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1.
Nurse Educ Today ; 107: 105124, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The predominate role of internships on the retention of nursing students highlights the need to monitor internship experiences during a healthcare crisis like CoViD-19. OBJECTIVES: To explore the relation between internships experiences during a pandemic and student nurses' commitment or intention-to-leave the nursing program; as well as the relation between internship experiences and commitment or intention-to-leave the nursing program. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional study using a sample of 1.079 nursing students from18 nursing schools in Flanders, Belgium. Students from all study years were eligible to participate. METHODS: Online self-reporting survey during the first CoViD-19 wave (April-May 2020). Regression analyses were used to explore the association with students' commitment or intention-to-leave. RESULTS: Students reported high levels of study commitment (4.06; SD 0.66; range 1-5), and an overall low intention-to-leave (1.64; SD 0.83; range 1-5). No difference in commitment or intention-to-leave were seen between students who did or did not had internship experience during CoViD-19 period. Need-supportive experiences - indicating that students felt competent, related to the team, and could be themselves on internship - coincided with high commitment. Conversely, need-frustrating experiences - indicating that students felt insecure, unrelated, and controlled by the nursing team - increased intention-to-leave nursing education. Students who felt pressured for an internship during the first wave of the CoViD-19 crisis, had more doubts to continue nursing education, and an increased chance on drop-out. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend nursing schools to assess student's motivation when making a substantiated decision concerning internships during a health crisis, as facing an imposed or subjective mandatory decision to go into clinical practice might lead to less commitment to the study program. For both teacher and staff mentors it is deemed important to discuss the internship climate with the student, in order to early identify need-frustrating issues during internship.

2.
J Adolesc ; 91: 97-109, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358927

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although associations between Blatt's personality dimensions of self-criticism and dependency and adolescents' depressive symptoms are well-established, only few studies have examined associations between these variables at the level of daily, within-person fluctuations. Moreover, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying this personality vulnerability to depressive symptoms is limited. Therefore, we studied (a) daily fluctuations in both personality and depressive symptoms over a 7-day period and (b) the possible interplay between daily variations in personality vulnerability, need-based experiences (as conceptualized in Self-Determination Theory), and depressive symptoms. This interplay was examined in terms of both a mediational and a moderating role of the need-based experiences. METHODS: Participants were 121 Belgian adolescents (Mage = 15.81; SDage = 1.50; 52 % male) who completed questionnaires tapping into daily self-criticism, dependency, need-based experiences, and depressive symptoms every evening during seven consecutive days. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: Multilevel analysis revealed that self-criticism and dependency fluctuated substantially on a daily basis. These daily fluctuations in personality were related to daily fluctuations in depressive symptoms, with daily variation in need-based experiences mediating these associations. We found no evidence for interactions between personality and the need-based experiences. The findings underscore the importance of considering daily fluctuations in individuals' personality vulnerability and point to the explanatory role of need-based experiences in the relation between personality and depressive symptoms on a daily basis.

3.
J Fam Psychol ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292034

RESUMO

The lockdown measures that were taken to contain the worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 caused many parents to stay at home with their children. This unusual situation created both risks and opportunities for families. In the present study, we examined the role of parental identity as a resource for parental adaptation during this challenging period, thereby considering both parenthood experiences and parents' general mental health while also taking into account the cumulative risk to which parents were exposed (e.g., single parenthood). Furthermore, to shed light on the mechanisms behind the effects of parental identity, this study addressed the mediating role of parental satisfaction of their basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. During the lockdown period in Belgium, 492 parents (88% mothers, Mage = 44 years, 63.7% in intact family, 31.2% with a university degree) completed online questionnaires on parental identity, need-based experiences, positive and negative parenthood experiences, and mental health. Several weeks earlier, these participants also rated their mental health and a variety of risks they were exposed to as part of a larger study. Results showed that a clear and self-endorsed parental identity was related to better parental adaptation, with parental need satisfaction playing a mediating role in these associations. Moreover, these associations remained significant after controlling for the prior levels of parental mental health and for cumulative risk. Overall, findings suggest that parental identity serves as a source of resilience in an uncertain period such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299793

