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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22799, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815454

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is the cause of a spectrum of diseases in humans and animals. The molecular basis of this pathogenicity lies in the expression of a variety of virulence factors, including proteins that mediate adherence to the host plasma and extracellular matrix proteins. In this study, we discovered that the iron-regulated surface determinant B (IsdB) protein, besides being involved in iron transport and vitronectin binding, interacts with von Willebrand Factor (vWF). IsdB-expressing bacteria bound to both soluble and immobilized vWF. The binding of recombinant IsdB to vWF was blocked by heparin and reduced at high ionic strength. Furthermore, treatment with ristocetin, an allosteric agent that promotes the exposure of the A1 domain of vWF, potentiates the binding of IsdB to vWF. Both near-iron transporter motifs NEAT1 and NEAT2 of IsdB individually bound recombinant A1 domain with KD values in the micromolar range. The binding of IsdB and adhesion of S. aureus expressing IsdB to monolayers of activated endothelial cells was significantly inhibited by a monoclonal antibody against the A1 domain and by IsdB reactive IgG from patients with staphylococcal endocarditis. This suggests the importance of IsdB in adherence of S. aureus to the endothelium colonization and as potential therapeutic target.

2.
Blood ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752601

RESUMO

Thrombotic microangiopathies are hallmarked by attacks of disseminated microvascular thrombosis. In thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), this is caused by a rise in thrombogenic ultra-large von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers because of ADAMTS13 deficiency. We previously reported that systemic plasminogen activation is therapeutic in a TTP mouse model. In contrast to its natural activators (i.e. tPA and uPA), plasminogen can directly bind to VWF. For optimal efficacy and safety, we aimed to focus and accelerate plasminogen activation at sites of microvascular occlusion. We here describe the development and characterization of Microlyse, a fusion protein consisting of a high-affinity VHH targeting the CT/CK domain of VWF and the protease domain of uPA, for localized plasminogen activation on microthrombi. Microlyse triggers targeted destruction of platelet-VWF complexes by plasmin on activated endothelial cells and in agglutination studies. At equal molar concentrations, Microlyse degrades microthrombi 7-fold more rapidly than blockade of platelet-VWF interactions with a bivalent humanized VHH (caplacizumab*). Finally, Microlyse attenuates thrombocytopenia and tissue damage (reflected by increased plasma lactate dehydrogenase activity, as well as PAI-1 and fibrinogen levels) more efficiently than caplacizumab* in an ADAMTS13-/- mouse model of TTP, without affecting hemostasis in a tail-clip bleeding model. These findings show that targeted thrombolysis of VWF by Microlyse is an effective strategy for the treatment of TTP and might hold value for other forms of VWF-driven thrombotic disease.

3.
Blood Adv ; 5(17): 3427-3435, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495312

RESUMO

Anti-A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with a ThromboSpondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13) autoantibodies cause a severe ADAMTS13 deficiency in immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP). ADAMTS13 consists of a metalloprotease (M), a disintegrin-like (D) domain, 8 thrombospondin type 1 repeats (T1-T8), a cysteine-rich (C), a spacer (S), and 2 CUB domains (CUB1-2). We recently developed a high-throughput epitope mapping assay based on small, nonoverlapping ADAMTS13 fragments (M, DT, CS, T2-T5, T6-T8, CUB1-2). With this assay, we performed a comprehensive epitope mapping using 131 acute-phase samples and for the first time a large group of remission samples (n = 50). Next, samples were stratified according to their immunoprofiles, a field that is largely unexplored in iTTP. Three dominant immunoprofiles were found in acute-phase samples: profile 1: only anti-CS autoantibodies (26.7%); profile 2: both anti-CS and anti-CUB1-2 autoantibodies (12.2%); and profile 3: anti-DT, anti-CS, anti-T2-T5, anti-T6-T8, and anti-CUB1-2 autoantibodies (8.4%). Interestingly, profile 1 was the only dominant immunoprofile in remission samples (52.0%). Clinical data were available for a relatively small number of patients with acute iTTP (>68), and no correlation was found between immunoprofiles and disease severity. Nevertheless, profile 1 was linked with younger and anti-T2-T5 autoantibodies with older age and the absence of anti-CUB1-2 autoantibodies with cerebral involvement. In conclusion, identifying acute phase and remission immunoprofiles in iTTP revealed that anti-CS autoantibodies seem to persist or reappear during remission providing further support for the clinical development of a targeted anti-CS autoantibody therapy. A large cohort study with acute iTTP samples will validate possible links between immunoprofiles or anti-domain autoantibodies and clinical data.


