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1.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 99(3): 853-859, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is an attractive option in order to treat carotid artery stenosis. However, its safety in elderly patients is questioned. Aim of this single-center retrospective study was to assess data of elderly patients undergoing CAS, and to compare them with those of the younger (< 75 years). METHODS: We collected data of 580 consecutive patients undergoing CAS between December 2007 and June 2020 and compared clinical and procedural characteristics as well as in-hospital major adverse events (MACCE) and long-term mortality between patients < 75 years and patients ≥ 75 years old. RESULTS: There were 272 patients (46.9%) with age ≥ 75 years and 308 patients (53.1%) with age < 75 years. The median follow-up was 48 months (range 2-144). There was no significant difference about in-hospital MACCE between the two groups (4.7% in the older vs. 3.5% in the younger group, p = 0.9), but a higher rate of cerebral hemorrhage occurred in the older group (1.8% vs. = 0.3%, p = 0.07), even if not significant. Long-term mortality was significantly higher in the older group (27.9 vs. 20.1%, p = 0.027). Multivariate predictors of 12-months mortality were neurologic symptoms within 6 months (OR: 4.83; 95% CI: 2.04-11.42; p ≤ 0.001), smoking status (OR: 2.84; 95% CI: 1.17-6.86; p = 0.02) and age ≥ 75 years (OR: 2.78; 95% CI: 1.14-6.76; p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: In elderly patients, CAS can be carried out efficaciously with acceptable procedural risks, if performed by expert operators and after a correct selection by a multidisciplinary team.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Estenose das Carótidas , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/etiologia , Estenose das Carótidas/terapia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Stents , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 34: 11-16, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674219