RESUMO

Grounded in SDT, several studies have highlighted the role of teachers' motivating and demotivating styles for students' motivation, learning, and physical activity in physical education (PE). However, most of these studies focused on a restricted number of motivating strategies (e.g., offering choice) or dimensions (e.g., autonomy support). Recently, researchers have developed the Situations-in-School (i.e., SIS-Education) questionnaire, which allows one to gain a more integrative and fine-grained insight into teachers' engagement in autonomy-support, structure, control, and chaos through a circular structure (i.e., a circumplex). Although teaching in PE resembles teaching in academic courses in many ways, some of the items of the original situation-based questionnaire (e.g., regarding homework) are irrelevant to the PE context. In the present study, we therefore sought to develop a modified, PE-friendly version of this earlier validated SIS-questionnaire-the SIS-PE. Findings in a sample of Belgian (N = 136) and French (N = 259) PE teachers, examined together and as independent samples, showed that the variation in PE teachers' motivating styles in this adapted version is also best captured by a circumplex structure, with four overarching styles and eight subareas differing in their level of need support and directiveness. The SIS-PE possesses excellent convergent and concurrent validity. With the adaptations being successful, great opportunities for future research on PE teachers (de-)motivating styles are created.


Assuntos
Autonomia Pessoal , Educação Física e Treinamento , Humanos , Motivação , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
J Happiness Stud ; : 1-27, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942013

RESUMO

Across the world, measures were taken to contain the spreading of the COVID-19 virus. Many of these measures caused a sudden rupture in people's daily routines, thereby eliciting considerable uncertainty and potentially also hampering the satisfaction of individuals' psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Drawing upon Maslow's Hierarchical Need Theory and Self-Determination Theory, this study examined the unique role of felt insecurity and the psychological needs, as well as their dynamic interplay, in the prediction of mental health. A large and heterogeneous sample of adults (N = 5118; Mage = 43.45 years) was collected during the first ten days of the lockdown period in Flanders, Belgium. A subsample (N = 835, Mage = 41.39) participated during a second wave one week later. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that felt insecurity, need satisfaction and need frustration all independently predicted various positive (life satisfaction, sleep quality) and negative indicators depressive symptoms, anxiety) of mental health, with little systematic evidence for interactions between the predictors. The pattern of findings obtained concurrently largely held in the longitudinal analyses. Finally, results showed that associations between felt insecurity and lower concurrent and prospective mental health were partially mediated by need satisfaction and frustration, with especially psychological need frustration predicting changes in mental health over time. Overall, the findings suggest that satisfaction of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness is not just a 'luxury good'. Satisfaction of these needs is important also in times of insecurity, while need frustration represents a risk factor for maladjustment during such times.

6.
J Adolesc ; 88: 67-83, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662706

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Satisfaction of adolescents' basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness contributes to their well-being. Socialization figures (e.g., parents) can assist adolescents in getting these needs met. In addition, adolescents can engage in need crafting, thereby proactively managing their behavior towards improved need satisfaction. This research aimed to develop a need crafting measure and to examine the role of need crafting in adolescents' need-based experiences and mental health. METHOD: A cross-sectional study in 233 Flemish students (Study 1; Mage = 16.6, 58.4% female) addressed the psychometric properties of a need crafting measure and its associations with relevant constructs. Using a three-wave longitudinal study in 436 Flemish students (Study 2; Mage = 16.33, 66,0% female), we investigated the role of need crafting in adolescents' mental health and the intervening role of need-based experiences. RESULTS: In Study 1, a CFA yielded evidence for the psychometric quality of the need crafting measure. Need crafting was related in meaningful ways with different validation constructs and with adolescents' need-based experiences. Study 2 showed that need crafting was related to adolescents' mental health, both at the level of inter-individual differences and at the level of intra-individual change. Need-based experiences accounted partly for the mental health benefits associated with need crafting, with the effects remaining significant after controlling for perceived maternal need-support. CONCLUSION: The findings provide initial evidence for the importance of adolescents' need crafting in mental health. Future research needs to further examine factors that determine adolescents' ability to manage their own psychological needs.

