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1.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrathecal analgesia (IA) has been recommended by the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society for laparoscopic colon resections; however, although IA is used in open liver resections, it has not been extensively studied in laparoscopic hepatobiliary surgery. This retrospective chart review was undertaken to explore postoperative pain within 48 hours among patients who underwent laparoscopic liver resections (LLR), receiving either IA with or without patient-controlled analgesia (IA±PCA) versus PCA alone. METHODS: After ethics approval, charts were reviewed for adult patients who underwent LLR between January 2016 and April 2019, and had IA±PCA or PCA alone. Patients with any contraindication to IA with morphine, obstructive sleep apnea, body mass index >40 kg/m2, history of chronic pain, and/or history of drug use were excluded. Descriptive statistics used to describe postoperative pain levels at 48 hours by treatment group for each pain outcome. RESULTS: Of 111 patients identified, 79 patients were finally included; 22 patients had IA±PCA and 57 patients had PCA only. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics, use of non-opioid pain control, and postoperative complications between the two groups. IA use was associated with reduced postoperative opioid consumption (measured in oral morphine equivalents) compared to PCA alone (mean difference [95% confidence interval] -45.92 [-83.10 to -8.75]; p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: IA has the potential to decrease postoperative opioid use for patients undergoing LLR, and appears to be safe and effective in the setting of LLR. These findings are consistent with the ERAS Society recommendations for laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

2.
Can J Anaesth ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403548

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis undergoing corrective surgery are at risk for iatrogenic spinal cord injury and subsequent new neurologic deficits (NNDs). Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM) has been used to identify spinal cord injury; however, available data showing that IONM leads to improved clinical outcomes are inconclusive. This exploratory study aimed to examine the incidence of NNDs after idiopathic scoliosis surgery in two pediatric institutions in Canada with a focus on IONM use. METHODS: Charts of pediatric patients (10-18 yr) with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who underwent scoliosis correction surgery were retrospectively identified from the operating room database. Data regarding incidence and severity (mild [isolated sensory deficit] vs severe [any motor deficit]) of NNDs as well as demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted. RESULTS: Of 547 patients reviewed, 359 (66%) underwent IONM and 186 (34%) underwent wake-up test. Neuromonitoring data were missing in two patients. Total incidence of NNDs was 4.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1 to 6.8). Compared with the wake-up test, patients undergoing IONM were less likely to develop NNDs (unadjusted odds ratio, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.86; P = 0.02). Nevertheless, subgroup analysis did not reveal a statistical difference in severity of those deficits (mild vs severe) with IONM vs wake-up test. Combined anterior and posterior approach was also significantly associated with increased risk of such deficits. CONCLUSION: This exploratory study revealed that IONM was associated with a reduced overall incidence of NNDs in idiopathic scoliosis correction; however, its impact on the severity of those deficits is questionable. As we were unable to adjust for confounding variables, further research is needed to determine the impact of IONM on NNDs.

3.
Can J Anaesth ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170454

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Opioids are the most widely used therapy for pain during the postoperative period. It has been suggested by some that hydromorphone is clinically superior. Our primary objective was to determine if there is a difference in postoperative pain score ratings between adult patients receiving intravenous hydromorphone vs intravenous morphine on discharge from the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). METHODS: For this historical cohort study, convenience sampling was used to identify the first 605 patients ≥ 18 yr undergoing elective, non-cardiac surgery. Patients were categorized based on treatment in the PACU with hydromorphone (n = 326) or morphine (n = 279). Pain scores (scale of 0-10), nausea/vomiting (scale of 0-3), pruritis (scale of 0-3), and sedation (scale of 0-4), as well as total opioid dose administered from arrival in the PACU until readiness to discharge were evaluated. RESULTS: For the primary outcome of pain reported at discharge from the PACU, there was no significant difference between the mean (standard deviation) hydromorphone numeric rating scale (NRS) [2.8 (1.6)] and the morphine NRS [2.5 (1.5)] after adjusting for potential confounders (adjusted mean difference, 0.10; 95% confidence interval, -0.21 to 0.42; P = 0.53). Similarly, there were no significant between-group differences in length of stay in the PACU, satisfactory analgesia, nausea/vomiting, and sedation. CONCLUSION: This study serves to help guide the decision-making process for selecting either morphine or hydromorphone for acute postoperative analgesia. Overall, we found no significant difference for analgesia or for common opioid-related adverse effects between these two opioids in the postoperative period at the time of discharge from the PACU. Furthermore, according to this data, the equipotency ratio of hydromorphone to morphine is closer to 1:6.5 rather than the commonly employed 1:5 ratio.

