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3.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866976

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of time restricted eating (TRE) on sex hormones in males and females, versus daily calorie restriction (CR). Adults with obesity (n = 90) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups for 12-months: 8-h TRE (eating only between 12:00 to 8:00 pm, with no calorie counting); CR (25% energy restriction daily); or control. Body weight decreased (P < 0.01) in the TRE and CR groups, relative to controls, in males, premenopausal females, and postmenopausal females, by month 12. Total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels did not change over time, or between groups, in males, premenopausal females, and postmenopausal females. Estradiol, estrone, and progesterone were only measured in postmenopausal females, and remained unchanged. These findings suggest that TRE produces significant weight loss but does not impact circulating sex hormone levels in males and females with obesity over 12 months, relative to CR and controls.

4.
Sci Adv ; 10(26): eadn5229, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38924414

RESUMO

There is a regional preference around lymph nodes (LNs) for adipose beiging. Here, we show that local LN removal within inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) greatly impairs cold-induced beiging, and this impairment can be restored by injecting M2 macrophages or macrophage-derived C-C motif chemokine (CCL22) into iWAT. CCL22 injection into iWAT effectively promotes iWAT beiging, while blocking CCL22 with antibodies can prevent it. Mechanistically, the CCL22 receptor, C-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4), within eosinophils and its downstream focal adhesion kinase/p65/interleukin-4 signaling are essential for CCL22-mediated beige adipocyte formation. Moreover, CCL22 levels are inversely correlated with body weight and fat mass in mice and humans. Acute elevation of CCL22 levels effectively prevents diet-induced body weight and fat gain by enhancing adipose beiging. Together, our data identify the CCL22-CCR4 axis as an essential mediator for LN-controlled adaptive thermogenesis and highlight its potential to combat obesity and its associated complications.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco , Quimiocina CCL22 , Metabolismo Energético , Linfonodos , Macrófagos , Termogênese , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Adipócitos Bege/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL22/metabolismo , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptores CCR4/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
5.
medRxiv ; 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38798539

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of time restricted eating (TRE) on sex hormones in males and females, versus daily calorie restriction (CR). Adults with obesity (n = 90) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups for 12-months: 8-h TRE (eating only between 12:00 to 8:00 pm, with no calorie counting); CR (25% energy restriction daily); or control. Body weight decreased (P < 0.01) in the TRE and CR groups, relative to controls, in males, premenopausal females, and postmenopausal females, by month 12. Total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels did not change over time, or between groups, in males, premenopausal females, and postmenopausal females. Estradiol, estrone, and progesterone were only measured in postmenopausal females, and remained unchanged. These findings suggest that TRE produces significant weight loss but does not impact circulating sex hormone levels in males and females with obesity over 12 months, relative to CR and controls. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov , NCT04692532 .

6.
Obes Sci Pract ; 10(3): e757, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745944

RESUMO

Aim: With increasing rates of global obesity and associated health issues, there is an ever-increasing need for weight management solutions to be more accessible. Mobile applications offer accessible support systems and have the potential to offer a viable and effective weight management solution as an alternative to traditional healthcare models. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the SIMPLE mobile application for time-restricted eating in achieving weight loss (WL). Methods: User data were analyzed between January 2021 and January 2023. In-app activity was calculated as the proportion of active days over 12, 26 and 52 weeks. A day is considered active if it contains at least one in-app action (e.g., logging weight, food, fasting, or physical activity). Users were categorized into four in-app activity levels: inactive (in-app activity <33%), medium activity (33%-66%), high activity (66%-99%), and maximal activity (100%). Weight change among in-app activity groups was assessed at 12, 26, and 52 weeks. Results: Out of 53,482 users, a positive association was found between the use of the SIMPLE app and WL. Active app users lost more weight than their less active counterparts. Active users had a median WL of 4.20%, 5.04%, and 3.86% at 12, 26, and 52 weeks, respectively. A larger percentage of active users-up to 50.26%-achieved clinically significant WL (≥5%) when compared to inactive users. A dose-response relationship between WL and app usage was found after adjusting for gender, age, and initial Body Mass Index; a 10% increase in app activity correlated with increased WL by 0.43, 0.66 and 0.69 kg at 12, 26, and 52 weeks, respectively. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that the SIMPLE app enables effective WL directly associated with the level of app engagement. Mobile health applications offer an accessible and effective weight management solution and should be considered when supporting adults to lose weight.