Assuntos
Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica , Idoso , Autoanticorpos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Trombospondina 1
4.
Blood Adv ; 5(21): 4480-4484, 2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559219

RESUMO

Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is caused by an autoantibody-mediated deficiency in ADAMTS13. In healthy individuals, ADAMTS13 has a folded conformation in which the central spacer (S) domain interacts with the C-terminal CUB domains. We recently showed that ADAMTS13 adopts an open conformation in iTTP and that patient immunoglobulin G antibodies (IgGs) can open ADAMTS13. Anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies in patients with iTTP are directed against the different ADAMTS13 domains, but almost all patients have autoantibodies binding to the cysteine/spacer (CS) domains. In this study, we investigated whether the autoantibodies against the CS and CUB domains can disrupt the S-CUB interaction of folded ADAMTS13, thereby opening ADAMTS13. To this end, we purified anti-CS and anti-CUB autoantibodies from 13 patients with acute iTTP by affinity chromatography. The successfully purified anti-CS (10/13 patients) and anti-CUB (4/13 patients) autoantibody fractions were tested further in our ADAMTS13 conformation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study whether they could open ADAMTS13. Interestingly, all purified anti-CS fractions (10/10 patients) were able to open ADAMTS13. On the other hand, only half of the purified anti-CUB fractions (2/4 patients) opened ADAMTS13. Our finding highlights that anti-CS autoantibodies that open ADAMTS13 are a common feature of the autoimmune response in iTTP.


Assuntos
Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica , Proteína ADAMTS13 , Autoanticorpos , Cisteína , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G
5.
Lab Chip ; 21(19): 3627-3654, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505611

RESUMO

Antibodies (Abs) are among the most important class of biologicals, showcasing a high therapeutic and diagnostic value. In the global therapeutic Ab market, fully-human monoclonal Abs (FH-mAbs) are flourishing thanks to their low immunogenicity and high specificity. The rapidly emerging field of single-cell technologies has paved the way to efficiently discover mAbs by facilitating a fast screening of the antigen (Ag)-specificity and functionality of Abs expressed by B cells. This review summarizes the principles and challenges of the four key concepts to discover mAbs using these technologies, being confinement of single cells using either droplet microfluidics or microstructure arrays, identification of the cells of interest, retrieval of those cells and single-cell sequence determination required for mAb production. This review reveals the enormous potential for mix-and-matching of the above-mentioned strategies, which is illustrated by the plethora of established, highly integrated devices. Lastly, an outlook is given on the many opportunities and challenges that still lie ahead to fully exploit miniaturized single-cell technologies for mAb discovery.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Humanos
6.
Blood Adv ; 5(17): 3478-3491, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505883

RESUMO

Trauma-induced organ failure is characterized by endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and its cleaving enzyme, ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motifs, member 13) in the occurrence of endothelial permeability and organ failure in trauma. In an observational study in a level-1 trauma center, 169 adult trauma patients with clinical signs of shock and/or severe injuries were included. Trauma was associated with low ADAMTS13 and high VWF antigen levels, thus generating an imbalance of ADAMTS13 to VWF. Patients who developed organ failure (23%) had greater ADAMTS13-to-VWF imbalances, persistently lower platelet counts, and elevated levels of high-molecular-weight VWF multimers compared with those without organ failure, suggesting microthrombi formation. To investigate the effect of replenishing low ADAMTS13 levels on endothelial permeability and organ failure using either recombinant human ADAMTS13 (rhADAMTS13) or plasma transfusion, a rat model of trauma-induced shock and transfusion was used. Rats in traumatic hemorrhagic shock were randomized to receive crystalloids, crystalloids supplemented with rhADAMTS13, or plasma transfusion. A 70-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran was injected to determine endothelial leakage. Additionally, organs were histologically assessed. Both plasma transfusion and rhADAMTS13 were associated with a reduction in pulmonary endothelial permeability and organ injury when compared with resuscitation with crystalloids, but only rhADAMTS13 resulted in significant improvement of a trauma-induced decline in ADAMTS13 levels. We conclude that rhADAMTS13 and plasma transfusion can reduce organ failure following trauma. These findings implicate the ADAMTS13-VWF axis in the pathogenesis of organ failure.