4.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 885066620946316, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912037

RESUMO

End-of-life (EOL) care is a key aspect of critical care medicine (CCM) training. The goal of this study was to survey CCM residents and program directors (PDs) across Canada to describe current EOL care education. Using a literature review, we created a self-administered survey encompassing 10 CCM national objectives of training to address: (1) curricular content and evaluation methods, (2) residents' preparedness to meet these objectives, and (3) opportunities for educational improvement. We performed pilot testing and clinical sensibility testing, then distributed it to all residents and PDs across the 13 Canadian CCM programs. Our response rate was 84.3% overall (77 [81.1%] for residents and 13 [100%] for PDs). Residents rated direct observation, informal advice, and self-reflection as both the top 3 most utilized and perceived most effective teaching modalities. Residents most commonly reported comfort with skills related to pain and symptom management (n = 67, 94.3%; score > 3 on 5-point Likert scale), and least commonly reported comfort with donation after cardiac death skills (n = 26-38; 44.8%-65.5%). Base specialty and time in CCM training were independently associated with comfort ratings for some, but not all, EOL skills. With respect to family meetings, residents infrequently received feedback; however, most PDs believed feedback on 6 to 10 meetings is required for competence. When PD perceptions of teaching effectiveness were compared with resident comfort ratings, differences were most apparent for skills related to pain and symptom management, cultural awareness, and ethical principles. By the end of their first subspecialty training year, PDs expect residents to be competent at most, but not all, EOL skills. In summary, trainees and programs rely on clinical activities to develop competency in EOL care, resulting in some educational gaps. Transitioning to competency-based medical education presents an opportunity to address some of these gaps, while other gaps will require more specific curricular intervention.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(15): e19721, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282729

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Moderate to severe postoperative pain and associated opioid use may interfere with patients' well-being and course of recovery. Regional anesthetic techniques provide an opportunity for opioid sparing and improved patient outcomes. A new regional technique called the erector spinae plane (ESP) block has the potential to provide effective analgesia after shoulder arthroscopy with minimal risks and decreased opioid consumption. Our primary objective is to determine whether, in patients who undergo arthroscopic shoulder surgery, a preoperative ESP block reduces pain scores as compared to periarticular infiltration at the end of surgery. Additionally, we will also examine other factors such as opioid consumption, sensory block, adverse events, patient satisfaction, and persistent pain. METHODS: This is a 2-arm, single-center, parallel-design, double-blind randomized controlled trial of 60 patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Eligible patients will be recruited in the preoperative clinic. Using a computer-generated randomization, with a 1:1 allocation ratio, patients will be randomized to either the ESP or periarticular infiltration group. Patients will be followed in hospital in the postanesthesia care unit, at 24 hours, and at 1 month. The study with be analyzed as intention-to-treat. DISCUSSION: This study will inform an evidence-based choice in recommending ESP block for shoulder arthroscopy, as well as providing safety data. The merits of the study include its double dummy blinding to minimize observer bias, and its assessment of patient important outcomes, including pain scores, opioid consumption, and patient satisfaction. This study will also help provide an estimate of the incidence of side effects and complications of the ESP block. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03691922; Recruited Date of registration: October 2, 2018.


Assuntos
Artroscopia/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Músculos Paraespinais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ombro/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Analgésicos Opioides/normas , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestesia Local/métodos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Economia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Músculos Paraespinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos Paraespinais/inervação , Satisfação do Paciente , Ombro/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
School Ment Health ; 12(1): 22-37, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117478

RESUMO

We used a discrete choice conjoint experiment to model the anti-bullying (AB) program preferences of 1080 junior kindergarten to Grade 8 educators. Participants chose between hypothetical AB programs that varied combinations of 12 design attributes. Multi-level latent class analysis yielded three classes: All-in Supervisors (21.5%) preferred that all teaching staff supervise playgrounds and hallways; Facilitators (61.6%) preferred that students take ownership of AB activities with 25% of educators supervising playgrounds and hallways; and Reluctant Delegators (16.9%) preferred delegating the supervision of playgrounds and hallways to non-teaching staff. This class reported higher dispositional reactance, more implementation barriers, and more psychological reactance to these initiatives. They were less sensitive to social influences and less intent on participating in AB activities. Multi-level analysis showed a greater proportion of Reluctant Delegators clustered in one of the two groups of schools. The program choices of all classes were sensitive to the support of principals, colleagues, students, and, to a lesser extent, parents. All classes preferred programs conducted from kindergarten through Grade 12 that addressed the problems underlying bullying while valuing firm and consistent consequences for all students. Educators preferred AB programs selected by individual schools, rather than governments.