7.
J Adolesc ; 88: 146-161, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780738

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Pathways to Underachievement model (PUM; Snyder & Linnenbrink-Garcia, 2013) is a person-oriented framework identifying two distinct patterns of self- and value beliefs that help explain underachievement among cognitively highly able students. This framework was developed to clear up inconclusive findings from variable-centered underachievement research, but has not been previously empirically tested. METHODS: The present study aimed to test the PUM by investigating (a) whether the predicted motivational profiles are evident among a sample of high-ability students (IQ ≥ 120) beginning secondary school in Flanders, Belgium (N = 403, Mage = 12.2 years, 60.5% males) and (b) whether these profiles relate to students' (dis)engagement from and (under)achievement in school, as assessed by the students, their parents and teachers, and school grades. Latent profile analysis was performed on five motivational dimensions: academic self-concept, self-worth contingency, task value beliefs, entity beliefs, and attainment/utility value, and outcomes were compared across profiles using the BCH method. RESULTS: Latent profile analysis identified four profiles, each involving a distinct patterns of motivational variables. Two of the profiles exhibited maladaptive variable patterns consistent with the distinct profiles theorized by the PUM. Furthermore, profile differences in (dis)engagement and (under)achievement outcomes generally corresponded with the predictions of the PUM across multiple perspectives. CONCLUSION: This study found distinct maladaptive motivational profiles that were each linked to the outcomes hypothesized by the PUM. These findings establish empirically that there are qualitatively different types of high-ability underachievers, which supports the Pathways to Underachievement model and gives momentum to person-oriented analysis within underachievement research.

8.
Eur J Ageing ; : 1-13, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679277

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected people across the world, with important heterogeneity among older adults in how they respond to the challenges associated with this crisis. Relying on a cross-fertilization between Erikson's personality theory and self-determination theory, this study aimed to examine possible sources of resilience (i.e., ego integrity and need satisfaction) and vulnerability (i.e., despair) in older adults' (mal) adjustment, thereby additionally considering the role of multiple risk and protective factors (e.g., gender and marital status). During the second month of the lockdown period in Belgium, 693 older adults (M age = 70.06, SD = 4.48, range: 65-89 years, 62.1% female) filled out online questionnaires concerning the study variables, while also completing assessments of several important sociodemographic factors. Structural equation modeling suggested that both ego integrity and despair related to indicators of well-being and psychological distress through experienced need satisfaction. Additionally, we found several factors to protect (e.g., higher perceived income) or diminish (e.g., being widowed) older adults' well-being during these challenging times, with little evidence for a moderating role of these factors in associations between the psychological variables. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405024

RESUMO

This study investigated emotion regulation (i.e., emotional integration, suppression and dysregulation) as a transdiagnostic process underlying adolescents' internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Basic psychological need experiences were investigated as a possible underlying mechanism explaining this association. A heterogeneous sample of non-clinical and clinically-referred adolescents reported upon emotion regulation, basic psychological needs (i.e., need satisfaction and frustration), and both internalizing and externalizing problems. Results indicated that dysfunctional emotion regulation was positively linked to internalizing as well as externalizing problems. Need frustration was a partial mediator in this relation between emotion regulation and psychopathology. The findings suggest that both emotion regulation and basic psychological needs may play a transdiagnostic role in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

10.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 47(3): 377-394, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552482

RESUMO

In two diary studies, we examined the reciprocal daily association between the satisfaction and frustration of adolescents' basic psychological needs and sleep, and the role of stress and fatigue in these associations. In Study 1 (N = 211; 52% female; Mage = 15.86 years, SD = 1.18 years), daily need experiences were unrelated to daily fluctuations in subjective sleep outcomes. However, shorter daily sleep quantity was related to higher daily fatigue, which in turn related to more daily need frustration and less need satisfaction. Study 2 (N = 51; 49% female; Mage = 15.88 years, SD = 2.88 years) extended these findings by demonstrating that daily need frustration related to shorter objective sleep quantity and longer wake after sleep onset, indirectly through higher symptoms of stress. Poor sleep quality also related to worse need experiences via higher daily fatigue. These findings underscore the dynamic interplay between daily need experiences and adolescent sleep.