RESUMO

Bioresorbable scaffolds have emerged as a potential breakthrough for the treatment of coronary artery lesions. The need for drug release and plaque scaffolding is temporary, and leaving a permanent stent once the process of plaque recoil and vessel healing has ended might be superfluous or even deleterious exposing the patient to the risk of very late thrombosis, eliminating vessel reactivity, impairing non-invasive imaging and precluding possible future surgical revascularization. This long-term potential limitation of permanent bare metal stents might be overcome by using a resorbable scaffold. The metallic and antithrombotic properties make the resorbable magnesium scaffold an appealing technology for the treatment of coronary artery lesions. Notwithstanding this, its mechanical properties substantially differ from those of conventional bare metal stents, and previous experience using polymer-based scaffolds has shown that a standardized implantation technique and optimal patient and lesion selection are key factors for a successful implantation. A panel of expert cardiologists gathered to find a consensus on the best practices for Magmaris implantation in a selected patient population and to discuss the rationale for new potential future indications.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Implantes Absorvíveis , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Humanos , Magnésio , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Desenho de Prótese , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 23(2): 106-115, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-related and lesion-related factors may influence instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR)/fractional flow reserve (FFR) concordance, potentially affecting the safety of revascularization deferral. METHODS: Consecutive patients with at least an intermediate coronary stenosis evaluated by both iFR and FFR were retrospectively enrolled. The agreement between iFR and FFR at their diagnostic cut-offs (FFR 0.80, iFR 0.89) was assessed. Predictors of discordance were assessed using multivariate analyses. Tailored iFR cut-offs according to predictors of discordance best matching an FFR of 0.80 were identified. The impact of reclassification according to tailored iFR cut-offs on major cardiovascular events (MACE: cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or target-lesion revascularization) among deferred lesions was investigated. RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety-nine intermediate coronary stenosis [FFR 0.84 (0.78-0.89), iFR 0.91 (0.87-0.95), 202 left main/left anterior descending (LM/LAD) vessels, 67.6%] of 260 patients were studied. Discordance rate was 23.4% (n = 70, 10.7% iFR-negative discordant, 12.7% iFR-positive discordant). Predictors of discordance were LM/LAD disease, multivessel disease, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, smoking, reduced eGFR and hypertension. Lesion reclassification with tailored iFR cut-offs based on patient-level predictors carried no prognostic value among deferred lesions. Reclassification according to lesion location, which was entirely driven by LM/LAD lesions (iFR cut-offs: 0.93 for LM/LAD, 0.89 for non-LM/LAD), identified increased MACE among lesions deferred based on a negative FFR, between patients with a positive as compared with a negative iFR (19.4 vs. 6.1%, P = 0.044), whereas the same association was not observed with the conventional 0.89 iFR cut-off (15 vs. 8.6%, P = 0.303). CONCLUSION: Tailored vessel-based iFR cut-offs carry prognostic value among FFR-negative lesions, suggesting that a one-size-fit-all iFR cut-off might be clinically unsatisfactory.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Revascularização Miocárdica , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo para o Tratamento
6.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 33(11): E890-E899, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study assesses the safety and efficacy of thin-strut stents in non-left main (non-LM) bifurcation coronary lesions. BACKGROUND: Thinner struts of recent drug-eluting stent (DES) devices are associated with improved outcomes, but data about their performance in challenging scenarios are scant. METHODS: RAIN was a retrospective multicenter registry enrolling patients with coronary bifurcation lesions or left main (LM) disease treated with thin-strut DESs. Target-lesion revascularization (TLR) was the primary endpoint, while major adverse clinical event (MACE) rate, a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), target-vessel revascularization (TVR), TLR, and stent thrombosis (ST), and its single components were the secondary endpoints. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify predictors of TLR. Outcome incidences according to stenting strategy (provisional vs 2-stent technique), use of final kissing balloon (FKB), and intravascular ultrasound/optical coherence tomography optimization were further investigated in prespecified subanalyses. RESULTS: A total of 1803 patients (59% acute coronary syndrome, 41% stable coronary artery disease) with non-LM bifurcations were enrolled. After a median follow-up of 12 months, TLR incidence was 2.5% (2.2% for provisional stenting and 3.5% for 2-stent technique). MACE rate was 9.4% (all-cause death, 4.1%; MI, 3.2%; TVR, 3.7%; definite ST, 1.1%). After multivariable adjustment, postdilation (hazard ratio [HR], 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15-0.71; P<.01) and provisional stenting (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.55-0.89; P=.03) were associated with lower TLR rates. FKB was associated with a lower incidence of TLR in the 2-stent subgroup (P=.03). Intracoronary imaging had no significant impact on the primary endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: Thin-strut DES options represent an effective choice in bifurcation lesions. Postdilation and provisional stenting are associated with a reduced risk of TLR. FKB should be recommended in 2-stent techniques.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 33(12): E923-E930, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Culprit lesions of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients are friable, soft, and prone to disruption during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). The presence of dissections in reference vessel segments (RVSs), adjacent to stented culprit lesions, and dynamic luminal changes in proximal or distal RVSs have not yet been investigated. We therefore sought to assess the healing patterns of edge dissections and the changes of lumen area at RVSs within 1 week post stent implantation in patients with STEMI. METHODS: In the MATRIX trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01433627), optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed at the end of pPCI and within 1 week during staged PCI. The RVS dissection was defined as: type 1 = flap; type 2 = cavity; type 3 = double barrel; and type 4 = fissure. We compared separately the fate of residual dissection and luminal area/dimension by OCT in the target vessel between pPCI and staged PCI, including 1-year clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 151 patients, 46 patients had dissections in 50 RVSs and did not experience worse clinical outcome. Dissections were 44% type 1, 28% type 2, 12% type 3, and 16% type 4. Overall, 18% of the dissections healed. The mean lumen area of the RVS enlarged in 82 patients (59%) from pPCI to staged PCI. Compared with the proximal RVS, there was a significant increase in the lumen diameter at the distal RVS (0.06 ± 0.25 mm vs -0.01 ± 0.21 mm; P=.01). CONCLUSION: Dissections occur frequently after pPCI. One-fifth of them heal within 1 week and do not seem to negatively impact clinical outcomes. Distal RVS lumen area increased compared with proximal RVS, likely reflecting a different vasoconstriction pattern over time.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia
9.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 10(10): 1170-1179, 2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491323

