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2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293090

RESUMO

AIMS: The primary objective of this systematic review was to estimate the prevalence and temporal changes in chronic comorbid conditions reported in heart failure (HF) clinical trials. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched MEDLINE for HF trials enrolling more than 400 patients published between 2001 and 2016.Trials were divided into HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), or trials enrolling regardless of ejection fraction. The prevalence of baseline chronic comorbid conditions was categorized according to the algorithm proposed by the Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse, which is used to analyse Medicare data. To test for a trend in the prevalence of comorbid conditions, linear regression models were used to evaluate temporal trends in prevalence of comorbidities. Overall, 118 clinical trials enrolling a cumulative total of 215 508 patients were included. Across all comorbidities examined, data were reported in a mean of 35% of trials, without significant improvement during the study period. Reporting of comorbidities was more common in HFrEF trials (51%) compared with HFpEF trials (27%). Among trials reporting data, hypertension (63%), ischaemic heart disease (44%), hyperlipidaemia (48%), diabetes (33%), chronic kidney disease (25%) and atrial fibrillation (25%) were the major comorbidities. The prevalence of comorbidities including hypertension, atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease increased over time while the prevalence of smoking decreased in HFrEF trials. CONCLUSION: Many HF trials do not report baseline comorbidities. A more rigorous, systematic, and standardized framework needs to be adopted for future clinical trials to ensure adequate comorbidity reporting and improve recruitment of multi-morbid HF patients.

3.
4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219363

RESUMO

Importance: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached a pandemic level. Coronaviruses are known to affect the cardiovascular system. We review the basics of coronaviruses, with a focus on COVID-19, along with their effects on the cardiovascular system. Observations: Coronavirus disease 2019 can cause a viral pneumonia with additional extrapulmonary manifestations and complications. A large proportion of patients have underlying cardiovascular disease and/or cardiac risk factors. Factors associated with mortality include male sex, advanced age, and presence of comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases. Acute cardiac injury determined by elevated high-sensitivity troponin levels is commonly observed in severe cases and is strongly associated with mortality. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is also strongly associated with mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: Coronavirus disease 2019 is associated with a high inflammatory burden that can induce vascular inflammation, myocarditis, and cardiac arrhythmias. Extensive efforts are underway to find specific vaccines and antivirals against SARS-CoV-2. Meanwhile, cardiovascular risk factors and conditions should be judiciously controlled per evidence-based guidelines.

6.
Circulation ; 141(6): e69-e92, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902242

RESUMO

Fulminant myocarditis (FM) is an uncommon syndrome characterized by sudden and severe diffuse cardiac inflammation often leading to death resulting from cardiogenic shock, ventricular arrhythmias, or multiorgan system failure. Historically, FM was almost exclusively diagnosed at autopsy. By definition, all patients with FM will need some form of inotropic or mechanical circulatory support to maintain end-organ perfusion until transplantation or recovery. Specific subtypes of FM may respond to immunomodulatory therapy in addition to guideline-directed medical care. Despite the increasing availability of circulatory support, orthotopic heart transplantation, and disease-specific treatments, patients with FM experience significant morbidity and mortality as a result of a delay in diagnosis and initiation of circulatory support and lack of appropriately trained specialists to manage the condition. This scientific statement outlines the resources necessary to manage the spectrum of FM, including extracorporeal life support, percutaneous and durable ventricular assist devices, transplantation capabilities, and specialists in advanced heart failure, cardiothoracic surgery, cardiac pathology, immunology, and infectious disease. Education of frontline providers who are most likely to encounter FM first is essential to increase timely access to appropriately resourced facilities, to prevent multiorgan system failure, and to tailor disease-specific therapy as early as possible in the disease process.