Assuntos
Trombose , Fator de von Willebrand , Proteína ADAMTS13 , Animais , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Humanos , Plasma , Ratos
7.
J Biol Chem ; 297(4): 101132, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461090

RESUMO

A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13) is a multidomain metalloprotease for which until now only a single substrate has been identified. ADAMTS13 cleaves the polymeric force-sensor von Willebrand factor (VWF) that unfolds under shear stress and recruits platelets to sites of vascular injury. Shear force-dependent cleavage at a single Tyr-Met peptide bond in the unfolded VWF A2 domain serves to reduce the size of VWF polymers in circulation. In patients with immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP), a rare life-threatening disease, ADAMTS13 is targeted by autoantibodies that inhibit its activity or promote its clearance. In the absence of ADAMTS13, VWF polymers are not adequately processed, resulting in spontaneous adhesion of blood platelets, which presents as severe, life-threatening microvascular thrombosis. In healthy individuals, ADAMTS13-VWF interactions are guided by controlled conversion of ADAMTS13 from a closed, inactive to an open, active conformation through a series of interdomain contacts that are now beginning to be defined. Recently, it has been shown that ADAMTS13 adopts an open conformation in the acute phase and during subclinical disease in iTTP patients, making open ADAMTS13 a novel biomarker for iTTP. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge on ADAMTS13 conformation and speculate on potential triggers inducing conformational changes of ADAMTS13 and how these relate to the pathogenesis of iTTP.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAMTS13/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/imunologia , Fator de von Willebrand/imunologia , Proteína ADAMTS13/sangue , Animais , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/sangue , Fator de von Willebrand/metabolismo
8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 192: 113549, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391067

RESUMO

We present an innovative multiplexing concept on a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (FO-SPR) platform and demonstrate for the first time the simultaneous detection of two targets using the same FO sensor probe. Co(III)-NTA chemistry was used for oriented and stable co-immobilization of two different His6-tagged bioreceptors. T2C2 and MDTCS (i.e. fragments of the ADAMTS13 metalloprotease linked to the thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura disorder) served as model system bioreceptors together with their respective targets (4B9 and II-1 antibodies). Gold nanoparticles were used here in an original way for discriminating the two targets in the same sample, in addition to their traditional signal amplification-role. After verifying the specificity of the selected model system, we studied the bioreceptor surface density and immobilization order. Innovative approach to lower the bioreceptor concentration below surface saturation resulted in an optimal detection of both targets, whereas the order of immobilization of the two bioreceptors did not give any significant difference. By sequentially immobilizing the T2C2 and MDTC bioreceptors, we established calibration curves in buffer and 100-fold diluted human blood plasma. This resulted in calculated limits of detection of 3.38 and 2.31 ng/mL in diluted plasma for 4B9 and II-1, respectively, indicating almost the same sensitivity as in buffer. Importantly, we also proved the applicability of the established calibration curves for quantifying the targets at random and more realistic ratios, directed by the design of experiments. This multiplexing study further expands the repertoire of applications on the FO-SPR biosensing platform, which together with its intrinsic features opens up great opportunities for diagnostics and life sciences.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica , Ouro , Humanos , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
9.
Vox Sang ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a frequently applied intervention in an intensive care unit. However, transfusion is associated with adverse outcomes including organ failure and thrombo-embolic events. Mechanisms of these effects are not known but may be related to activation of the endothelium or of the coagulation or inflammatory system. We hypothesized that a RBC transfusion in the critically ill would result in further activation of these systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 74 non-bleeding critically ill patients receiving one RBC unit, markers of inflammation, endothelial cell activation and coagulation were measured before transfusion, at 1 h after transfusion and 24 h after transfusion. The impact of disease severity of the recipient on these changes was assessed by comparing septic and non-septic patients (according to sepsis-3 definition) and by correlation of biomarkers with the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score. RESULTS: Levels of von Willebrand Factor (vWF), soluble ICAM-1, soluble thrombomodulin, fibrinogen and d-dimer were already high at baseline, whereas ADAMTS13 levels were low. VWF levels increased significantly 24 h after RBC transfusion (median 478% (338-597) vs. 526% (395-623), p = 0.009). The other biomarkers did not change significantly. Post transfusion change was not dependent on the presence of sepsis and was not correlated with SOFA score. CONCLUSION: RBC transfusion in critically ill patients was associated with an increase in circulating vWF levels, suggesting a further increase in activation of the endothelium, a finding that was independent of the presence of sepsis or organ injury level.