8.
EClinicalMedicine ; 70: 102519, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500840

RESUMO

Background: Benefits of Intermittent fasting (IF) on health-related outcomes have been found in a range of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Our umbrella review aimed to systematically analyze and synthesize the available causal evidence on IF and its impact on specific health-related outcomes while evaluating its evidence quality. Methods: We comprehensively searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases (from inception up to 8 January 2024) to identify related systematic reviews and meta-analyses of RCTs investigating the association between IF and human health outcomes. We recalculated the effect sizes for each meta-analysis as mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses were performed for populations based on three specific status: diabetes, overweight or obesity, and metabolic syndrome. The quality of systematic reviews was evaluated using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), and the certainty of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) system. This study is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42023382004). Findings: A total of 351 associations from 23 meta-analyses with 34 health outcomes were included in the study. A wide range of outcomes were investigated, including anthropometric measures (n = 155), lipid profiles (n = 83), glycemic profiles (n = 57), circulatory system index (n = 41), appetite (n = 9), and others (n = 6). Twenty-one (91%) meta-analyses with 346 associations were rated as high confidence according to the AMSTAR criteria. The summary effects estimates were significant at p < 0.05 in 103 associations, of which 10 (10%) were supported by high certainty of evidence according to GRADE. Specifically, compared with non-intervention diet in adults with overweight or obesity, IF reduced waist circumference (WC) (MD = -1.02 cm; 95% CI: -1.99 to -0.06; p = 0.038), fat mass (MD = -0.72 kg; 95% CI: -1.32 to -0.12; p = 0.019), fasting insulin (SMD = -0.21; 95% CI: -0.40 to -0.02; p = 0.030), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (SMD = -0.20; 95% CI: -0.38 to -0.02; p = 0.027), total cholesterol (TC) (SMD = -0.29; 95% CI: -0.48 to -0.10; p = 0.003), and triacylglycerols (TG) (SMD = -0.23; 95% CI: -0.39 to -0.06; p = 0.007), but increased fat free mass (FFM) (MD = 0.98 kg; 95% CI: 0.18-1.78; p = 0.016). Of note, compared with the non-intervention diet, modified alternate-day fasting (MADF) reduced fat mass (MD = -0.70 kg; 95% CI: -1.38 to -0.02; p = 0.044). In people with overweight or obesity, and type 2 diabetes, IF increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels compared to continuous energy restriction (CER) (MD = 0.03 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.01-0.05; p = 0.010). However, IF was less effective at reducing systolic blood pressure (SBP) than a CER diet in adults with overweight or obesity (SMD = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05-0.36; p = 0.008). Interpretation: Our findings suggest that IF may have beneficial effects on a range of health outcomes for adults with overweight or obesity, compared to CER or non-intervention diet. Specifically, IF may decreased WC, fat mass, LDL-C, TG, TC, fasting insulin, and SBP, while increasing HDL-C and FFM. Notably, it is worth noting that the SBP lowering effect of IF appears to be weaker than that of CER. Funding: This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Q-JW), the Natural Science Foundation of China (Q-JW and T-TG), Outstanding Scientific Fund of Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University (Q-JW), and 345 Talent Project of Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University (T-TG).

