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1.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; : 107604, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study explored the utility of machine learning (ML) methodology in predicting the trajectory of severity of substance use from childhood to thirty years of age using a set of psychological and health characteristics. DESIGN: Boys (N = 494) and girls (N = 206) were recruited using a high-risk paradigm at 10-12 years of age and followed up at 12-14, 16, 19, 22, 25 and 30 years of age. MEASUREMENTS: At each visit, the subjects were administered a comprehensive battery to measure psychological makeup, health status, substance use and psychiatric disorder, and their overall harmfulness of substance consumption was quantified according to the multidimensional criteria (physical, dependence, and social) developed by Nutt et al. (2007). Next, high- and low- substance use severity trajectories were derived differentially associated with probability of segueing to substance use disorder (SUD). ML methodology was employed to predict trajectory membership. FINDINGS: The high-severity trajectory group had a higher probability of leading to SUD than the low-severity trajectory (89.0% vs 32.4%; odds ratio = 16.88, p < 0.0001). Thirty psychological and health status items at each of the six visits predict membership in the high- or low-severity trajectory, with 71% accuracy at 10-12 years of age, increasing to 93% at 22 years of age. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate the applicability of the machine learning methodology for detecting membership in a substance use trajectory with high probability of culminating in SUD, potentially informing primary and secondary prevention.

2.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294817

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: FTND (FagerstrÓ§m test for nicotine dependence) and TTFC (time to smoke first cigarette in the morning) are common measures of nicotine dependence (ND). However, genome-wide meta-analysis for these phenotypes has not been reported. METHODS: Genome-wide meta-analyses for FTND (N = 19,431) and TTFC (N = 18,567) phenotypes were conducted for adult smokers of European ancestry from 14 independent cohorts. RESULTS: We found that SORBS2 on 4q35 (p = 4.05 × 10-8), BG182718 on 11q22 (p = 1.02 × 10-8), and AA333164 on 14q21 (p = 4.11 × 10-9) were associated with TTFC phenotype. We attempted replication of leading candidates with independent samples (FTND, N = 7010 and TTFC, N = 10 061), however, due to limited power of the replication samples, the replication of these new loci did not reach significance. In gene-based analyses, COPB2 was found associated with FTND phenotype, and TFCP2L1, RELN, and INO80C were associated with TTFC phenotype. In pathway and network analyses, we found that the interconnected interactions among the endocytosis, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, axon guidance, MAPK signaling, and chemokine signaling pathways were involved in ND. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses identified several promising candidates for both FTND and TTFC phenotypes, and further verification of these candidates was necessary. Candidates supported by both FTND and TTFC (CHRNA4, THSD7B, RBFOX1, and ZNF804A) were associated with addiction to alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, and were associated with autism and schizophrenia. We also identified novel pathways involved in cigarette smoking. The pathway interactions highlighted the importance of receptor recycling and internalization in ND. IMPLICATIONS: Understanding the genetic architecture of cigarette smoking and ND is critical to develop effective prevention and treatment. Our study identified novel candidates and biological pathways involved in FTND and TTFC phenotypes, and this will facilitate further investigation of these candidates and pathways.

4.
Prev Sci ; 19(1): 49-57, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27943075

RESUMO

The common paradigm for conceptualizing the influence of genetic and environmental factors on a particular disease relies on the concept of risk. Consequently, the bulk of etiologic, including genetic, work focuses on "risk" factors. These factors are aggregated at the high end of the distribution of liability to disease, the latent variable underlying the distribution of probability and severity of a disorder. However, liability has a symmetric but distinct aspect to risk, resistance to disorder. Resistance factors, aggregated at the low end of the liability distribution and supporting health and recovery, appear to be more promising for effective prevention and intervention. Herein, we discuss existing work on resistance factors, highlighting those with known genetic influences. We examine the utility of incorporating resistance genetics in prevention and intervention trials and compare the statistical power of a series of ascertainment schemes to develop a general framework for examining resistance outcomes in genetically informative designs. We find that an approach that samples individuals discordant on measured liability, a low-risk design, is the most feasible design and yields power equivalent to or higher than commonly used designs for detecting resistance genetic and environmental effects.