10.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(9): 2193-2198, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are prone to developing macrothrombosis and microthrombosis. COVID-19 has been reported to be rarely associated with thrombotic microangiopathies. A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I repeats, member 13 (ADAMTS13) severe deficiency, the hallmark of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), induces the formation of platelet, unusually large von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimer microthrombi. In immune-mediated TTP, ADAMTS13 adopts specifically an open conformation. The VWF/ADAMTS13 couple may contribute to the microthrombi formation in pulmonary alveolar capillaries in COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical features, hemostatic laboratory parameters, VWF/ADAMTS13 axis, and ADAMTS13 conformation in critically ill COVID-19 patients at admission. METHODS: Fifty three critically ill COVID-19 patients were enrolled between March 18 and May 9 2020 in a monocentric hospital. RESULTS: The median age was 59 years and the male-to-female ratio was 2.8/1. We reported seven pulmonary embolisms and 15 deaths. Biological investigations showed increased fibrinogen and factor V levels, and strongly increased D-dimers correlated with mortality. No patient presented severe thrombocytopenia nor microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. An imbalance between high VWF antigen levels and normal or slightly decreased ADAMTS13 activity levels (strongly elevated VWF/ADAMTS13 ratio) was correlated with mortality. Three patients had a partial quantitative deficiency in ADAMTS13. We also reported a closed conformation of ADAMTS13 in all patients, reinforcing the specificity of an open conformation of ADAMTS13 as a hallmark of TTP. CONCLUSION: We suggest that slightly decreased or normal ADAMTS13 activity and highly elevated VWF are rather biomarkers reflecting both the strong inflammation and the endothelial damage rather than drivers of the thrombotic process of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica , Proteína ADAMTS13 , Biomarcadores , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2 , Fator de von Willebrand
11.
Haematologica ; 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134470

RESUMO

The GPIbT-VWF A1 domain interaction is essential for platelet tethering under high shear. Synergy between GPIbα and GPVI signaling machineries has been suggested previously, however its molecular mechanism remains unclear. We generated a novel GPIbα transgenic mouse (GpIbαΔsig/Δsig) by CRISPR-Cas9 technology to delete the last 24 residues of the GPIbα intracellular tail that harbors the 14-3-3 and phosphoinositide-3 kinase binding sites. GPIbαΔsig/Δsig platelets bound VWF normally under flow. However, they formed fewer filopodia on VWF/botrocetin in the presence of a oIIbI3 blocker, demonstrating that despite normal ligand binding, VWF-dependent signaling is diminished. Activation of GpIbαΔsig/Δsig platelets with ADP and thrombin was normal, but GpIbαΔsig/Δsig platelets stimulated with collagen-related-peptide (CRP) exhibited markedly decreased P-selectin exposure and eIIbI3 activation, suggesting a role for the GpIbaaintracellular tail in GPVI-mediated signaling. Consistent with this, while haemostasis was normal in GPIbαΔsig/Δsig mice, diminished tyrosine-phosphorylation, (particularly pSYK) was detected in CRP-stimulated GpIbαΔsig/Δsig platelets as well as reduced platelet spreading on CRP. Platelet responses to rhodocytin were also affected in GpIbαΔsig/Δsig platelets but to a lesser extent than those with CRP. GpIbαΔsig/Δsig platelets formed smaller aggregates than wild-type platelets on collagen-coated microchannels at low, medium and high shear. In response to both VWF and collagen binding, flow assays performed with plasma-free blood or in the presence of bIIbI3- or GPVI-blockers suggested reduced bIIbI3 activation contributes to the phenotype of the GpIbαΔsig/Δsig platelets. Together, these results reveal a new role for the intracellular tail of GPIbiiin transducing both VWF-GPIbGGand collagen-GPVI signaling events in platelets.