RESUMO

AIMS: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical complication among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing invasive management. The value of adjunctive antithrombotic strategies, such as bivalirudin or unfractionated heparin (UFH) on the risk of AKI is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 7213 patients enrolled in the MATRIX-Antithrombin and Treatment Duration study, 128 subjects were excluded due to incomplete information on serum creatinine (sCr) or end-stage renal disease on dialysis treatment. The primary endpoint was AKI defined as an absolute (>0.5 mg/dL) or a relative (>25%) increase in sCr. AKI occurred in 601 patients (16.9%) treated with bivalirudin and 616 patients (17.4%) treated with UFH [odds ratio (OR): 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-1.09; P = 0.58]. A >25% sCr increase was observed in 597 patients (16.8%) with bivalirudin and 616 patients (17.4%) with UFH (OR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.85-1.08; P = 0.50), whereas a >0.5 mg/dL absolute sCr increase occurred in 176 patients (5.0%) with bivalirudin vs. 189 patients (5.4%) with UFH (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.75-1.14; P = 0.46). By implementing the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria, the risk of AKI was not significantly different between bivalirudin and UFH groups (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.72-1.07; P = 0.21). Subgroup analyses of the primary endpoint suggested a benefit with bivalirudin in patients randomized to femoral access. CONCLUSION: Among ACS patients undergoing invasive management, the risk of AKI was not significantly lower with bivalirudin compared with UFH. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT01433627.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Injúria Renal Aguda , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Hirudinas , Humanos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Proteínas Recombinantes
10.
Eur Heart J ; 42(33): 3161-3171, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338759

RESUMO

AIMS: The role of antiplatelet therapy in patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) undergoing initial conservative management is still a matter of debate, with theoretical arguments in favour and against its use. The aims of this article are to assess the use of antiplatelet drugs in medically treated SCAD patients and to investigate the relationship between single (SAPT) and dual (DAPT) antiplatelet regimens and 1-year patient outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the 1-year outcome of patients with SCAD managed with initial conservative treatment included in the DIssezioni Spontanee COronariche (DISCO) multicentre international registry. Patients were divided into two groups according to SAPT or DAPT prescription. Primary endpoint was 12-month incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) defined as the composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and any unplanned percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Out of 314 patients included in the DISCO registry, we investigated 199 patients in whom SCAD was managed conservatively. Most patients were female (89%), presented with acute coronary syndrome (92%) and mean age was 52.3 ± 9.3 years. Sixty-seven (33.7%) were given SAPT whereas 132 (66.3%) with DAPT. Aspirin plus either clopidogrel or ticagrelor were prescribed in 62.9% and 36.4% of DAPT patients, respectively. Overall, a 14.6% MACE rate was observed at 12 months of follow-up. Patients treated with DAPT had a significantly higher MACE rate than those with SAPT [18.9% vs. 6.0% hazard ratios (HR) 2.62; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.22-5.61; P = 0.013], driven by an early excess of non-fatal MI or unplanned PCI. At multiple regression analysis, type 2a SCAD (OR: 3.69; 95% CI 1.41-9.61; P = 0.007) and DAPT regimen (OR: 4.54; 95% CI 1.31-14.28; P = 0.016) resulted independently associated with a higher risk of 12-month MACE. CONCLUSIONS: In this European registry, most patients with SCAD undergoing initial conservative management received DAPT. Yet, at 1-year follow-up, DAPT, as compared with SAPT, was independently associated with a higher rate of adverse cardiovascular events (ClinicalTrial.gov id: NCT04415762).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Vasos Coronários , Dissecação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Registros , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 35(6): 1171-1182, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224052