5.
Dev Psychopathol ; 30(1): 143-152, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28420448

RESUMO

Liability to substance use disorder (SUD) is largely nonspecific to particular drugs and is related to behavior dysregulation, including reduced cognitive control. Recent data suggest that cognitive mechanisms may be influenced by exposure to neurotropic infections, such as human herpesviruses. In this study, serological evidence of exposure to human herpesvirus Herpes simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as well as Toxoplasma gondii was determined in childhood (age ~11 years) in 395 sons and 174 daughters of fathers with or without SUD. Its relationships with a cognitive characteristic (IQ) in childhood and with risk for SUD in adulthood were examined using correlation, regression, survival, and path analyses. Exposure to HSV-1, EBV, and T. gondii in males and females, and CMV in males, was associated with lower IQ. Independent of that relationship, EBV in females and possibly in males, and CMV and possibly HSV-1 in females were associated with elevated risk for SUD. Therefore, childhood neurotropic infections may influence cognitive development and risk for behavior disorders such as SUD. The results may point to new avenues for alleviating cognitive impairment and SUD risk.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia , Adulto , Criança , Citomegalovirus , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/psicologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
6.
J Hum Genet ; 62(4): 491-496, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100911

RESUMO

A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) for dental caries nominated the chromosomal region 4q21 near ABCG2, PKD2 and the SIBLING (small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein) gene family. In this investigation, we followed up and fine-mapped this region using a tag-SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) approach in 13 age- and race-stratified samples from 6 independent studies (N=4089). Participants were assessed for dental caries via intraoral examination and 49 tag-SNPs were genotyped capturing much of the variation in the 4q21 locus. Linear models were used to test for genetic association, while adjusting for sex, age and components of ancestry. SNPs in and near PKD2 showed significant evidence of association in individual samples of black adults (rs17013735, P-value=0.0009) and white adults (rs11938025; P-value=0.0005; rs2725270, P-value=0.003). Meta-analyses across black adult samples recapitulated the association with rs17013735 (P-value=0.003), which occurs at low frequency in non-African populations, possibly explaining the race specificity of the effect. In addition to race-specific associations, we also observed evidence of gene-by-fluoride exposure interaction effects in white adults for SNP rs2725233 upstream of PKD2 (P=0.002). Our results show evidence of regional replication, though no single variant clearly accounted for the original GWAS signal. Therefore, while we interpret our results as strengthening the hypothesis that chromosome 4q21 may impact dental caries, additional work is needed.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4/genética , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Transl Behav Med ; 6(1): 44-54, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27012252

RESUMO

Risk for a disorder and the mechanisms that determine its elevation, risk factors, are the focus of medical research. Targeting risk factors should serve the goal of prevention and treatment intervention. Risk, however, is but one of the aspects of liability to a disorder, a latent trait that encompasses effects of all factors leading to or from the diagnostic threshold. The coequal but opposite aspect of liability is resistance to a disorder. The factors that increase resistance and thus enable prevention or recovery may differ from those that elevate risk. Accordingly, there are nontrivial differences between research perspectives that focus on risk and on resistance. This article shows how this distinction translates into goals and methods of research and practice, from the choice of potential mechanisms tested to the results sought in intervention. The resistance concept also differs from those of "resilience" and "protective factors," subsuming but not limited to them. The implications of the concept are discussed using substance use disorder as an example and substantiate the need for biomedical research and its translation to shift to the resistance perspective.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Risco , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle
8.
Int J Pers Cent Med ; 6(4): 260-273, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Item response theory (IRT) based studies conducted on diverse samples showed a single dominant factor for DSM-III-R and DSM-IV substance use disorder (SUD) abuse and dependence symptoms of alcohol, cannabis, sedative, cocaine, stimulants, and opiates use disorders. IRT provides the opportunity, within a person-centered framework, to accurately gauge each person's severity of disorder that, in turn, informs required intensiveness of treatment. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether the SUD symptoms indicate a unidimensional trait or instead need to be conceptualized and quantified as a multidimensional scale. METHODS: The sample was composed of families of adult SUD+ men (n=349), and SUD+ women (n=173), who qualified for DSM-III-R diagnosis of substance use disorder (abuse or dependence) and families of adult men and women who did not qualify for a SUD diagnosis (SUD- men: n=190, SUD- women: n=133). An expanded version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) was administered to characterize lifetime and current substance use disorders. Item response theory methodology was used to assess the dimensionality of DSM-III-R SUD abuse and dependence symptoms. RESULTS: A bi-factor model provided the optimal representation of the factor structure of SUD symptoms in males and females. SUD symptoms are scalable as indicators of a single common factor, corresponding to general (non-drug-specific, common) liability to addiction, combined with drug-specific liabilities. CONCLUSIONS: IRT methodology used to quantify the continuous general liability to addiction (GLA) latent trait in individuals having SUD symptoms was found effective for accurately measuring SUD severity in men and women. This may be helpful for person-centered medicine approaches to effectively address intensity of treatment.