12.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(8): 2014-2018, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105244

RESUMO

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare but potentially life-threatening thrombotic microangiopathy, characterized by disseminated thrombus formation in the microvasculature, causing severe organ failure. Immune-mediated TTP (iTTP) is occasionally described after vaccination, especially against viral agents. We report a case of a 38-year-old woman with a de novo iTTP after exposure to the mRNA-based anti-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine produced by Pfizer-BioNTech. She presented with increased bruising and petechiae starting 2 weeks after receiving the first dose of the anti-COVID-19 vaccine. Laboratory data revealed a severe ADAMTS13-deficiency in combination with a very high autoantibody titer against ADAMTS13. She was successfully treated with plasma exchange, corticosteroids, rituximab, and caplacizumab. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of iTTP after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination in a previously TTP-naïve patient.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica , Proteína ADAMTS13 , Adulto , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
13.
Anal Chem ; 93(15): 6169-6177, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823582

RESUMO

Antibody characterization is essential for understanding the immune system and development of diagnostics and therapeutics. Current technologies are mainly focusing on the detection of antigen-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) using bulk singleplex measurements, which lack information on other isotypes and specificity of individual antibodies. Digital immunoassays based on nucleic acid amplification have demonstrated superior performance by allowing the detection of single molecules in a multiplex and sensitive manner. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time an immuno-rolling circle amplification (immuno-RCA) assay for the multiplex detection of three antigen-specific antibody isotypes (IgG, IgA, and IgM) and its integration with microengraving. To validate this approach, we used the autoimmune disease immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) as the model disease with anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies as the diagnostic target molecules. To identify the anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibody isotypes, we designed a pool of three unique antibody-oligonucleotide conjugates for identification and subsequent amplification and visualization via RCA. To validate this approach, we first confirmed an assay specificity of >88% and a low limit of detection of 0.3 ng/mL in the spiked buffer. Subsequently, we performed a dilution series of an iTTP plasma sample for the multiplex detection of the three isotypes with higher sensitivity compared to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Finally, we demonstrated single-cell analysis of human B cells and hybridoma cells for the detection of secreted antibodies using microengraving and achieved a detection of 23.3 pg/mL secreted antibodies per hour. This approach could help to improve the understanding of antibody isotype distributions and their roles in various diseases.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica , Antígenos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G
15.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(9): 2248-2255, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is caused by inhibitory and/or clearing anti-ADAMTS-13 (A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin type 1 repeats, member 13) autoantibodies. To determine the presence and total level of anti-ADAMTS-13 autoantibodies, commercial and in-house developed ELISAs are performed. However, different ELISA methods vary in relation to the presentation of recombinant (r)ADAMTS-13 and the detection method of the anti-ADAMTS-13 autoantibodies. Currently, the influence of those different approaches on anti-ADAMTS-13 autoantibody titers is not known. OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of different ADAMTS-13 presentation- and autoantibody detection methods on anti-ADAMTS-13 autoantibody titers in ELISA. MATERIALS/METHODS: Anti-ADAMTS-13 autoantibody titers from 18 iTTP patients were determined using four different set-ups of anti-ADAMTS-13 autoantibody ELISAs. The ELISAs varied in the used presentation of rADAMTS-13 (directly coated full-length rADAMTS-13, directly coated rMDTCS and rT2C2, or antibody-captured full-length rADAMTS-13) and the detection antibodies (polyclonal anti-human IgG or monoclonal anti-human IgG1-4 antibodies). RESULTS: Strong correlations between the different anti-ADAMTS-13 autoantibody ELISA approaches were observed, when using polyclonal anti-human IgG detection antibodies recognizing all IgG subclasses similarly, independent of the method of rADAMTS-13 presentation. Anti-ADAMTS-13 autoantibody titers correlated less when using a mixture of monoclonal anti-human IgG1-4 , because not all IgG subclasses were recognized with similar affinities. CONCLUSION: Anti-ADAMTS-13 autoantibody levels using different methods of rADAMTS-13 presentation strongly correlate. However, the levels of anti-ADAMTS-13 autoantibodies are highly dependent on the detection antibody used, which should detect all IgG subclasses (IgG1-4 ) equally well.