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Higher risk of bleeding with ticagrelor over clopidogrel in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been suggested. We assessed the incidence of major bleedings (MB), reinfarction (re-MI), and all-cause death to evaluate safety and efficacy of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in such population. METHODS: Real-world registries RENAMI and BleeMACS were merged. The pooled cohort was divided into two groups, clopidogrel versus ticagrelor. Statistical analysis considered patients <75 versus ≥75 years old. Endpoints were BARC 3-5 MB, re-MI, and all-cause death at 1-year follow-up. The study included 16,653 patients (13,153 < 75 and 3500 ≥ 75 years). Ticagrelor was underused in elderly patients (16.3% versus 20.8%, P < 0.001). Using propensity score matching (PSM), two treatment groups of 1566 patients were included in the final analysis. RESULTS: Ticagrelor was able to prevent re-MI (hazard ratio [HR], 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-0.6; P < 0.001) and all-cause death (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9; P = 0.026) irrespective of age. In patients ≥75 years, ticagrelor reduced all-cause death (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.1-0.8; P = 0.012) and re-MI (HR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.1-1.1, P = 0.072). Moreover, even with the limit of the low number of events, ticagrelor did not significantly increase the incidence of MB (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.70-3.0; P = 0.257). At multiple Cox regression, age (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05; P < 0.001) resulted an independent risk factor for bleeding. CONCLUSION: In our study, reflecting the results from two large retrospective, real-world registries, Ticagrelor did not significantly increase MB compared with clopidogrel in elderly patients with ACS treated with PCI, while significantly improving 1-year survival. Further studies on elderly patients are suggested.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Pontuação de Propensão , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ticagrelor/administração & dosagem , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos
12.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 69(4): 408-416, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of potent P2Y12 inhibitors (ticagrelor & prasugrel) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) is a class I recommendation. We performed a sex-specific analysis comparing the difference in efficacy and safety outcomes between ticagrelor and prasugrel in a real-world ACS population. METHODS: Data from the multicenter REgistry of New Antiplatelets in patients with Myocardial Infarction (RENAMI) for 4424 ACS patients who underwent PCI and were treated with ticagrelor or prasugrel between 2012 to 2016 were analyzed. Mean follow-up was 17±9 months. RESULTS: After propensity score matching, there was no significant difference in the occurrence of primary endpoint of net adverse cardiac events between ticagrelor and prasugrel in men (HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.69-1.29; P=0.71), or women (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.63-2.20; P=0.62; P interaction [sex] = 0.40). Similarly, no differences were found in the occurrence of any of the secondary endpoints (MACE, all cause death, re-infarction, stent thrombosis, BARC major bleeding and BARC any bleeding) between the two P2Y12 groups between men and women. CONCLUSIONS: In this real-world ACS population, no relative difference in efficacy or safety outcomes were found between ticagrelor and prasugrel between sexes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 78(1): e94-e100, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173802

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Statin therapy has been recently suggested as possible adjuvant treatment to improve the clinical outcome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of preadmission statin therapy in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and to investigate its potential association with acute distress respiratory syndrome (ARDS) at admission and in-hospital mortality. We retrospectively recruited 467 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the emergency department of 10 Italian hospitals. The study population was divided in 2 groups according to the ARDS diagnosis at admission and in-hospital mortality. A multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of ARDS at admission and death during hospitalization among patients with COVID-19. A competing risk analysis in patients taking or not statins before admission was also performed. ARDS at admission was reported in 122 cases (26.1%). There was no statistically significant difference for clinical characteristics between patients presenting with and without ARDS. One hundred seven patients (18.5%) died during the hospitalization; they showed increased age (69.6 ± 13.1 vs. 66.1 ± 14.9; P = 0.001), coronary artery disease (23.4% vs. 12.8%; P = 0.012), and chronic kidney disease (20.6% vs. 11.1%; P = 0.018) prevalence; moreover, they presented more frequently ARDS at admission (48.6% vs. 19.4%; P < 0.001). At multivariable regression model, statin therapy was not associated neither with ARDS at admission nor with in-hospital mortality. Preadmission statin therapy does not seem to show a protective effect in severe forms of COVID-19 complicated by ARDS at presentation and rapidly evolving toward death.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Progressão da Doença , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
14.
EuroIntervention ; 17(6): 516-524, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an increasingly diagnosed cause of myocardial infarction. Although different SCAD angiographic classifications exist, their clinical impact remains unknown. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between an angiographic classification and the development of adverse clinical events during the follow-up of a large, unselected cohort of patients with SCAD. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of consecutive SCAD patients from 26 centres across Italy and Spain. Cases were classified into five different angiotypes according to the latest classification endorsed by the European Society of Cardiology. The main composite endpoint included all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and any unplanned revascularisation. RESULTS: In total, 302 SCAD patients (mean age 51.8±19 years) were followed up for a median of 22 months (IQR 12-48). At 28 days, the composite outcome was higher for the angiotypes with a circumscribed contained intramural haematoma (2A and 3): 20.0% vs 5.4%, p<0.001 (non-fatal MI: 11.0% vs 3.5%, p=0.009; unplanned revascularisation: 11.0% vs 2.5%, p<0.001). This was sustained during follow-up (24.5% vs 9.9%, p=0.001). There were no differences in mortality (0.3% overall). The presence of an angiotype 2A or 3 was an independent predictor of a higher incidence of the composite outcome (adjusted HR 2.44, CI: 1.24-4.80, p=0.010). CONCLUSIONS: The SCAD angiographic classification correlates with outcome. Those presenting with an angiographically circumscribed contained intramural haematoma (angiotypes 2A and 3) showed an increased risk of short-term adverse clinical events that was maintained during follow-up.