10.
J Addict Med ; 9(6): 464-9, 2015 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26441401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal investigation examined the hypothesis that subjective experience during consumption of preferred drugs mediates the association of transmissible risk for substance use disorder (SUD) measured in childhood and adolescence, and SUD diagnosis in adulthood. Transmissible risk denotes the psychological characteristics having intergenerational continuity between parents and their biological children. METHODS: The transmissible liability index (TLI) was administered to four hundred eighty-three 10 to 12-year-old boys (baseline). Follow-up evaluations were conducted when the boys attained 12-14, 16, 19, and 22 years of age, using age-specific versions of the TLI. Frequency of consumption of the participants' three most preferred drugs, affect on an ordinary day, affect while under influence of the preferred substances, and presence/absence of current SUD were assessed at 22 years of age. RESULTS: Consumption frequency of preferred drugs among boys mediates the association of transmissible risk during childhood, and adolescence and SUD diagnosis in adulthood. Severity of negative affect on a drug-free day predicts frequency of consumption of preferred drugs, which, in turn, predicts severity of negative affect during the drug use event. Neither affect on a drug-free day nor affect during the drug use event mediates the association of transmissible risk and SUD. CONCLUSIONS: Affect on drug-free days, and while under influence of preferred substances, covary with consumption frequency; however, affect is not related to transmissible SUD risk or SUD outcome.


Assuntos
Afeto , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; 41(3): 264-8, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25699562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our previous work demonstrated that the Transmissible Liability Index (TLI), an instrument designed as an index of liability for substance use disorder (SUD), is associated with risk of substance use disorder. This longitudinal study assessed whether TLI measured in 10-12-year-olds (late childhood) predicts suicidal behavior from age 12-14 (preadolescence) to age 25 (young adulthood). We hypothesized that TLI would predict number and severity of suicide attempts. METHODS: Subjects were sons of men who had lifetime history of SUD (n = 250), called the High Average Risk (HAR) group, and sons of men with no lifetime history of a SUD (n = 250), called the Low Average Risk (LAR) group. The TLI was delineated at baseline (age 10-12), and age-specific versions were administered at 12-14, 16, 19, 22, and 25 years of age. RESULTS: TLI was significantly associated with number and severity of lifetime suicide attempts. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm the hypothesis that TLI assessed at late childhood is a predictor of frequency and severity of suicidal behavior from preadolescence to young adulthood.


Assuntos
Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 21(1): 62-73, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25499600

RESUMO

Executive functions (EF) are a complex set of neurodevelopmental, higher-ordered processes that are especially salient during adolescence. Disruptions to these processes are predictive of psychiatric problems in later adolescence and adulthood. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the latent structure of EF using bifactor analysis and to investigate the independent and interactive effects of genes and environments on EF during adolescence. Using a representative young adolescent sample, we tested the interaction of a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and parental supervision for EF through hierarchical linear regression. To account for the possibility of a hierarchical factor structure for EF, a bifactor analysis was conducted on the eight subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functions System (D-KEFS). The bifactor analysis revealed the presence of a general EF construct and three EF subdomains (i.e., conceptual flexibility, inhibition, and fluency). A significant 5-HTTLPR by parental supervision interaction was found for conceptual flexibility, but not for general EF, fluency or inhibition. Specifically, youth with the L/L genotype had significantly lower conceptual flexibility scores compared to youth with S/S or S/L genotypes given low levels of parental supervision. Our findings indicate that adolescents with the L/L genotype were especially vulnerable to poor parental supervision on EF. This vulnerability may be amenable to preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Regressão , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pais/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Addict Behav ; 42: 57-62, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25462655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological items discriminating children of fathers diagnosed with an illicit drug-related substance use disorder and normal controls are indicators of a unidimensional construct termed transmissible liability index (TLI) (Vanyukov et al., 2009). TLI is a highly heritable (Vanyukov et al., 2009; Hicks, Iacono, McGue, 2012) and valid (Vanyukov et al., 2009; Hicks et al., 2009; Kirisci et al., 2013a) measure of childhood liability to substance use disorders (SUDs). AIMS: This longitudinal study determined whether TLI has incremental validity for predicting SUD beyond commonly measured psychological indicators of risk. METHODS: TLI and measures of executive cognitive capacity, emotion dysregulation and externalizing disturbance were administered to boys at ages 10-12 and 16. SUD outcome determined at age 22 was assessed as (1) any SUD, (2) the number of drug-specific SUDs, and (3) SUD severity. RESULTS: TLI predicted SUD beyond the contribution of measures of emotion dysregulation, executive cognitive capacity and externalizing disturbance. The association of emotion dysregulation and externalizing behavior at ages 10-12 and 16 with SUD at age 22 was also reduced to non-significance after controlling for transmissible risk measured by TLI. CONCLUSIONS: TLI's incremental validity beyond these latter indicators of risk points to its utility for identifying vulnerable youths requiring intervention.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Relação entre Gerações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Criança , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Behav Genet ; 45(1): 1-11, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25502189