Assuntos
Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica , Trombospondina 1 , Proteína ADAMTS13 , Autoanticorpos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/diagnóstico
16.
Thromb J ; 19(1): 11, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanical removal of a thrombus by thrombectomy can be quite challenging. For reasons that are not fully understood, some thrombi require multiple passes to achieve successful recanalization, whereas other thrombi are efficiently removed in a single pass. Since first pass success is associated with better clinical outcome, it is important to better understand the nature of thrombectomy resistant thrombi. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the cellular and molecular composition of a thrombus that was very hard to retrieve via mechanical thrombectomy. CASE PRESENTATION: In a patient that was admitted with a right middle cerebral artery M1-occlusion, 11 attempts using various thrombectomy devices and techniques were required for removal of the thrombus. This peculiar case provided a rare opportunity to perform an in-depth histopathological study of a difficult to retrieve thrombus. Thrombus material was histologically analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin, Martius Scarlet Blue stain (red blood cells and fibrin), Feulgen stain (DNA), von Kossa stain (calcifications) and immunohistochemical analysis of von Willebrand factor, platelets, leukocytes and neutrophil extracellular traps. Histological analysis revealed abnormally high amounts of extracellular DNA, leukocytes, von Willebrand factor and calcifications. Extracellular DNA stained positive for markers of leukocytes and NETs, suggesting that a significant portion of DNA is derived from neutrophil extracellular traps. CONCLUSION: In this unique case of a nearly thrombectomy-resistant stroke thrombus, our study showed an atypical composition compared to the common structural features found in ischemic stroke thrombi. The core of the retrieved thrombus consisted of extracellular DNA that colocalized with von Willebrand factor and microcalcifications. These results support the hypothesis that von Willebrand factor, neutrophil extracellular traps and microcalcifications contribute to mechanical thrombectomy resistance. Such information is important to identify novel targets in order to optimize technical treatment protocols and techniques to increase first pass success rates.

17.
Blood ; 137(19): 2694-2698, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544829

RESUMO

Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is an autoimmune disorder caused by the development of autoantibodies targeting different domains of ADAMTS13. Profiling studies have shown that residues R568, F592, R660, Y661, and Y665 within exosite-3 of the spacer domain provide an immunodominant region of ADAMTS13 for pathogenic autoantibodies that develop in patients with iTTP. Modification of these 5 core residues with the goal of reducing autoantibody binding revealed a significant tradeoff between autoantibody resistance and proteolytic activity. Here, we employed structural bioinformatics to identify a larger epitope landscape on the ADAMTS13 spacer domain. Models of spacer-antibody complexes predicted that residues R568, L591, F592, K608, M609, R636, L637, R639, R660, Y661, Y665, and L668 contribute to an expanded epitope within the spacer domain. Based on bioinformatics-guided predictions, we designed a panel of N-glycan insertions in this expanded epitope to reduce the binding of spacer domain autoantibodies. One N-glycan variant (NGLY3-ADAMTS13, containing a K608N substitution) showed strongly reduced reactivity with TTP patient sera (28%) as compared with WT-ADAMTS13 (100%). Insertion of an N-glycan at amino acid position 608 did not interfere with processing of von Willebrand factor, positioning the resulting NGLY3-ADAMTS13 variant as a potential novel therapeutic option for treatment of iTTP.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(2): 2316-2326, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411502

RESUMO

Retrieving single cells of interest from an array of microwells for further off-chip analysis is crucial in numerous biological applications. To this end, several single cell manipulation strategies have been developed, including optical tweezers (OT). OT represent a unique approach for contactless cell retrieval, but their performance is often suboptimal due to nonspecific cell adhesion to the microwell surface. In this study, we focused on improving the surface chemistry of microwell arrays to ensure efficient single cell manipulation using OT. For this purpose, the surface of an off-stoichiometry thiol-ene-epoxy (OSTE+) microwell array was grafted with polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules with different molecular weights: PEG 360, PEG 500, PEG 2000, and a PEG Mix (an equimolar ratio of PEG 500 and PEG 2000). Contact angle measurements showed that the PEG grafting process resulted in an increased surface energy, which was stable for at least 16 weeks. Next, cell adhesion of two cell types, baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human B cells, to surfaces treated with different PEGs was evaluated by registering the presence of cellular motion inside microwells and the efficiency of optical lifting of cells that display motion. Optimal results were obtained for surfaces grafted with PEG 2000 and PEG Mix, reaching an average fraction of cells with motion of over 93% and an average lifting efficiency of over 96% for both cell types. Upon the integration of this microwell array with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel, PEG Mix resulted in proper washing of non-seeded cells. We further demonstrated the wide applicability of the platform by manipulating non-responding yeast cells to antifungal treatment and B cells expressing surface IgG antibodies. The combination of the optimized microwell surface with continuous microfluidics results in a powerful and versatile platform, allowing high-throughput single cell studies and retrieval of target cells for off-chip analysis.