Assuntos
Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários , Doenças Vasculares , Adulto , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/epidemiologia , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Dissecação , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Future Cardiol ; 17(8): 1435-1452, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739146

RESUMO

The functional evaluation of coronary stenoses has obtained important clinical results in recent years, resulting in strong guideline recommendations. Nonetheless, the use of coronary wire-based functional evaluation has not yet become part of the routine in catheterization laboratories for several reasons, including the need to advance a wire into the coronary vessel to interrogate the stenosis. Angiography-derived indexes have been introduced to expand the current use of physiology to estimate the functional meaning of a stenosis on the basis of angiographic data only. The most studied and validated angiography-derived index is certainly the quantitative flow ratio. This article will summarize the basics of the quantitative flow ratio, the related validation studies and its current and future applications.


Lay abstract Coronary arteries are the main vessels that carry blood and oxygen to the heart muscle, ensuring its functionality. In cardiology, coronary stenoses are defined as pathological narrowing of one or more of these vessels, which can lead to a critical reduction in blood flow, ischemic problems and myocardial infarction. Currently, percutaneous coronary intervention is considered the first-line treatment of myocardial infarction. This technique consists of a procedure in which the stenosis is resolved and proper blood flow is restored thanks to balloon inflation and stent implantation through a percutaneous procedure performed under local anesthesia. Coronary angiography was, for many years, the only available tool to diagnose and assess the consequences of coronary atherosclerosis, becoming the standard reference in the study of ischemic heart disease, allowing us to routinely describe the severity of coronary stenosis or the severity of the disease based on the number of vessels affected. Subsequently, the introduction of invasive methods to assess coronary physiology allowed us to obtain a precise assessment regarding the physiological impact of stenoses located in main vessels while demonstrating the poor diagnostic performance of angiography to assess the functional impact of these stenoses. Among these coronary physiology techniques, quantitative flow ratio has recently been the object of many investigations. In contrast to invasive techniques that can be performed only by advancing a wire into the coronary artery, quantitative flow ratio allows us to perform a functional evaluation of coronary stenoses on the basis of angiographic data only. Given its potential, this work will summarize the basics of quantitative flow ratio, the main validation studies and its current and future applications in interventional cardiology.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Estenose Coronária , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Am J Cardiol ; 143: 37-45, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387472