11.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 116: 103354, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The trend towards more active involvement of patients in the management of their chronic condition requires professionals to interact in a way that facilitates patients' autonomy and motivation. A self-assessment tool that measures simultaneously motivating and demotivating interaction styles in counselling chronic ill patients is currently not available. OBJECTIVES: Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, this study aimed to develop and validate a self-report tool that captures healthcare professionals' motivating (i.e., autonomy-support and structure) and demotivating (i.e., control and chaos) interaction styles while supporting patients towards self-management. METHODS: The Situations In Self-management support - HealthCare Professionals (SIS-HCP) was developed throughout a five-phased psychometric validation study with (1) construct definition, (2) development of the vignette-based questionnaire, (3) ecological validation and piloting, (4) psychometric evaluation (round 1) by multidimensional scaling analysis, and (5) psychometric evaluation (round 2) by internal and construct validity, and reliability testing procedures in 5 independent samples (total N = 1133), between August 2015 and March 2018. RESULTS: Multidimensional scaling analysis provided evidence for a two-dimensional structure, with motivating, relative to demotivating counselling and high, relative to low, directive counselling representing the two axes. Four styles could be distinguished: autonomy-support (rather motivating and non-directive), structure (rather motivating & directive), control (rather demotivating & directive) and chaos (rather demotivating & non-directive) within self-management support. The SIS-HCP demonstrated good construct validity, and high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. CONCLUSION: The SIS-HCP is a vignette-based tool, which allows to explore, in an integrative way, which motivating (i.e., autonomy-support and structure) and demotivating (i.e., control and chaos) styles healthcare professionals use when counselling patients living with a chronic illness. The SIS-HCP might enhance professionals' awareness of their (de)motivating counselling styles and the extent to which they promote ownership among patients. The SIS-HCP represents an interesting addition to existing instruments which measure what professionals do in the field of self-management support, and how confident they feel doing so. The thorough process of development and validation led to a theoretical underpinned tool, with the identified (de)motivating dimensions yielding strong psychometric properties. The SIS-HCP can be used as a reflective tool for professionals and for tailored training.

12.
J Pers ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although intellectually gifted individuals are often portrayed as perfectionists, evidence for an association between cognitive ability and perfectionism is inconclusive. This study investigates the relations between cognitive ability and two distinct dimensions of perfectionism and addresses the role of parental antecedents of perfectionism in adolescents at different levels of cognitive ability. METHOD: In a community sample of 3,168 adolescents and their parents, cognitive ability was assessed and perfectionism levels and parenting practices were surveyed. RESULTS: Adolescents higher in cognitive ability reported higher levels of Personal Standards (i.e., setting ambitious objectives) but lower levels of Concern over Mistakes (i.e., worrying excessively about mistakes). Parental criticism, high parental expectations, and conditionally regarding parenting were associated positively with Concern over Mistakes, and high parental expectations were related positively to Personal Standards. These associations were generally independent of adolescents' cognitive ability. Parents of adolescents higher in cognitive ability relied less on parenting practices associated with the development of perfectionism. CONCLUSION: Cognitive ability is related to a higher pursuit of personal standards, yet does not constitute a risk factor for excessive concerns about mistakes. Parental antecedents were related similarly and in theoretically meaningful ways to adolescent perfectionism across different levels of cognitive ability.

13.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; : 1-11, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176275

RESUMO

Building on recent self-determination theory research differentiating controlling coaching into a demanding and domineering approach, this study examined the role of both approaches in athletes' motivational outcomes when accompanied by autonomy support or structure. Within team-sport athletes (N = 317; mean age = 17.67), four sets of k-means cluster analyses systematically pointed toward a four-cluster solution (e.g., high-high, high-low, low-high, and low-low), regardless of the pair of coaching dimensions used. One of the identified coaching profiles involved coaches who are perceived to combine need-supportive and controlling behaviors (i.e., high-high). Whereas combining need-supportive and domineering behaviors (i.e., high-high) yields lower autonomous motivation and engagement compared with a high need-support profile (i.e., high-low), this is less the case for the combination of need-supportive and demanding behaviors (i.e., high-high). This person-centered approach provides deeper insights into how coaches combine different styles and how some forms of controlling coaching yield a greater cost than others.