7.
Am J Med ; 133(2): 182-185, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494110

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a novel class of medications that reduce plasma glucose concentrations through an insulin-independent mechanism of increased urinary glucose excretion, with concomitant natriuresis and diuresis. Clinical outcomes trials with SGLT2 inhibitors revealed a cardioprotective benefit among patients with diabetes mellitus, with a consistent reduction in hospitalization for heart failure. As such, the 2018 updated US and European treatment guidelines for diabetes mellitus incorporated SGLT2 inhibitors as second-line glucose-lowering agents after metformin. Although well tolerated, there are known adverse effects with SGLT2 inhibitors that require clinical monitoring, such as genital mycotic infections, diabetic ketoacidosis, volume depletion particularly in the setting of concomitant diuretic use, and lower limb amputations with canagliflozin. Ongoing clinical trials will uncover the potential benefit of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with prevalent heart failure with or without diabetes mellitus.

8.
Circulation ; 141(5): 338-351, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unlike heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, there is no approved treatment for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, the predominant phenotype in women. Therefore, there is a greater heart failure therapeutic deficit in women compared with men. METHODS: In a prespecified subgroup analysis, we examined outcomes according to sex in the PARAGON-HF trial (Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ARB Global Outcomes in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction), which compared sacubitril-valsartan and valsartan in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The primary outcome was a composite of first and recurrent hospitalizations for heart failure and death from cardiovascular causes. We also report secondary efficacy and safety outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 2479 women (51.7%) and 2317 men (48.3%) were randomized. Women were older and had more obesity, less coronary disease, and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels than men. For the primary outcome, the rate ratio for sacubitril-valsartan versus valsartan was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.59-0.90) in women and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.84-1.25) in men (P interaction = 0.017). The benefit from sacubitril-valsartan was attributable to reduction in heart failure hospitalization. The improvement in New York Heart Association class and renal function with sacubitril-valsartan was similar in women and men, whereas the improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire clinical summary score was less in women than in men. The difference in adverse events between sacubitril-valsartan and valsartan was similar in women and men. CONCLUSIONS: As compared with valsartan, sacubitril-valsartan seemed to reduce the risk of heart failure hospitalization more in women than in men. Whereas the possible sex-related modification of the effect of treatment has several potential explanations, the present study does not provide a definite mechanistic basis for this finding. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01920711.

9.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(12): 1022-1028, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors examined efficacy and safety of spironolactone by age in the Americas region (N = 1,767) of the TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist) trial. BACKGROUND: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction disproportionately affects older adults who may exhibit changes in physiology and variable pharmacokinetics. METHODS: TOPCAT enrolled patients with heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≥45% who were age 50 or older with an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and prior heart failure hospitalization or elevated natriuretic peptide levels. Participants were randomized to spironolactone or placebo with a mean follow-up duration of 3.3 years. We assessed treatment effect and safety by protocol-defined age categories (<65, 65 to 74, and ≥75 years). RESULTS: The mean age was 72 ± 10 years (range 50 to 97 years) with 41% over the age of 75 years. Participants ≥75 years were more commonly women and white and had a lower body mass index and estimated glomerular filtration rate compared with the younger age categories. Spironolactone reduced the primary composite outcome compared with placebo across all age categories (p interaction = 0.42). However, spironolactone was associated with an increased risk of the safety endpoint (hazard ratio: 2.54; 95% confidence interval: 1.91 to 3.37; p < 0.001), particularly in older age groups (p interaction = 0.02). Findings in the whole TOPCAT cohort were consistent with results from the Americas region. CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc, exploratory analysis of the TOPCAT trial data from the Americas region, although there was no effect of age on efficacy, there were considerable effects of age on increased rates of adverse safety outcomes. These results should be weighed when considering spironolactone for older heart failure with preserved ejection fraction patients. (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist [TOPCAT]; NCT00094302).