RESUMO

Ellis grade III coronary artery perforations (G3-CAP) remain a life-threatening complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), with high morbidity and mortality and lack of consensus regarding optimal treatment strategies. We reviewed all PCIs performed in 10 European centers from 1993 to 2019 recording all G3-CAP along with management strategies, in-hospital and long-term outcome according to Device-related perforations (DP) and Guidewire-related perforations (WP). Among 106,592 PCI (including 7,773 chronic total occlusions), G3-CAP occurred in 311 patients (0.29%). DP occurred in 194 cases (62.4%), more commonly in proximal segments (73.2%) and frequently secondary to balloon dilatation (66.0%). WP arose in 117 patients (37.6%) with chronic total occlusions guidewires involved in 61.3% of cases. Overall sealing success rate was 90.7% and usually required multiple maneuvers (80.4%). The most commonly adopted strategies to obtain hemostasis were prolonged balloon inflation (73.2%) with covered stent implantation (64.4%) in the DP group, and prolonged balloon inflation (53.8%) with coil embolization (41%) in the WP group.  Procedural or in-hospital events arose in 38.2% of cases: mortality was higher after DP (7.2% vs 2.6%, p = 0.05) and acute stent thrombosis 3-fold higher (3.1% vs 0.9%, p = 0.19). At clinical follow-up, median 2 years, a major cardiovascular event occurred in one-third of cases (all-cause mortality 8.2% and 7.1% respectively, without differences between groups). In conclusion, although rare and despite improved rates of adequate perforation sealing G3-CAP cause significant adverse events. DP and WP result in different patterns of G3-CAP and management strategies should be based on this classification.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Oclusão Coronária/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/lesões , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/efeitos adversos , Stents Farmacológicos , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Feminino , Hemostasia Cirúrgica/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Sistema de Registros , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/etiologia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/terapia
17.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(2): 198-207, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the incidence and causes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at different time periods following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) and aortic stenosis frequently coexist, but the optimal management of CAD following TAVR remains incompletely elucidated. METHODS: Patients undergoing unplanned PCI after TAVR were retrospectively included in an international multicenter registry. RESULTS: Between July 2008 and March 2019, a total of 133 patients (0.9%; from a total cohort of 15,325) underwent unplanned PCI after TAVR (36.1% after balloon-expandable bioprosthesis, 63.9% after self-expandable bioprosthesis). The median time to PCI was 191 days (interquartile range: 59 to 480 days). The daily incidence of PCI was highest during the first week after TAVR and then declined over time. Overall, the majority of patients underwent PCI due to an acute coronary syndrome, and specifically 32.3% had non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, 15.4% had unstable angina, 9.8% had ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and 2.2% had cardiac arrest. However, chronic coronary syndromes are the main indication beyond 2 years. PCI success was reported in almost all cases (96.6%), with no significant differences between patients treated with balloon-expandable and self-expandable bioprostheses (100% vs. 94.9%; p = 0.150). CONCLUSIONS: Unplanned PCI after TAVR is rare, with an incidence declining over time after TAVR. The main indication to PCI is acute coronary syndrome in the first 2 years after TAVR, and thereafter chronic coronary syndromes become prevalent. Unplanned PCIs are frequently successfully performed after TAVR, with no apparent differences between balloon-expandable and self-expandable bioprostheses. (Revascularization After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation [REVIVAL]; NCT03283501).