14.
New Dir Child Adolesc Dev ; 2020(173): 7-26, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029916

RESUMO

Parent-adolescent relationships are highly bidirectional in nature, with parental behaviors affecting adolescents' adjustment and with adolescents' behaviors, in turn, eliciting parental practices. However, there is more to adolescents' agency in the socialization process than simple reciprocity. Adolescents contribute actively to the quality and nature of the parent-adolescent relationship by giving meaning to parental behaviors and by engaging in cognitive-behavioral responses to parenting. These processes are discussed in the context of autonomy-relevant parenting, a dimension of parenting with pivotal importance for adolescents' psychosocial adjustment. We call for more research on the micro-processes involved in adolescents' agency because such research can yield a deeper insight in adolescents' differential susceptibility to parenting (depending on factors such as age, culture, and personality). It can also help to explain the multifinality involved in parenting, with, for instance, controlling parenting relating to distinct developmental problems in different adolescents. Finally, such research has applied value because it can help identify adolescents most at risk for the consequences of adverse parenting, and because it can help inform prevention programs aimed at strengthening constructive parent-adolescent communication.

15.
J Adolesc ; 84: 200-212, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002659

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While research has shown convincingly that psychologically controlling parenting increases the risk for internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents, little is known about how adolescents cope with such parenting. This study examined the role of two non-autonomous ways of coping (i.e., compulsive compliance and oppositional defiance) and one more autonomous way of coping (i.e., negotiation) in the associations between psychologically controlling parenting and internalizing and externalizing problems. METHOD: Two-wave data from a larger longitudinal study with Belgian adolescents (N = 198; 51% female; mean age = 14.89 years, range = 13-17 years) were analyzed using multilevel modeling. RESULTS: The results showed that oppositional defiance exacerbated associations between psychologically controlling parenting and externalizing problems at the between-person level of analysis. Both compulsive compliance and negotiation exacerbated the association with internalizing problems at the within-person level. In addition to these moderating effects, both oppositional defiance and negotiation played a partly mediating role in associations between psychologically controlling parenting and externalizing problems and oppositional defiance partly mediated associations between psychologically controlling parenting and internalizing problems at the between-person level. CONLUSION: Overall, results suggest that oppositional defiance and compulsive compliance are rather dysfunctional coping responses and that negotiation is a mixed blessing. Directions for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Mecanismos de Defesa , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Negativismo , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 91: 104184, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707523

RESUMO

Given that prior research has provided evidence for the role of late adults' attitudes towards death in their mental health, we sought to understand its underlying sources. Guided by Self-Determination Theory and Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, two cross-sectional studies examined whether older individuals' psychological need-based experiences, as accumulated during life, relate to their death attitudes and whether their experienced ego integrity and despair play an intervening role in these associations. Whereas Study 1 (N = 394 late adults; Mage = 75.14; SD = 6.52; 62.9 % female) involved an assessment of need satisfaction only, in Study 2 (N = 126 late adults; Mage = 78.09; SD = 7.17; 61.9 % female) both need satisfaction and need frustration were assessed. Structural equation modeling showed that, across studies, experienced need satisfaction related positively to ego integrity and negatively to despair. Need frustration was related to despair only. In turn, ego integrity related positively to death acceptance and negatively to death anxiety, while despair related positively to death anxiety. Finally, the contribution of need satisfaction to death attitudes was mostly mediated by individuals' ego integrity. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