RESUMO

Transmissible liability index (TLI), developed employing a high-risk design and item response theory, enables quantification of the latent trait of liability to drug use disorders (DUD) in children. TLI has been shown to have high heritability and predict DUD in young adulthood. This study extends prior research and determines the genetic contribution of DUD liability measured by TLI to adult liability as indexed by DUD diagnosis. The study utilizes data from a twin sample tracked from age 11 to age 25. In addition to confirming TLI's high heritability and predictive validity, it shows that the genetic component of variance in TLI assessed in childhood accounts for over half of the genetic variance in DUD diagnosis and the entire phenotypic relationship between the two liability measures. This validates TLI as an early measure of DUD liability and supports its utility in early-age genetic and other mechanistic studies of DUD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Comportamento Aditivo/genética , Criança , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Comportamental , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Hum Genet ; 134(2): 159-67, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25373699

RESUMO

Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease, worldwide, affecting most children and adults. Though dental caries is highly heritable, few caries-related genes have been discovered. We investigated whether 18 genetic variants in the group of non-amelogenin enamel matrix genes (AMBN, ENAM, TUFT1, and TFIP11) were associated with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified samples from six parent studies (N = 3,600). Linear regression was used to model genetic associations and test gene-by-fluoride interaction effects for two sources of fluoride: daily tooth brushing and home water fluoride concentration. Meta-analysis was used to combine results across five child and eight adult samples. We observed the statistically significant association of rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 with dental caries experience via meta-analysis across adult samples (p < 0.002) and the suggestive association for multiple variants in TFIP11 across child samples (p < 0.05). Moreover, we discovered two genetic variants (rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 and missense rs7439186 in AMBN) involved in gene-by-fluoride interactions. For each interaction, participants with the risk allele/genotype exhibited greater dental caries experience only if they were not exposed to the source of fluoride. Altogether, these results confirm that variation in enamel matrix genes contributes to individual differences in dental caries liability, and demonstrate that the effects of these genes may be moderated by protective fluoride exposures. In short, genes may exert greater influence on dental caries in unprotected environments, or equivalently, the protective effects of fluoride may obviate the effects of genetic risk alleles.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/genética , Esmalte Dentário , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Fluoretos , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/metabolismo , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 143: 213-8, 2014 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25156223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug use disorders (DUD) have been theorized to share sources of risk variation with other consummatory behaviors. We hypothesized that common mechanisms exist for familial risk for DUD, physiological maturation and nutritional status in girls. Whereas body fat content must exceed a threshold to enable adrenarche and gonadarche, nutritional status may also be a behavior risk indicator. Impaired psychological self-regulation associated with DUD risk may manifest in early overeating, which could in turn accelerate reproductive maturation, resulting in a greater likelihood of affiliation with deviant/older peers and drug use. METHOD: The sample consisted of families ascertained through the father who either had (N=95) or did not have (N=130) a DUD, and who had a 10-12 year old daughter and her mother available for study. Correlation, survival and path analyses of three consecutive assessments evaluated the relationships between parental DUD (number of affected parents, NAP), nutritional status (NS, subscapular skinfold measurements and body mass index), sexual maturation (Tanner stage), peer delinquency, and the daughter's lifetime DUD diagnosis. RESULTS: NAP was positively related to the girls' nutritional status. Longitudinal path analysis indicated mediation of the relationship between NAP and peer delinquency by sexual maturation. The relationship between NAP and sexual maturation is mediated by NS. The effect of sexual maturation at age ∼11 on the girls' DUD risk is mediated by peer delinquency. CONCLUSION: The data are consistent with mediation of intergenerational transmission of DUD risk in females by elevated nutrition, leading to accelerated maturation, and affiliation with deviant peers.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estado Nutricional , Grupo Associado , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Maturidade Sexual , Facilitação Social
17.
J Adolesc Health ; 53(4): 465-70, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23876782