8.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 49(5): 603-617, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908088

RESUMO

Educators detect and intervene in a small proportion of bullying incidents. Although students are present when many bullying episodes occur, they are often reluctant to intervene. This study explored attributes of antibullying (AB) programs influencing the decision to intervene. Grade 5, 6, 7, and 8 students (N = 2,033) completed a discrete choice experiment examining the influence of 11 AB program attributes on the decision to intervene. Multilevel analysis revealed 6 latent classes. The Intensive Programming class (28.7%) thought students would intervene in schools with daily AB activities, 8 playground supervisors, mandatory reporting, and suspensions for perpetrators. A Minimal Programming class (10.3%), in contrast, thought monthly AB activities, 4 playground supervisors, discretionary reporting, and consequences limited to talking with teachers would motivate intervention. Membership in this class was linked to Grade 8, higher dispositional reactance, more reactance behavior, and more involvement as perpetrators. The remaining 4 classes were influenced by different combinations of these attributes. Students were more likely to intervene when isolated peers were included, other students intervened, and teachers responded quickly. Latent class analysis points to trade-offs in program design. Intensive programs that encourage intervention by students with little involvement as perpetrators may discourage intervention by those with greater involvement as perpetrators, high dispositional reactance, or more reactant behavior.

9.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 33(4): 625-632, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157682

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate short-term respiratory outcomes, mortality and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants born to mothers with and without pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH).Methods: Exposed infants <33 weeks' gestation were matched to controls in a 1:2 ratio, based on gestation, sex and antenatal steroid exposure in this retrospective cohort study. Primary outcomes were a novel cumulative respiratory index (cRI) (product of mean airway pressure-hours and FiO2-hours while on invasive ventilation during first 72 hours), mortality and BPD.Results: Seventy-nine exposed infants were matched with 158 controls. cRI was higher in exposed infants (median 1854; IQR 186-13,901) versus controls (median 1359; IQR 210-11,302) but not statistically significant (p = .63). On conditional regression analysis, PIH did not predict cRI (adjusted ß = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.79-1.17; p = .712). No association between PIH and mortality (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] = 3.14; 95% CI = 0.76-13.0; p=.11) was identified. PIH was significantly associated with BPD on univariate analysis (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.02-5.17; p=.046), but not after adjustment (aOR = 1.26; 95% CI = 0.38-4.19; p=.7).Conclusions: PIH was not associated with cRI, mortality or BPD in this study. Further validation of cRI and exploration of its relationship with PIH as well as neonatal outcomes is warranted.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(3): 343-352, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802414

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The use of interventional pain management (IPM) modalities to alleviate chronic pain is increasing despite the lack of high-quality evidence. We undertook this survey to explore patterns, training, and attributes of IPM practice. METHODS: We administered a 32-item survey via seven Canadian physician member organizations, whose members were engaged in the management of chronic pain. RESULTS: Of 777 physicians contacted, 256 (33%) responded: 45 (6%) declined to participate and 211 (27%) agreed to participate; the number of participants answering any given question varied. One hundred and sixty-nine of 194 (87%) practiced IPM and 103 of 194 (53%) managed only non-cancer pain. Pain management training of ≥ six months was associated with higher odds of IPM training (odds ratio [OR], 2.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32 to 6.7), but not necessarily ongoing IPM practice (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 0.74 to 5.3). A substantial percentage of physicians (108 of 168 [64%]) practiced IPM based only on training received during either their base residency program or courses. Only 48 of 186 (26%) felt that there were adequate opportunities for IPM training, and 69 of 186 (37%) believed that their colleagues practiced IPM in accordance with the best current evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Our survey indicates that IPM practice and training were not uniform, and that interventional therapies for chronic pain may not be performed in accordance with the best available evidence. Our survey highlights a lack of IPM training opportunities, which may result in substandard training. Concerted efforts involving physician organizations and regulators are needed to standardize IPM training and develop clinical guidelines to optimize evidence-based practice.