9.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 35(5): 413-424, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331668

RESUMO

Most adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) are either overweight or obese. As such, dietary management is recommended as an adjunct to insulin treatment to improve glycemic control and facilitate weight loss in these patients. Time-restricted eating (TRE) is a form of intermittent fasting that offers a simplified approach to treating obesity in T1DM. TRE typically involves restricting eating to 6 to 10 h per day, with water and medications allowed outside the eating window. This review examines the efficacy of TRE and other fasting protocols in improving weight and glycemic control in patients with obesity and T1DM. This review will also evaluate the safety of these regimens and provide advice to clinicians on implementing intermittent fasting in T1DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Jejum , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Jejum/fisiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia
10.
Cell Metab ; 36(2): 301-314, 2024 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176412

RESUMO

Time-restricted eating (TRE) has become a popular strategy to treat obesity. TRE involves confining the eating window to 4-10 h per day and fasting for the remaining hours (14-20 h fast). During the eating window, individuals are not required to monitor food intake. The sudden rise in popularity of TRE is most likely due to its simplicity and the fact that it does not require individuals to count calories to lose weight. This feature of TRE may appeal to certain individuals with obesity, and this could help produce lasting metabolic health improvements. The purpose of this review is to summarize current evidence from randomized clinical trials of TRE (without calorie counting) on body weight and metabolic risk factors. The efficacy of TRE in various populations groups, including those with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), is also examined.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Feminino , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Obesidade , Fatores de Risco , Ingestão de Energia , Jejum , Ingestão de Alimentos
12.
Nutr Rev ; 82(5): 664-675, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37377031

RESUMO

The goal of this narrative review is to summarize the effects of prolonged fasting on various metabolic health measures, including body weight, blood pressure, plasma lipids, and glycemic control. Prolonged fasting is characterized by consciously eating little to no food or caloric beverages for several days to weeks. Results reveal that prolonged fasting for 5-20 days produces potent increases in circulating ketones, and mild to moderate weight loss of 2-10%. Approximately two-thirds of the weight lost is lean mass, and one-third is fat mass. The excessive lean mass loss suggests that prolonged fasting may increase the breakdown of muscle proteins, which is a concern. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure consistently decreased with prolonged fasting. However, the impact of these protocols on plasma lipids is less clear. While some trials demonstrate decreases in LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, others show no benefit. With regard to glycemic control, reductions in fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were noted in adults with normoglycemia. In contrast, these glucoregulatory factors remained unchanged in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The effects of refeeding were also examined in a few trials. It was shown that 3-4 months after the fast was completed, all metabolic benefits were no longer observed, even when weight loss was maintained. With regard to adverse events, metabolic acidosis, headaches, insomnia, and hunger were observed in some studies. In summary, prolonged fasting appears to be a moderately safe diet therapy that can produce clinically significant weight loss (>5%) over a few days or weeks. However, the ability of these protocols to produce sustained improvements in metabolic markers warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Humanos , Glicemia , Triglicerídeos , Insulina , Redução de Peso , Jejum/efeitos adversos
13.
Metabol Open ; 20: 100264, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38115864

RESUMO

This study aimed to better understand the relationship between bone-related biomarkers and nutrient stress in the context of metabolic health. We investigated plasma osteocalcin (OC) during an oral glucose challenge and experimental hyperinsulinemia in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and lean healthy controls (LHC). Older individuals with obesity and T2DM (n = 9) and young LHCs (n = 9) underwent a 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a 40 mU/m2/min hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Plasma undercarboxylated OC (ucOC) and total OC were measured at baseline, 60mins, and 120mins of the OGTT and clamp via ELISA. In addition, plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), leptin, adiponectin, Vitamin D and insulin were measured and indices of insulin sensitivity and ß-cell function were derived. The T2DM group had lower (p<0.05) ucOC and ucOC:total OC ratio than LHC during both the OGTT and clamp. Further, baseline ucOC was positively correlated to indices of ß-cell function and negatively correlated to indices of insulin resistance when both groups were combined (all p<0.05). Suppression of OC observed in T2DM may be related to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Similarly, our data suggest that the observed phenotypic differences between groups are likely a product of long-term glucose dysregulation rather than acute flux in glucose or insulin.