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) in childhood, mediated by alcohol use, portends risky sexual behavior (number of sexual partners) in midadolescence. METHODS: Participants were 410 adolescent boys. Neurobehavioral disinhibition was assessed at 11.3 years of age. Frequency and quantity of alcohol use on a typical drinking occasion were assessed at 13.4 years of age at first follow-up, and sexual behavior at 16.0 years at second follow-up. RESULTS: Quantity of alcohol consumed on a typical drinking occasion, but not frequency of alcohol use, mediated the relation between ND and number of sexual partners. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that number of sexual partners in midadolescence is predicted by individual differences in boys' psychological self-regulation during childhood and moderate alcohol consumption in early adolescence, and that ND may be a potential target for multi-outcome public health interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Psicometria , Assunção de Riscos , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; 39(3): 180-5, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23721533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk for substance use disorder is frequently transmitted across generations due to significant heritability. OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal study tests the hypothesis that initial exposure to cannabis in youths having high transmissible risk is a signal event promoting development of cannabis use disorder (CUD). METHODS: At age 22, 412 men were classified into three groups: (1) lifetime CUD, (2) cannabis use without CUD, and (3) no lifetime cannabis use. Transmissible risk, quantified on a continuous scale using the previously validated transmissible liability index (TLI), along with cannabis use and CUD were documented at 10-12, 12-14, 16, 19, and 22 years of age. RESULTS: The CUD group scored higher on the TLI before they began cannabis use compared to the other two groups. In addition, a progressive increase in TLI severity was evinced by the CUD group beginning at the time of initiation of cannabis use whereas cannabis users who did not subsequently develop CUD exhibited a decline in transmissible risk following first exposure. CONCLUSION: Initial use of cannabis potentiates development of CUD in youths who are at high transmissible risk but is inconsequential in youths having low risk. The practical ramifications of these results for prevention are discussed.


Assuntos
Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; 39(3): 194-203, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23721535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of where substance use and other such behavioral problems frequently occur has aided policing, public health, and urban planning strategies to reduce such behaviors. Identifying locales characterized by high childhood neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND), a strong predictor of substance use and consequent disorder (SUD), may likewise improve prevention efforts. OBJECTIVES: The distribution of ND in 10-12-year olds was mapped to metropolitan Pittsburgh, PA, and tested for clustering within locales. METHODS: The 738 participating families represented the population in terms of economic status, race, and population distribution. ND was measured using indicators of executive cognitive function, emotion regulation, and behavior control. Innovative geospatial analyzes statistically tested clustering of ND within locales while accounting for geographic barriers (large rivers, major highways), parental SUD severity, and neighborhood quality. RESULTS: Clustering of youth with high and low ND occurred in specific locales. Accounting for geographic barriers better delineated where high ND is concentrated, areas which also tended to be characterized by greater parental SUD severity and poorer neighborhood quality. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Offering programs that have been demonstrated to improve inhibitory control in locales where youth have high ND on average may reduce youth risk for SUD and other problem behaviors. As demonstrated by the present results, geospatial analysis of youth risk factors, frequently used in community coalition strategies, may be improved with greater statistical and measurement rigor.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/métodos , Mapeamento Geográfico , Comportamento Impulsivo/epidemiologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Criança , Filho de Pais Incapacitados , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
20.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 21(1): 38-45, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23205723

RESUMO

Age at the time of first alcohol and cannabis use was investigated in relation to a measure of transmissible (intergenerational) risk for addiction in childhood and development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD). It was hypothesized that age at the time of first experience with either substance mediates the association between transmissible risk and subsequent diagnosis of both disorders. The Transmissible Liability Index (TLI; (Vanyukov et al., 2009) was administered to 339 10- to 12-year-old boys (n = 254) and girls (n = 85). Age at the time of first alcohol and cannabis use, and diagnosis of AUD and CUD, were prospectively tracked to age 22. Each standard deviation unit increase in TLI severity corresponded to a reduction in age of alcohol and cannabis use onset by 3.2 months and 4.6 months, respectively. Age at the time of first alcohol use mediated the association of TLI with both AUD and CUD. Parallel results were obtained for cannabis. Whereas transmissible risk is congenerous to both AUD and CUD, its magnitude was 7 times greater in youths who initiated substance use with cannabis. TLI predicts age of first use of alcohol and cannabis that is common to developing both AUD and CUD. The ramifications of these findings for prevention are discussed.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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