10.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(11): e005691, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: US guidelines recommend that patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), who tolerate an ACEI (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) or ARB (angiotensin II receptor blocker), be switched to sacubitril/valsartan to reduce morbidity and mortality. We compared characteristics and healthcare utilization between Veterans with HFrEF who were switched to sacubitril/valsartan versus maintained on an ACEI or ARB. METHODS: retrospective cohort study of treated HFrEF (July 2015-June 2017) using Veterans Affairs data. The index date was the first fill for sacubitril/valsartan and if none, for an ACEI or ARB. Treated HFrEF was defined by (1) left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%, (2) ≥1 in/outpatient HF encounter, and (3) ≥1 ACEI or ARB fill, all within 1-year preindex. Poisson regression models were used to compare baseline characteristics and 1:1 propensity score-matched adjusted 4-month follow-up healthcare utilization between sacubitril/valsartan switchers and ACEI or ARB maintainers. RESULTS: Switchers (1612; 4.2%) were less likely than maintainers (37 065; 95.8%) to have a history of myocardial infarction or hypertension, and more likely to be black, have a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, and higher preindex healthcare utilization. Switchers were less likely to experience follow-up all-cause hospitalizations (11.2% versus 14.0%; risk ratio 0.80 [95% CI, 0.65-0.98], P value 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Few Veterans with treated HFrEF were switched to sacubitril/valsartan within the first 2 years of Food and Drug Administration approval. Sacubitril/valsartan use was associated with a lower risk for all-cause hospitalizations at 4 months follow-up. Reasons for lack of guideline-recommended sacubitril/valsartan initiation warrant investigation and may reveal opportunities for HFrEF care optimization.

12.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(4): 363-369, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916717

RESUMO

Importance: Influenza is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, but to our knowledge, few studies have explored the temporal association between influenza activity and hospitalizations, especially those caused by heart failure (HF). Objective: To explore the temporal association between influenza activity and hospitalizations due to HF and myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that increased influenza activity would be associated with an increase in hospitalizations for HF and MI among adults in the community. Design, Setting, and Participants: As part of the community surveillance component of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a population-based study with hospitalizations sampled from 4 US communities, data were collected from 451 588 adults aged 35 to 84 years residing in the ARIC communities from annual cross-sectional stratified random samples of hospitalizations during October 2010 to September 2014. Exposures: Monthly influenza activity, defined as the percentage of patient visits to sentinel clinicians for influenza-like illness by state, as reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Surveillance Network. Main Outcomes and Measures: The monthly frequency of MI hospitalizations (n = 3541) and HF hospitalizations (n = 4321), collected through community surveillance and adjudicated as part of the ARIC Study. Results: Between October 2010 and September 2014, 2042 (47.3%) and 1599 (45.1%) of the sampled patients who were hospitalized for HF and MI, respectively, were women and 2391 (53.3%) and 2013 (57.4%) were white, respectively. A 5% monthly absolute increase in influenza activity was associated with a 24% increase in HF hospitalization rates, standardized to the total population in each community, within the same month after adjusting for region, season, race/ethnicity, sex, age, and number of MI/HF hospitalizations from the month before (incidence rate ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.11-1.38; P < .001), while overall influenza activity was not significantly associated with MI hospitalizations (incidence rate ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.90-1.17; P = .72). Influenza activity in the months before hospitalization was not associated with either outcome. Our model suggests that in a month with high influenza activity, approximately 19% of HF hospitalizations (95% CI, 10%-28%) could be attributable to influenza. Conclusions and Relevance: Influenza activity was temporally associated with an increase in HF hospitalizations across 4 influenza seasons. These data suggest that influenza may contribute to the risk of HF hospitalization in the general population.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/virologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etnologia , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etnologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Clin Trials ; 16(3): 290-296, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obtaining ethical approval from multiple institutional review boards is a long-standing challenge to multi-site clinical trials and often leads to significant delays in study activation and enrollment. As of 25 January 2018, the National Institutes of Health began requiring use of a single institutional review board for US multi-site trials. To learn more and further inform the research and regulatory communities around aspects of transitioning to single institutional review board review, this study evaluated the efficiency, resource use, and user perceptions of a nascent institutional review board reliance model (Streamlined, Multi-site, Accelerated Resources for Trials IRB Reliance). METHODS: This research was embedded within the Influenza Vaccine to Effectively Stop Cardio Thoracic Events and Decompensated Heart Failure trial-a multi-site trial of two influenza vaccine formulations. In the first year of the trial, a sample of sites agreed to use the developing Streamlined, Multi-site, Accelerated Resources for Trials IRB Reliance model and participated in its evaluation. In keeping with a least burdensome approach, short surveys were developed and obtained from each reporting entity (relying sites, non-relying site, lead site, and reviewing institutional review board). Data regarding time to institutional review board approval and site activation, costs, and user perceptions of reliant review were self-reported and collected via the survey form. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed, with costs analyzed as actual versus estimated due to the lack of established baseline cost data. RESULTS: A total of 13 sites ceded review and received institutional review board approval. Mean time to approval was substantially faster in sites that ceded review using the Streamlined, Multi-site, Accelerated Resources for Trials IRB Reliance model versus the site that did not cede review (81 vs 121 days). The mean time to approval was also faster than published averages for academic medical centers (81 vs 103 days). Time to first enrollment was faster for ceding sites versus the non-ceding site, and also faster than published averages (126 vs 149 and 169 days, respectively). Costs were higher than estimates for local institutional review board review and approval. Nearly half (47%) the stakeholders reported being very satisfied or satisfied with the reliance experience, although many noted the challenge related to institutional culture change. CONCLUSION: Implementation of a single institutional review board represents a shift in practice and culture for many institutions. Evaluation of the reliance arrangements for this study highlights both the potential of, and challenges for, institutions as they transition to single institutional review board review. Although efficiencies were observed for study start-up, we anticipate a learning curve as institutions and research teams implement necessary process and resource changes to adapt to single institutional review board oversight. Findings may inform research teams but are, however, limited by the relatively small number of sites and lack of a control group.

