of spinal cord demyelination. Cytotoxic CD4+ T cells were identified in demyelinated spinal cord regions, suggesting that peripherally expanded CD4+CD28null T cells migrate towards the central nervous system to inflict damage. Taken together, we demonstrate that CMV drives the expansion of CD4+CD28null T cells, thereby boosting the activation of disease-specific CD4+ T cells and aggravating autoimmune mediated inflammation and demyelination.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Antígenos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Doenças Desmielinizantes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/complicações , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Immunol ; 197(12): 4576-4583, 2016 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27837111

RESUMO

Immune aging occurs in the elderly and in autoimmune diseases. Recently, IgD-CD27- (double negative, DN) and CD21-CD11c+ (CD21low) B cells were described as age-associated B cells with proinflammatory characteristics. This study investigated the prevalence and functional characteristics of DN and CD21low B cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Using flow cytometry, we demonstrated a higher proportion of MS patients younger than 60 y with peripheral expansions of DN (8/41) and CD21low (9/41) B cells compared with age-matched healthy donors (1/33 and 2/33, respectively), which indicates an increase in age-associated B cells in MS patients. The majority of DN B cells had an IgG+ memory phenotype, whereas CD21low B cells consisted of a mixed population of CD27- naive, CD27+ memory, IgG+, and IgM+ cells. DN B cells showed similar (MS patients) or increased (healthy donors) MHC-II expression as class-switched memory B cells and intermediate costimulatory molecule expression between naive and class-switched memory B cells, indicating their potential to induce (proinflammatory) T cell responses. Further, DN B cells produced proinflammatory and cytotoxic cytokines following ex vivo stimulation. Increased frequencies of DN and CD21low B cells were found in the cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients compared with paired peripheral blood. In conclusion, a proportion of MS patients showed increased peripheral expansions of age-associated B cells. DN and CD21low B cell frequencies were further increased in MS cerebrospinal fluid. These cells could contribute to inflammation by induction of T cell responses and the production of proinflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina D/metabolismo , Memória Imunológica , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Complemento 3d/metabolismo , Membro 7 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo
6.
J Immunol ; 194(5): 2099-109, 2015 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25617471

RESUMO

CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells arise through repeated antigenic stimulation and are present in diseased tissues of patients with various autoimmune disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). These cells are believed to have cytotoxic properties that contribute to the pathogenic damaging of the target organ. Endogenous cues that are increased in the diseased tissue may amplify the activity of CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells. In this study, we focused on IL-15, a cytotoxicity-promoting cytokine that is increased in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate that IL-15 is mainly produced by astrocytes and infiltrating macrophages in inflammatory lesions of MS patients. Moreover, in vitro transmigration studies reveal that IL-15 selectively attracts CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells of MS patients, but not of healthy individuals. IL-15 further induces the expression of chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules on CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells, as investigated using flow cytometry, resulting in enhanced migration over a monolayer of human brain endothelial cells. Finally, flow cytometric analyses revealed that IL-15 increases the proliferation and production of GM-CSF, expression of cytotoxic molecules (NKG2D, perforin, and granzyme B), and degranulation capacity of CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that increased peripheral and local levels of IL-15 amplify the pathogenic potential of CD4(+)CD28(-) T cells, thus contributing to tissue damage in MS brain lesions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/imunologia , Antígenos CD28/imunologia , Antígenos CD4/imunologia , Interleucina-15/farmacologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/imunologia , Astrócitos/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Antígenos CD28/genética , Antígenos CD4/genética , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/imunologia , Granzimas/genética , Granzimas/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-15/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/genética , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Perforina/genética , Perforina/imunologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/patologia , Migração Transendotelial e Transepitelial
7.
Cell Transplant ; 24(10): 2077-98, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25310756

RESUMO

Umbilical cord matrix or Wharton's jelly-derived stromal cells (WJ-MSCs) are an easily accessible source of mesenchymal-like stem cells. Recent studies describe a hypoimmunogenic phenotype, multipotent differentiation potential, and trophic support function for WJ-MSCs, with variable clinical benefit in degenerative disease models such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and Parkinson's disease. It remains unclear whether WJ-MSCs have therapeutic value for multiple sclerosis (MS), where autoimmune-mediated demyelination and neurodegeneration need to be halted. In this study, we investigated whether WJ-MSCs possess the required properties to effectively and durably reverse these pathological hallmarks and whether they survive in an inflammatory environment after transplantation. WJ-MSCs displayed a lowly immunogenic phenotype and showed intrinsic expression of neurotrophic factors and a variety of anti-inflammatory molecules. Furthermore, they dose-dependently suppressed proliferation of activated T cells using contact-dependent and paracrine mechanisms. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 was identified as one of the main effector molecules responsible for the observed T-cell suppression. The immune-modulatory phenotype of WJ-MSCs was further enhanced after proinflammatory cytokine treatment in vitro (licensing). In addition to their effect on adaptive immunity, WJ-MSCs interfered with dendritic cell differentiation and maturation, thus directly affecting antigen presentation and therefore T-cell priming. Systemically infused WJ-MSCs potently but transiently ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS, when injected at onset or during chronic disease. This protective effect was paralleled with a reduction in autoantigen-induced T-cell proliferation, confirming their immunomodulatory activity in vivo. Surprisingly, in vitro licensed WJ-MSCs did not ameliorate EAE, indicative of a fast rejection as a result of enhanced immunogenicity. Collectively, we show that WJ-MSCs have trophic support properties and effectively modulate immune cell functioning both in vitro and in the EAE model, suggesting WJ-MSC may hold promise for MS therapy. Future research is needed to optimize survival of stem cells and enhance clinical durability.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/terapia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Geleia de Wharton/citologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ratos , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Cordão Umbilical/citologia
8.
Trends Mol Med ; 21(1): 16-23, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25500015

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disabling autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a ß herpes virus, may have a detrimental or beneficial role in MS pathology. Accumulating evidence indicates that CMV contributes to MS disease via interplay of different mechanisms such as molecular mimicry, bystander activation, and epitope spreading. The activation and expansion of a specific T cell subset, CD4(+)CD28(null) T cells, via CMV infection could also contribute to MS pathology. Various additional observations also indicate a protective effect of CMV on autoimmune diseases. CMV immune evasion may mitigate the autoimmune reactions and proinflammatory milieu that contribute to MS.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/microbiologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/microbiologia , Humanos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
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