14.
JAMA ; 330(23): 2258-2266, 2023 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37950918

RESUMO

Importance: Dietary sodium recommendations are debated partly due to variable blood pressure (BP) response to sodium intake. Furthermore, the BP effect of dietary sodium among individuals taking antihypertensive medications is understudied. Objectives: To examine the distribution of within-individual BP response to dietary sodium, the difference in BP between individuals allocated to consume a high- or low-sodium diet first, and whether these varied according to baseline BP and antihypertensive medication use. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospectively allocated diet order with crossover in community-based participants enrolled between April 2021 and February 2023 in 2 US cities. A total of 213 individuals aged 50 to 75 years, including those with normotension (25%), controlled hypertension (20%), uncontrolled hypertension (31%), and untreated hypertension (25%), attended a baseline visit while consuming their usual diet, then completed 1-week high- and low-sodium diets. Intervention: High-sodium (approximately 2200 mg sodium added daily to usual diet) and low-sodium (approximately 500 mg daily total) diets. Main Outcomes and Measures: Average 24-hour ambulatory systolic and diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure. Results: Among the 213 participants who completed both high- and low-sodium diet visits, the median age was 61 years, 65% were female and 64% were Black. While consuming usual, high-sodium, and low-sodium diets, participants' median systolic BP measures were 125, 126, and 119 mm Hg, respectively. The median within-individual change in mean arterial pressure between high- and low-sodium diets was 4 mm Hg (IQR, 0-8 mm Hg; P < .001), which did not significantly differ by hypertension status. Compared with the high-sodium diet, the low-sodium diet induced a decline in mean arterial pressure in 73.4% of individuals. The commonly used threshold of a 5 mm Hg or greater decline in mean arterial pressure between a high-sodium and a low-sodium diet classified 46% of individuals as "salt sensitive." At the end of the first dietary intervention week, the mean systolic BP difference between individuals allocated to a high-sodium vs a low-sodium diet was 8 mm Hg (95% CI, 4-11 mm Hg; P < .001), which was mostly similar across subgroups of age, sex, race, hypertension, baseline BP, diabetes, and body mass index. Adverse events were mild, reported by 9.9% and 8.0% of individuals while consuming the high- and low-sodium diets, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: Dietary sodium reduction significantly lowered BP in the majority of middle-aged to elderly adults. The decline in BP from a high- to low-sodium diet was independent of hypertension status and antihypertensive medication use, was generally consistent across subgroups, and did not result in excess adverse events. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04258332.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão , Sódio na Dieta , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta Hipossódica , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Sódio/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(10): e2339337, 2023 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37889487

RESUMO

Importance: Time-restricted eating (TRE) has become increasingly popular, yet longer-term randomized clinical trials have not evaluated its efficacy and safety in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Objective: To determine whether TRE is more effective for weight reduction and glycemic control than daily calorie restriction (CR) or a control condition in adults with T2D. Design, Setting, and Participants: This 6-month, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial was performed between January 25, 2022, and April 1, 2023, at the University of Illinois Chicago. Participants were aged 18 to 80 years with obesity and T2D. Data analysis was based on intention to treat. Interventions: Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: 8-hour TRE (eating 12 to 8 pm only, without calorie counting), CR (25% energy restriction daily), or control. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was change in body weight by month 6. Secondary outcomes included changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and metabolic risk factors. Results: Seventy-five participants were enrolled with a mean (SD) age of 55 (12) years. The mean (SD) body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was 39 (7) and the mean (SD) HbA1c level was 8.1% (1.6%). A total of 53 participants (71%) were women. One participant (1%) was Asian, 30 (40%) were Hispanic White, 40 (53%) were non-Hispanic Black, and 4 (5%) were non-Hispanic White. Participants in the TRE group were adherent with their eating window on a mean (SD) of 6.1 (0.8) days per week, and 17 (68%) in the CR group were adherent with their prescribed calorie goals over 6 months. The mean (SD) reduction in energy intake was -313 (509) kcal/d for TRE, -197 (426) kcal/d for CR, and -16 (439) kcal/d for controls. By month 6, body weight decreased significantly in the TRE group (-3.56% [95% CI, -5.92% to -1.20%]; P = .004) but not the CR group (-1.78% [95% CI, -3.67% to 0.11%]; P = .06), relative to controls. Levels of HbA1c decreased in the TRE (-0.91% [95% CI, -1.61% to -0.20%]) and CR (-0.94% [95% CI, -1.59% to -0.30%]) groups, relative to controls, with no differences between the TRE and CR groups. Time in euglycemic range, medication effect score, blood pressure, and plasma lipid levels did not differ among groups. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions and relevance: This randomized clinical trial found that a TRE diet strategy without calorie counting was effective for weight loss and lowering of HbA1c levels compared with daily calorie counting in a sample of adults with T2D. These findings will need to be confirmed by larger RCTs with longer follow-up. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05225337.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Hemoglobinas Glicadas , Obesidade/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Redução de Peso/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso
16.
Nutrients ; 15(20)2023 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37892388