17.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 110: 103604, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rising attention to participation and self-regulation in chronic care requires nurses to move towards an approach in which patients' perspectives and choices are central, and in which patients' competency is fostered. According to Self-Determination Theory, nurses can differ in the way they interact with patients living with a chronic illness. That is, they can interact in an autonomy-supportive, controlling, structuring or chaotic way. However, in practice, nurses often use these styles side by side depending on personal and situational demands. OBJECTIVE: Rooted in Self-Determination Theory, this study sought to identify distinct profiles among nurses involving the co-occurrence of autonomy support, structure, control and chaos (aim 1), and to examine whether such profiles are meaningfully driven by nurse-related indicators (aim 2). DESIGN: A cross-sectional design with latent profile analysis. METHODS: Data were collected using validated self-report questionnaires among nurses counselling chronically ill patients (N = 389). Latent profile analysis was performed to shed light on how nurses use different styles side by side; and subsequent MANCOVA testing was used to examine differences between the profiles in terms of nurse-related indicators. RESULTS: Four profiles could be identified, each characterised by a unique combination of differing degrees of autonomy support, structure, control and chaos. The profiles included a motivating profile (20.31%) characterised by the dominant presence of autonomy support and structure; a demotivating chaotic profile (17.74%) characterised by the dominant presence of chaos; an active profile (24.17%) where all styles were highly present; and an undifferentiated profile (37.79%) characterised by an average presence of all styles. These four profiles were meaningfully related to a set of nurse-related indicators. Multivariate analysis (Pillai's Trace test = .38, F(15, 756) = 7.28; p < .001; η2 = .13) indicated that job competency, job autonomy and high-quality motivation were most elevated in the motivating profile. CONCLUSION: Profiling has supported our understanding of the natural co-occurrence of more motivating and demotivating styles among nurses when counselling patients in self-managing their life with chronic illness. The pattern of retained profiles indicates that, for some nurses, it will be important to move away from controlling or chaotic interactions. Future intervention development should augment nurses' competence levels and high-quality motivation, with attention to reduce the pressure in nurses to act in a result-based manner. Profiling can also be valuable to better assign nurses to an employment in chronic care, and to support their personal professional growth.

18.
Dev Psychol ; 56(9): 1696-1708, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614208

RESUMO

This study examined the role of parents' reminiscing style in preschoolers' memory-related functioning and general emotion regulation. In 87 families, each parent rated their child's (Mage = 4.07 years, SD = 0.80) emotion regulation and discussed a positive and a negative memory with their child (resulting in 275 conversations). Multilevel analyses showed that children's rated engagement during the conversation was higher when parents were observed to use autonomy-supportive, elaborative, and positive evaluative reminiscing, while children's rated disaffection was predicted by low autonomy support, low elaboration, and negative evaluation. Parental positive evaluation also related positively to children's memory performance. With respect to emotion regulation, only parents' negative evaluation when talking about negative memories related to higher emotional lability. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

19.
J Pers ; 88(6): 1145-1161, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the interplay between the personality vulnerability dimensions of self-criticism and dependency and experienced satisfaction or frustration of the basic psychological needs in relation to adolescents' depressive symptoms. In doing so, we investigated both indirect associations between personality and depressive symptoms (through need-based experiences) and interactions between personality and need-based experiences (i.e., moderation). METHOD: A total of 149 adolescents (52% female, Mag e  = 15.20 years at initial assessment, SD = 3.09) participated in this three-wave longitudinal study with 6-month intervals. At each wave, adolescents reported on their personality, need-based experiences, and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Multilevel analyses showed that dependency and self-criticism related to experiences of need frustration and depressive symptoms at both the between-person level (i.e., the level of interindividual differences) and the within-person level (i.e., the level of intraindividual change). In turn, need frustration was related to adolescents' depressive symptoms at both levels of analysis. Personality did not significantly moderate the associations between the psychological needs and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that self-criticism and dependency are related to experiences of psychological need frustration and depressive symptoms at the level of both interindividual differences and within person-change.

20.
J Pain ; 21(11-12): 1187-1197, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544601

RESUMO

Although support provision by a partner is an important resource for individuals with chronic pain (ICPs), it poses a challenge for partners because it competes with other important personal goals of partners. The current study examined the impact of experimentally induced goal conflict in partners on their motives for helping, quality of provided help, and on partners' and ICPs' affect. Sixty-eight couples, with at least one person having chronic pain, performed 2 series of household activities, with partners either asked to be simply available for help (ie, control condition) or to additionally work on a puzzle task (ie, goal conflict condition). Couples reported on interpersonal (eg, helping motives) and intrapersonal (eg, affect) outcomes. In addition, quality of partners' helping behavior and ICPs' pain behavior were videotaped and coded afterward. In the goal conflict condition, ICPs were less satisfied with the received help and they experienced more pain. Also, the quality of the provided help was lower and partners experienced less positive and more negative affect. Addressing partners' goal conflict in clinical practice may help to avoid its negative impact on both ICPs and partners. Perspective: This article provides a compelling argument to include partners in chronic pain treatment by demonstrating the detrimental effects of partners' experienced conflicts in goals upon the quality of help they provide, partners' affective functioning, and ICPs' pain-related outcomes.

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