11.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(2): e107-e113, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe current stress ulcer prophylaxis practice in Canadian PICUs. DESIGN: Multicenter cohort study. We defined stress ulcer prophylaxis as the use of a proton-pump inhibitor, histamine-2 receptor antagonist, or sucralfate within the first 2 PICU days among children who had not been on these medications at home and had no evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding. SETTING: Seven PICUs in Canada. PATIENTS: Three hundred seventy-eight children requiring mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Children were ventilated for a median (interquartile range) of 2 days (1-6 d) and stayed in the PICU for a median (interquartile range) of 4 days (2-10 d). The median (interquartile range) age was 1.3 years (0.3-6.7 yr). Seventy percent of all children received acid suppression during their PICU stay. One hundred sixty-seven (54%) of the 309 children eligible for stress ulcer prophylaxis received it. Histamine-2 receptor antagonists were the most frequently used class (66%), followed by proton-pump inhibitors (47%) and sucralfate (4%), and 20% received more than one class. Stress ulcer prophylaxis was continued on the PICU transfer orders for 34% of these children. Children who received prophylaxis were older and had a higher Pediatric Risk of Mortality III score, more often received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and systemic corticosteroids and received less enteral nutrition. In multivariate analysis, age and invasive mechanical ventilation were independently associated with an increased likelihood of receiving stress ulcer prophylaxis and receiving feeds was independently associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving stress ulcer prophylaxis. Gastrointestinal bleeding was reported in 21 (6%) of 378 children; three (0.8%) were clinically important. Eighteen percent were treated for a new respiratory tract infection, and 1% developed Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: Stress ulcer prophylaxis is common in Canadian PICUs. Clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding and C. difficile-associated diarrhea are rare, and the utility of routine prophylaxis should be examined.

12.
J Pediatr Intensive Care ; 8(4): 218-225, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673457

RESUMO

Our objective is to evaluate intravenous (IV) fluid prescription practice patterns in critically ill children in the first 72 hours of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission and to evaluate the incidence and predictors of hyperchloremic metabolic acidemia (HCMA) and the association between HCMA and adverse outcomes. This retrospective cohort study was conducted in two tertiary-care Canadian PICUs. Children aged 0 to 18 years admitted to the PICU between January 2015 and January 2016 who received at least 50% of their calculated maintenance fluid requirements parenterally during the first 24 hours of admission were included. Children with known preexisting conditions associated with HCMA, such as renal tubular acidosis and gastrointestinal bicarbonate losses, were excluded. Of the 771 children screened, 543 met eligibility criteria and were included. The commonest prescribed maintenance fluid was 0.9% NaCl (72.9%) followed by lactated Ringer's solution (19.6%) and hypotonic solutions (4.6%). Balanced salt solutions (i.e., lactated Ringer's and Plasma-Lyte) were as commonly administered as unbalanced solutions (0.9% NaCl) for volume expansion (49.6 vs. 48.5%, respectively). Medications contributed to a significant proportion of total daily intake, in excess of bolus fluids. The incidence of hyperchloremia and HCMA was 94.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 93.2-96.9; 470/495) and 38.9% (95% CI: 34.6-43.2; 196/504), respectively. Predictors of HCMA were increasing combined bolus and maintenance 0.9% NaCl intake (odds ratio: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04-1.23) and increasing severity of illness. HCMA was not associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury, feeding intolerance, or PICU-acquired weakness. Isotonic fluids, specifically 0.9% NaCl, were the most commonly administered maintenance IV fluid in critically ill children. Sources of chloride load are not isolated to resuscitation fluids as previously suggested. Maintenance fluids and fluids administered with medications and IV flushes (fluid creep) are under-recognized significant sources of fluid and electrolyte intake in critically ill children. HCMA is common, and further prospective research is required to determine whether HCMA is indeed harmful in children. However, all significant sources of fluid should be accounted for in the design of future trials comparing balanced and unbalanced salt solutions.