RESUMO

The purpose of this secondary analysis is to compare the effects of two popular weight loss regimens, time-restricted eating (TRE) and daily calorie restriction (CR), on mood and quality-of-life measures in adults with obesity. Ninety participants were randomized to one of three interventions for 12 months: 8 h TRE (eating only between 12:00 and 8:00 p.m., with no calorie counting); CR (25% energy restriction daily); or no-intervention control group. Questionnaires were administered to measure mood (Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Profile of Mood States (POMS)) and quality of life (Rand 36-Item Short Form) at baseline and month 12. Body weight decreased in the TRE group (-4.87%, 95%CI: -7.61, -2.13) and CR group (-5.30%, 95%CI: -9.06, -1.54) versus controls, with no difference between TRE and CR. The BDI-II depression score did not change in the TRE or CR group, versus controls, by month 12. Likewise, there were no changes in any of the POMS subscales (tension, depression, anger, fatigue, anger, confusion, or vigor) or the total mood disturbance score in the TRE or CR group versus controls. As for quality of life, there were no significant changes in the SF-36 constructs of mental health, bodily pain, and general physical health in the TRE or CR group versus controls. However, there was a trend towards increased vitality in the TRE group (7.77 [95% CI: 0.15, 15.39] p = 0.05) relative to controls. There were no associations between changes in body weight, physical activity, mood, and quality of life in any group by the end of the study. These findings suggest that TRE and CR produce similar degrees of weight loss, but impact neither mood nor quality of life in adults with obesity over 12 months. Future well-powered studies will be needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Adulto , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Obesidade , Peso Corporal , Redução de Peso , Jejum/psicologia
17.
Ann Intern Med ; 176(7): 885-895, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37364268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Time-restricted eating (TRE), without calorie counting, has become a popular weight loss strategy, yet long-term randomized trials evaluating its efficacy are limited. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether TRE is more effective for weight control and cardiometabolic risk reduction compared with calorie restriction (CR) or control. DESIGN: 12-month randomized controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04692532). SETTING: University of Illinois Chicago from January 2021 to September 2022. PARTICIPANTS: 90 adults with obesity. INTERVENTION: 8-hour TRE (eating between noon and 8:00 p.m. only, without calorie counting), CR (25% energy restriction daily), or control (eating over a period of 10 or more hours per day). Participants were not blinded. MEASUREMENTS: Change in body weight, metabolic markers, and energy intake by month 12. RESULTS: Seventy-seven persons completed the study. Mean age was 40 years (SD, 11), 33% were Black, and 46% were Hispanic. Mean reduction in energy intake was -425 kcal/d (SD, 531) for TRE and -405 kcal/d (SD, 712) for CR. Compared with the control group, weight loss by month 12 was -4.61 kg (95% CI, -7.37 to -1.85 kg; P ≤ 0.01) (-4.87% [CI, -7.61% to -2.13%]) for the TRE group and -5.42 kg (CI, -9.13 to -1.71 kg; P ≤ 0.01) (-5.30% [CI, -9.06% to -1.54%]) for the CR group, with no statistically significant difference between TRE and CR (0.81 kg [CI, -3.07 to 4.69 kg; P = 0.68]) (0.43% [CI, -3.48% to 4.34%]). LIMITATION: Not blinded, not powered to detect relatively large differences in weight loss, and lack of adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSION: Time-restricted eating is more effective in producing weight loss when compared with control but not more effective than CR in a racially diverse population. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Obesidade , Adulto , Humanos , Obesidade/terapia , Restrição Calórica , Redução de Peso , Chicago
18.
BMC Med ; 21(1): 196, 2023 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37231411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have reported the benefits of ketogenic diets (KD) in various participants such as patients with epilepsy and adults with overweight or obesity. Nevertheless, there has been little synthesis of the strength and quality of this evidence in aggregate. METHODS: To grade the evidence from published meta-analyses of RCTs that assessed the association of KD, ketogenic low-carbohydrate high-fat diet (K-LCHF), and very low-calorie KD (VLCKD) with health outcomes, PubMed, EMBASE, Epistemonikos, and Cochrane database of systematic reviews were searched up to February 15, 2023. Meta-analyses of RCTs of KD were included. Meta-analyses were re-performed using a random-effects model. The quality of evidence per association provided in meta-analyses was rated by the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations) criteria as high, moderate, low, and very low. RESULTS: We included 17 meta-analyses comprising 68 RCTs (median [interquartile range, IQR] sample size of 42 [20-104] participants and follow-up period of 13 [8-36] weeks) and 115 unique associations. There were 51 statistically significant associations (44%) of which four associations were supported by high-quality evidence (reduced triglyceride (n = 2), seizure frequency (n = 1) and increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (n = 1)) and four associations supported by moderate-quality evidence (decrease in body weight, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), hemoglobin A1c, and increased total cholesterol). The remaining associations were supported by very low (26 associations) to low (17 associations) quality evidence. In overweight or obese adults, VLCKD was significantly associated with improvement in anthropometric and cardiometabolic outcomes without worsening muscle mass, LDL-C, and total cholesterol. K-LCHF was associated with reduced body weight and body fat percentage, but also reduced muscle mass in healthy participants. CONCLUSIONS: This umbrella review found beneficial associations of KD supported by moderate to high-quality evidence on seizure and several cardiometabolic parameters. However, KD was associated with a clinically meaningful increase in LDL-C. Clinical trials with long-term follow-up are warranted to investigate whether the short-term effects of KD will translate to beneficial effects on clinical outcomes such as cardiovascular events and mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Dieta Cetogênica , Adulto , Humanos , Peso Corporal , LDL-Colesterol , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Convulsões , Metanálise como Assunto
19.
Front Nutr ; 10: 1146924, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37139450