Assuntos
Micromanipulação/instrumentação , Pinças Ópticas , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Análise de Célula Única/instrumentação , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Linfócitos B/citologia , Adesão Celular , Células Cultivadas , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Propriedades de Superfície
19.
Thromb Haemost ; 121(2): 182-191, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary antithrombin deficiency is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder predisposing to recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE). To date, only two founder mutations have been described. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the antithrombin p.Thr147Ala variant, found in 12 patients of African origin. This variant is known as rs2227606 with minor allele frequency of 0.5% in Africans and absent in Europeans. A possible founder effect was investigated. METHODS: Phenotypical characterization was established through immunological and functional methods, both under basal and stress conditions. Recombinant antithrombin molecules were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed in HEK-293T cells. Secreted antithrombin was purified and functionally characterized. Structural modeling was performed to predict the impact of the mutation on protein structure. A novel nanopore sequencing approach was used for haplotype investigation. RESULTS: Ten patients experienced VTE, stroke, or obstetric complications. Antithrombin antigen levels and anti-IIa activity were normal or slightly reduced while anti-Xa activity was reduced with only one commercial assay. On crossed immunoelectrophoresis, an increase of antithrombin fractions with reduced heparin affinity was observed under high ionic strength conditions but not under physiological conditions. The recombinant p.Thr147Ala protein displayed a reduced anti-Xa activity. Structural modeling revealed that residue Thr147 forms three hydrogen bonds that are abolished when mutated to alanine. The investigated patients shared a common haplotype involving 13 SERPINC1 intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms. CONCLUSION: Antithrombin p.Thr147Ala, responsible for antithrombin type II heparin binding site deficiency, is the first founder mutation reported in people of African ancestry. This study further emphasizes the limitations of commercial methods to diagnose this specific subtype.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Antitrombina III/genética , Antitrombina III/genética , Mutação Puntual , Adulto , Antitrombina III/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(2): 478-488, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is caused by anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies inducing a severe deficiency of ADAMTS13. Epitope mapping studies on samples obtained during acute iTTP episodes have shown that the iTTP immune response is polyclonal, with almost all patients having autoantibodies targeting the spacer domain of ADAMTS13. OBJECTIVES: To identify the immunogenic hotspots in the spacer domain of ADAMTS13. PATIENTS/METHODS: A library of 11 full-length ADAMTS13 spacer hybrids was created in which amino acid regions of the spacer domain of ADAMTS13 were exchanged by the corresponding region of the spacer domain of ADAMTS1. Next, the full-length ADAMTS13 spacer hybrids were used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to epitope map anti-spacer autoantibodies in 138 samples from acute and remission iTTP patients. RESULTS: Sixteen different anti-spacer autoantibody profiles were identified with a similar distribution in acute and remission patients. There was no association between the anti-spacer autoantibody profiles and disease severity. Almost all iTTP samples contained anti-spacer autoantibodies against the following three regions: amino acid residues 588-592, 602-610, and 657-666 (hybrids E, G, and M). Between 31% and 57% of the samples had anti-spacer autoantibodies against amino acid regions 572-579, 629-638, 667-676 (hybrids C, J, and N). In contrast, none of the samples had anti-spacer autoantibodies against amino acid regions 556-563, 564-571, 649-656, and 677-685 (hybrids A, B, L, and O). CONCLUSION: We identified three hotspot regions (amino acid regions 588-592, 602-610, and 657-666) in the spacer domain of ADAMTS13 that are targeted by anti-spacer autoantibodies found in a large cohort of iTTP patients.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAMTS13/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica , DNA Intergênico , Epitopos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/diagnóstico
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