13.
JMIR Med Inform ; 7(4): e14603, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research has shown that introducing electronic Health (eHealth) patient monitoring interventions can improve healthcare efficiency and clinical outcomes. The VIGILANCE (VItal siGns monItoring with continuous puLse oximetry And wireless cliNiCian notification aftEr surgery) study was a randomized controlled trial (n=2049) designed to assess the impact of continuous vital sign monitoring with alerts sent to nursing staff when respiratory resuscitations with naloxone, code blues, and intensive care unit transfers occurred in a cohort of postsurgical patients in a ward setting. This report identifies and evaluates key issues and challenges associated with introducing wireless monitoring systems into complex hospital infrastructure during the VIGILANCE eHealth intervention implementation. Potential solutions and suggestions for future implementation research are presented. OBJECTIVE: The goals of this study were to: (1) identify issues related to the deployment of the eHealth intervention system of the VIGILANCE study; and (2) evaluate the influence of these issues on intervention adoption. METHODS: During the VIGILANCE study, issues affecting the implementation of the eHealth intervention were documented on case report forms, alarm event forms, and a nursing user feedback questionnaire. These data were collated by the research and nursing personnel and submitted to the research coordinator. In this evaluation report, the clinical adoption framework was used as a guide to organize the identified issues and evaluate their impact. RESULTS: Using the clinical adoption framework, we identified issues within the framework dimensions of people, organization, and implementation at the meso level, as well as standards and funding issues at the macro level. Key issues included: nursing workflow changes with blank alarm forms (24/1030, 2.33%) and missing alarm forms (236/1030, 22.91%), patient withdrawal (110/1030, 10.68%), wireless network connectivity, false alarms (318/1030, 30.87%), monitor malfunction (36/1030, 3.49%), probe issues (16/1030, 1.55%), and wireless network standards. At the micro level, these issues affected the quality of the service in terms of support provided, the quality of the information yielded by the monitors, and the functionality, reliability, and performance of the monitoring system. As a result, these issues impacted access through the decreased ability of nurses to make complete use of the monitors, impacted care quality of the trial intervention through decreased effectiveness, and impacted productivity through interference in the coordination of care, thus decreasing clinical adoption of the monitoring system. CONCLUSIONS: Patient monitoring with eHealth technology in surgical wards has the potential to improve patient outcomes. However, proper planning that includes engagement of front-line nurses, installation of appropriate wireless network infrastructure, and use of comfortable cableless devices is required to maximize the potential of eHealth monitoring. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02907255; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02907255.

14.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(9): 1158-1164, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-risk syncope accounts for a large proportion of hospital admissions; however, inpatient investigations are often not necessary and are rarely diagnostic. Reducing the number of low-risk syncope admissions can likely lower health care resource consumption and overall expenditure. Application of syncope guidelines by physicians in the emergency department provides a standardized approach that may potentially reduce admissions and lead to health care resource utilization savings. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 1229 syncope presentations was conducted at 2 major academic centres spanning 1 year. Three major society guidelines and position statements were applied to determine the effect on admission rates. RESULTS: A total of 1031 true syncope charts were included in the analysis; 407 (39%) were admitted and 624 (61%) were discharged by the treating physician (MD). There was a significant difference in the mean [standard deviation] age (75 [14] vs 55 [22]) and baseline cardiovascular disease, including congestive heart failure 51/407 (13%) vs 28/624 (5%), coronary artery disease 125/407 (31%) vs 91/624 (15%), and structural heart disease 36/407 (9%) vs 26/624 (4%), between admitted and not admitted patients, respectively (P < 0.01). All guidelines warranted more low-risk admissions when compared with 19% by the MD: Canadian Cardiovascular Society 34% (P < 0.01), American College of Emergency Physicians 22% (P = 0.03), and European Society of Cardiology 26% (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, application of the current syncope guidelines to an emergency department population is unlikely to reduce low-risk hospital admissions.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Síncope , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Síncope/diagnóstico , Síncope/etiologia , Síncope/terapia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29853826

RESUMO

In general, clinical research network capacity building refers to programs aimed at enhancing networks of researchers to conduct clinical research. Although in the literature there is a large body of research on how to develop and build capacity in clinical research networks, the conceptualizations and implementations remain controversial and challenging. Moreover, the experiences learnt from the past accomplishments and failures can assist in the future capacity building efforts to be more practical, effective and efficient. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of capacity building in clinical research network by (1) identifying the key barriers to clinical research network capacity building, (2) providing insights into how to overcome those obstacles, and (3) sharing our experiences in collaborating with national and international partners to build capacity in clinical research networks. In conclusion, we have provided some insight into how to address the key factors of clinical research network capacity building and shared some empirical experiences. A successful capacity building practice requires a joint endeavor to procure sufficient resources and support from the relevant stakeholders, to ensure its efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability.