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation. Weight loss, by means of dietary restriction, has been shown to reduce systemic inflammation. Intermittent fasting has recently gained popularity as a weight loss diet, but its effects on inflammatory markers in individuals with obesity have yet to be summarized. Accordingly, this review examined how the two main forms of intermittent fasting, i.e., time restricted eating (TRE) and alternate day fasting (ADF), impact body weight and key circulating inflammatory markers (i.e., C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)), in adults with obesity. Results from this review reveal that TRE with various eating window durations (4-10 h per day) has no effect on circulating levels of CRP, TNF-alpha or IL-6, with 1-5% weight loss. As for ADF, reductions in CRP concentrations were noted when >6% weight loss was achieved. However, ADF had no effect on TNF-alpha or IL-6 concentrations, with this degree of weight loss. Thus, intermittent fasting has little or no effect on key inflammatory markers, but more research is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings.

20.
STAR Protoc ; 4(2): 102230, 2023 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37071529

RESUMO

Here, we present a protocol for conducting magnetic resonance imaging proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) to measure intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content in adults with non-alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We describe steps for screening patients for NAFLD, MRI-PDFF scanning, and using MRI-PDFF data to quantify IHTG. This protocol can be repeated sequentially and used in weight loss trials. However, it is limited to patients with NAFLD as it does not assess non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or hepatic fibrosis. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Ezpeleta et al. (2023).1.

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