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1.
Bone ; 127: 1-8, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to sub-optimal maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy has been linked to inadequate in utero bone growth with potential for post-natal deficits, but reported findings are inconsistent. Possible reasons include measurement error in assessing bone length/height, or lack of adjustment for confounding variables such as maternal/infant diet, physical activity and season of birth. The objective of this study was to determine the maternal and child factors associated with bone length traits in children at 3 years of age as part of a longitudinal follow-up of a pregnancy cohort. METHODS: Mother-child dyads enrolled in the Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In early Life study were included. Maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration was measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Anthropometry, physical activity by questionnaire and dietary assessment by food frequency questionnaire were completed for mothers during pregnancy (27-40 weeks gestation) and for children at 3 years with diet by 3-day food records (Nutritionist Pro). Whole body bone mineral density in mother and child (n = 473) was measured by dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA) at the 3 year visit. A software program was developed using MATLAB to derive bone length measurements from whole body DXA images using 8 long bones of each child. Association between maternal and child variables with offspring bone length was assessed using unadjusted and adjusted multivariate linear regression analyses. RESULTS: In the final adjusted multivariate regression model, factors associated with child bone length were maternal height (p = 0.05), child birth length (p = 0.005) and child weight z-score at 3 years (p < 0.001). No association was observed between maternal serum 25(OH)D concentrations in pregnancy (of which 77% were in normal range) and child bone length. CONCLUSION: In healthy Canadian mothers and their children, the factors associated with child bone length achieved at 3 years of age appear to be related to genetic traits rather than environmental exposures. Measures of the length of long bones in children using DXA scans may have provided a more accurate assessment of bone length than whole body height measures.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858986

RESUMO

Background: Respiratory depression is a serious perioperative complication associated with morbidity and mortality. Recently, technology has become available to wirelessly monitor patients on regular surgical wards with continuous pulse oximetry and wireless clinician notification with alarms. When a patient's SpO2 falls below a set threshold, the clinician is notified via a pager and may intervene earlier to prevent further clinical deterioration. To date, the technology has not been evaluated with a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods: We designed a parallel-group unblinded pilot RCT of a wireless monitoring system on two surgical wards in an academic teaching hospital. Postsurgical patients with an anticipated length of stay of at least 1 day were included and randomized to standard care or standard care plus wireless respiratory monitoring for up to a 72-h period. The primary outcomes were feasibility outcomes: average patients recruited per week and tolerability of the system by patients. Secondary outcomes included (1) respiratory events (naloxone administration for respiratory depression, ICU transfers, and cardiac arrest team activation) and (2) system alarm types and details. The analysis of the outcomes was based on descriptive statistics and estimates reported using point (95% confidence intervals). Criteria for success of feasibility were recruitment of an average of 15 patients/week and 90% of the patients tolerating the system. Results: The pilot trial enrolled 250 of the 335 patients screened for eligibility, with 126 and 124 patients entering the standard monitoring and wireless groups, respectively. Baseline demographics were similar between groups, except for slightly more women in the wireless group. Average patient recruitment per week was 14 95% CI [12, 16] patients. The wireless monitoring was quite tolerable with 86.6% (95% CI 78.2-92.7%) of patients completing the full course, and there were no other adverse events directly attributable to the monitoring. With regard to secondary outcomes, the respiratory event rate was low with only 1 event in the wireless group and none in the control group. The average number of alarms per week was 4.0 (95% CI, 1.6-6.4). Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrated adequate patient recruitment and high tolerability of the wireless monitoring system. A full RCT that is powered to detect patient important outcomes such as respiratory depression is now underway. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, Registration number NCT02907255, registered 7 September 2016-retrospectively registered.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 63(2): 170-80, 2014 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24076282

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether measuring post-operative B-type natriuretic peptides (NPs) (i.e., B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP] and N-terminal fragment of proBNP [NT-proBNP]) enhances risk stratification in adult patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, in whom a pre-operative NP has been measured. BACKGROUND: Pre-operative NP concentrations are powerful independent predictors of perioperative cardiovascular complications, but recent studies have reported that elevated post-operative NP concentrations are independently associated with these complications. It is not clear whether there is value in measuring post-operative NP when a pre-operative measurement has been done. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis to determine whether the addition of post-operative NP levels enhanced the prediction of the composite of death and nonfatal myocardial infarction at 30 and ≥180 days after surgery. RESULTS: Eighteen eligible studies provided individual patient data (n = 2,179). Adding post-operative NP to a risk prediction model containing pre-operative NP improved model fit and risk classification at both 30 days (corrected quasi-likelihood under the independence model criterion: 1,280 to 1,204; net reclassification index: 20%; p < 0.001) and ≥180 days (corrected quasi-likelihood under the independence model criterion: 1,320 to 1,300; net reclassification index: 11%; p = 0.003). Elevated post-operative NP was the strongest independent predictor of the primary outcome at 30 days (odds ratio: 3.7; 95% confidence interval: 2.2 to 6.2; p < 0.001) and ≥180 days (odds ratio: 2.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.9 to 2.7; p < 0.001) after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Additional post-operative NP measurement enhanced risk stratification for the composite outcomes of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 30 days and ≥180 days after noncardiac surgery compared with a pre-operative NP measurement alone.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico
4.
Anesthesiology ; 119(2): 270-83, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23528538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether postoperative B-type natriuretic peptides (i.e., BNP and N-terminal proBNP) can predict cardiovascular complications in noncardiac surgery. METHODS: The authors undertook a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis to determine whether postoperative BNPs predict postoperative cardiovascular complications at 30 and 180 days or more. RESULTS: The authors identified 18 eligible studies (n = 2,051). For the primary outcome of 30-day mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction, BNP of 245 pg/ml had an area under the curve of 0.71 (95% CI, 0.64-0.78), and N-terminal proBNP of 718 pg/ml had an area under the curve of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.77-0.84). These thresholds independently predicted 30-day mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.5; 95% CI, 2.74-7.4; P < 0.001), mortality (AOR, 4.2; 95% CI, 2.29-7.69; P < 0.001), cardiac mortality (AOR, 9.4; 95% CI, 0.32-254.34; P < 0.001), and cardiac failure (AOR, 18.5; 95% CI, 4.55-75.29; P < 0.001). For greater than or equal to 180-day outcomes, natriuretic peptides independently predicted mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction (AOR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.58-4.3; P < 0.001), mortality (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.67-86; P < 0.001), cardiac mortality (AOR, 2.1; 95% CI, 0.05-1,385.17; P < 0.001), and cardiac failure (AOR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.0-9.34; P = 0.022). Patients with BNP values of 0-250, greater than 250-400, and greater than 400 pg/ml suffered the primary outcome at a rate of 6.6, 15.7, and 29.5%, respectively. Patients with N-terminal proBNP values of 0-300, greater than 300-900, and greater than 900 pg/ml suffered the primary outcome at a rate of 1.8, 8.7, and 27%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Increased postoperative BNPs are independently associated with adverse cardiac events after noncardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/sangue , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Razão de Chances , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Período Pós-Operatório , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
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