16.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 10: 17-28, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696154

RESUMO

Objectives: This study reviews simulation studies of discrete choice experiments to determine (i) how survey design features affect statistical efficiency, (ii) and to appraise their reporting quality. Outcomes: Statistical efficiency was measured using relative design (D-) efficiency, D-optimality, or D-error. Methods: For this systematic survey, we searched Journal Storage (JSTOR), Since Direct, PubMed, and OVID which included a search within EMBASE. Searches were conducted up to year 2016 for simulation studies investigating the impact of DCE design features on statistical efficiency. Studies were screened and data were extracted independently and in duplicate. Results for each included study were summarized by design characteristic. Previously developed criteria for reporting quality of simulation studies were also adapted and applied to each included study. Results: Of 371 potentially relevant studies, 9 were found to be eligible, with several varying in study objectives. Statistical efficiency improved when increasing the number of choice tasks or alternatives; decreasing the number of attributes, attribute levels; using an unrestricted continuous "manipulator" attribute; using model-based approaches with covariates incorporating response behaviour; using sampling approaches that incorporate previous knowledge of response behaviour; incorporating heterogeneity in a model-based design; correctly specifying Bayesian priors; minimizing parameter prior variances; and using an appropriate method to create the DCE design for the research question. The simulation studies performed well in terms of reporting quality. Improvement is needed in regards to clearly specifying study objectives, number of failures, random number generators, starting seeds, and the software used. Conclusion: These results identify the best approaches to structure a DCE. An investigator can manipulate design characteristics to help reduce response burden and increase statistical efficiency. Since studies varied in their objectives, conclusions were made on several design characteristics, however, the validity of each conclusion was limited. Further research should be conducted to explore all conclusions in various design settings and scenarios. Additional reviews to explore other statistical efficiency outcomes and databases can also be performed to enhance the conclusions identified from this review.

17.
JAMA ; 319(12): 1221-1238, 2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29584842

RESUMO

Importance: Despite increasing emphasis on conservative management of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in preterm infants, different pharmacotherapeutic interventions are used to treat those developing a hemodynamically significant PDA. Objectives: To estimate the relative likelihood of hemodynamically significant PDA closure with common pharmacotherapeutic interventions and to compare adverse event rates. Data Sources and Study Selection: The databases of MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception until August 15, 2015, and updated on December 31, 2017, along with conference proceedings up to December 2017. Randomized clinical trials that enrolled preterm infants with a gestational age younger than 37 weeks treated with intravenous or oral indomethacin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen vs each other, placebo, or no treatment for a clinically or echocardiographically diagnosed hemodynamically significant PDA. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data were independently extracted in pairs by 6 reviewers and synthesized with Bayesian random-effects network meta-analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome: hemodynamically significant PDA closure; secondary: included surgical closure, mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intraventricular hemorrhage. Results: In 68 randomized clinical trials of 4802 infants, 14 different variations of indomethacin, ibuprofen, or acetaminophen were used as treatment modalities. The overall PDA closure rate was 67.4% (2867 of 4256 infants). A high dose of oral ibuprofen was associated with a significantly higher odds of PDA closure vs a standard dose of intravenous ibuprofen (odds ratio [OR], 3.59; 95% credible interval [CrI], 1.64-8.17; absolute risk difference, 199 [95% CrI, 95-258] more per 1000 infants) and a standard dose of intravenous indomethacin (OR, 2.35 [95% CrI, 1.08-5.31]; absolute risk difference, 124 [95% CrI, 14-188] more per 1000 infants). Based on the ranking statistics, a high dose of oral ibuprofen ranked as the best pharmacotherapeutic option for PDA closure (mean surface under the cumulative ranking [SUCRA] curve, 0.89 [SD, 0.12]) and to prevent surgical PDA ligation (mean SUCRA, 0.98 [SD, 0.08]). There was no significant difference in the odds of mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis, or intraventricular hemorrhage with use of placebo or no treatment compared with any of the other treatment modalities. Conclusions and Relevance: A high dose of oral ibuprofen was associated with a higher likelihood of hemodynamically significant PDA closure vs standard doses of intravenous ibuprofen or intravenous indomethacin; placebo or no treatment did not significantly change the likelihood of mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis, or intraventricular hemorrhage. Trial Registration: PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42015015797.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/tratamento farmacológico , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Indometacina/administração & dosagem , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Teorema de Bayes , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/complicações , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/mortalidade , Enterocolite Necrosante/induzido quimicamente , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
18.
Can J Diabetes ; 42(2): 158-162, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28662968