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 97(2): E227-E236, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PARIS risk score (PARIS-rs) and percutaneous coronary intervention complexity (PCI-c) predict clinical and procedural residual ischemic risk following PCI. Their accuracy in patients undergoing unprotected left main (ULM) or bifurcation PCI has not been assessed. METHODS: The predictive performances of the PARIS-rs (categorized as low, intermediate, and high) and PCI-c (according to guideline-endorsed criteria) were evaluated in 3,002 patients undergoing ULM/bifurcation PCI with very thin strut stents. RESULTS: After 16 (12-22) months, increasing PARIS-rs (8.8% vs. 14.1% vs. 27.4%, p < .001) and PCI-c (15.2% vs. 11%, p = .025) were associated with higher rates of major adverse cardiac events ([MACE], a composite of death, myocardial infarction [MI], and target vessel revascularization), driven by MI/death for PARIS-rs and target lesion revascularization/stent thrombosis for PCI-c (area under the curves for MACE: PARIS-rs 0.60 vs. PCI-c 0.52, p-for-difference < .001). PCI-c accuracy for MACE was higher in low-clinical-risk patients; while PARIS-rs was more accurate in low-procedural-risk patients. ≥12-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) was associated with a lower MACE rate in high PARIS-rs patients, (adjusted-hazard ratio 0.42 [95% CI: 0.22-0.83], p = .012), with no benefit in low to intermediate PARIS-rs patients. No incremental benefit with longer DAPT was observed in complex PCI. CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of ULM/bifurcation PCI, the residual ischemic risk is better predicted by a clinical risk estimator than by PCI complexity, which rather appears to reflect stent/procedure-related events. Careful procedural risk estimation is warranted in patients at low clinical risk, where PCI complexity may substantially contribute to the overall residual ischemic risk.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(1): 20-25, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical impact of stent strut thickness in coronary bifurcation lesions in small vessels has not been assessed in a real-world population. METHODS: All 506 patients enrolled in the RAIN study, undergoing PCI in a vessel with a diameter 2.5 mm or less were retrospectively evaluated and divided into two groups according to stent strut thickness: 74 µm (n = 206) versus 81 µm (n = 300); 87.1% of the lesions involved bifurcations. TLF [defined as a composite of myocardial infarction (MI) and target lesion revascularization (TLR)] was the primary endpoint, with MACE (a composite of death, MI and TLR), its components and stent thrombosis the secondary endpoint. RESULTS: After 16 (14-18) months, a lower incidence of TLF (4.3 vs. 9.8%, P = 0.026) and ST (1.0 vs. 3.0%, P = 0.042) was seen in the 74 µm group, whereas MACE occurred in 60 of 506 patients, with no statistical difference between the two groups (9.7 vs. 13.3%, P = 0.070). At multivariate analysis, chronic renal failure increased the risk of TLF while thinner strut was an independent protective factor (hazard ratio 0.51, CI 0.17-0.85, P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: In this real-world population, patients being treated for small vessels lesions with thinner strut stents had lower rates of TLF, MI and ST.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Stents , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Trombose Coronária/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Desenho de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 7(3): 196-205, 2021 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544220

RESUMO

AIMS: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) reduces the incidence of thrombotic complications at the cost of an increase in bleedings. New antiplatelet therapies focused on minimizing bleeding and maximizing antithrombotic effects are emerging. The aim of this study is to collect the current evidence coming from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on early aspirin interruption after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and current drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation and to perform a meta-analysis in order to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this strategy. METHODS AND RESULTS: MEDLINE/PubMed was systematically screened for RCTs comparing P2Y12 inhibitors (P2Y12i) monotherapy after a maximum of 3 months of DAPT (S-DAPT) vs. DAPT for 12 months (DAPT) in patients undergoing PCI with DES. Baseline features were appraised. Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE: all causes of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) and its single composites, stent thrombosis (ST) and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 3 or 5 were considered and pooled with fixed and random-effects with inverse-variance weighting. A total of four RCTs including a total of 29 089 patients were identified. Overall, the majority of included patients suffered a stable coronary artery disease, while ST-elevation myocardial infarction was the least represented clinical presentation. Complex anatomical settings like left main intervention, bifurcations, and multi-lesions treatment were included although representing a minor part of the cases. At 1-year follow-up, MACCE rate was similar [odds ratio (OR) 0.90; 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 0.79-1.03] and any of its composites (all causes of death rate: OR 0.87; 95% CIs 0.71-1.06; myocardial infarction: OR 1.06; 95% CIs 0.90-1.26; stroke: OR 1.12; 95% CIs 0.82-1.53). Similarly, also ST rate was comparable in the two groups (OR 1.17; 95% CIs 0.83-1.64), while BARC 3 or 5 bleeding resulted significantly lower, adopting an S-DAPT strategy (OR 0.70; 95% CIs 0.58-0.86). CONCLUSION: After a PCI with current DES, an S-DAPT strategy followed by a P2Y12i monotherapy was associated with a lower incidence of clinically relevant bleeding compared to 12 months DAPT, with no significant differences in terms of 1-year cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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