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Diabetes is often poorly managed in hospitals. This study assessed the level of adherence to current Canadian practice guidelines for inpatient pharmacologic management of type 2 diabetes and whether it affected the frequency of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. METHODS: Retrospectively, we assessed the first 3 days of routine inpatient capillary blood glucose measurement (CBGM) records for hyperglycemia (>8 mmol/L fasting, >10 mmol/L nonfasting) and hypoglycemia (<4 mmol/L) in adults with drug-treated type 2 diabetes admitted to internal medicine without metabolic decompensation or nil per os (NPO) status at 2 hospitals during October through December 2014. Patients, divided according to their admission orders into guideline-adherent versus guideline-nonadherent groups were compared for frequency of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. Factors predicting guideline adherence were assessed. RESULTS: Of 150 patients with diabetes who were admitted, 108 met entry criteria. A total of 89 patients received guideline-based care (82%), whereas 19 patients did not (18%). Charlson index and preadmission medications did not predict guideline-based care, but admitting physicians' seniority did (junior, senior resident, attending physician; p=0.05). In the adherent group, 43% of CBGMs were hyperglycemic, versus 64% in the nonadherent group (p=0.01). For hypoglycemia, proportions were 2% versus 1%, respectively (p=0.21). CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to guidelines for inpatient type 2 diabetes management is good and may be greater with more training. Hyperglycemia was more common in patients who did not receive guideline-based care. Hypoglycemia was uncommon and did not appear to be more common in the guideline-adherent group, although numbers were small. These results may alleviate physicians' fear that providing adequate insulin to hospitalized patients may cause hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Glicemia/análise , Canadá , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 65: 144-150, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this systematic survey was to examine the percentage of studies in which there was agreement in the reporting of the primary outcome between the currently updated version of the clinical trial registry and the published paper. We also investigated the factors associated with agreement in reporting of the primary outcome. METHODS: We searched PubMed for all randomized control trials (RCT)s published in 2012-2015 in the top five general medicine journals (based on the 2014 impact factor). Two hundred abstracts (50 from each year) were randomly selected for data extraction. Agreement in reporting of 11 key study conduct items (e.g., sample size) and study characteristics (e.g., funding, number of sites) were extracted by two independent reviewers. ANALYSIS: Descriptive analyses were conducted to determine the proportion of studies on which there was agreement in reporting of key study conduct items. Generalized estimating equations were used to explore factors associated with agreement in reporting of the primary outcome. RESULTS: Of the 200 included studies, 87% had agreement in reporting of the primary outcome. After adjusting for other covariates, having greater than 50 sites was associated with an increased likelihood of agreement in reporting of the primary outcome (odds ratio=7.1, 95% confidence interval=1.39, 36.27, p=0.018). CONCLUSIONS: We identified substantive disagreement in reporting between publications and current clinical trial registry, which were associated with several study characteristics. Further measures are needed to improve reporting given the potential threats to the quality and integrity of scientific research.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Sistema de Registros/normas , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Organização do Financiamento , Humanos , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
20.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-954861

RESUMO

In general, clinical research network capacity building refers to programs aimed at enhancing networks of researchers to conduct clinical research. Although in the literature there is a large body of research on how to develop and build capacity in clinical research networks, the conceptualizations and implementations remain controversial and challenging. Moreover, the experiences learnt from the past accomplishments and failures can assist in the future capacity building efforts to be more practical, effective and efficient. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of capacity building in clinical research network by (1) identifying the key barriers to clinical research network capacity building, (2) providing insights into how to overcome those obstacles, and (3) sharing our experiences in collaborating with national and international partners to build capacity in clinical research networks. In conclusion, we have provided some insight into how to address the key factors of clinical research network capacity building and shared some empirical experiences. A successful capacity building practice requires a joint endeavor to procure sufficient resources and support from the relevant stakeholders, to ensure its efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pesquisa/educação , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Fortalecimento Institucional , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde
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