15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(3): 337-341, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741494

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess differences in diuretic dose requirements in patients treated with sacubitril/valsartan compared with enalapril in the Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Overall, 8399 patients with New York Heart Association class II-IV heart failure and reduced LVEF were randomized to sacubitril/valsartan 200 mg bid or enalapril 10 mg twice daily. Loop diuretic doses were assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months, and furosemide dose equivalents were calculated via multiplication factors (2x for torsemide and 40x for bumetanide). Percentages of participants with reductions or increases in loop diuretic dose were determined. At baseline, 80.8% of participants were taking any diuretics (n = 6290 for loop diuretics, n = 496 for other diuretics); of those, recorded dosage data for loop diuretics were available on 5487 participants. Mean baseline furosemide equivalent doses were 48.2 mg for sacubitril/valsartan and 49.6 mg for enalapril (P = 0.25). Patients treated with sacubitril/valsartan were more likely to reduce diuretic dose and less likely to increase diuretic dose relative to those randomized to enalapril at 6, 12, 24 months post-randomization, with an overall decreased diuretic use of 2.0% (P = 0.02), 4.1% (P < 0.001), and 6.1% (P < 0.001) at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively, with similar findings in an on-treatment analysis. CONCLUSION: Treatment with sacubitril/valsartan was associated with more loop diuretic dose reductions and fewer dose increases compared with enalapril, suggesting that treatment with sacubitril/valsartan may reduce the requirement for loop diuretics relative to enalapril in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos , Enalapril , Furosemida , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Volume Sistólico , Tetrazóis , Idoso , Aminobutiratos/administração & dosagem , Aminobutiratos/farmacocinética , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Enalapril/administração & dosagem , Enalapril/farmacocinética , Feminino , Furosemida/administração & dosagem , Furosemida/farmacocinética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/farmacocinética , Tetrazóis/administração & dosagem , Tetrazóis/farmacocinética
16.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(2): 169-172, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704605

RESUMO

The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a class of glucose-lowering therapies that have been shown to reduce risks of heart failure (HF) events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at high-risk for or with cardiovascular disease. The United States Food and Drug Administration has expanded the regulatory label for empagliflozin and canagliflozin for use to lower cardiovascular risk in patients with T2DM and cardiovascular disease. SGLT2 inhibitors are being actively studied in the treatment of patients with HF, including in those without diabetes mellitus. Despite the accumulating data supporting this class of therapies in HF prevention, cardiologists infrequently prescribe SGLT2 inhibitors, potentially due to lack of familiarity with their use. We provide an up-to-date practical guide highlighting important elements for treatment initiation, dosing, anticipated adverse effects, and barriers to uptake.

17.
Pharmacotherapy ; 39(4): 473-485, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802995

RESUMO

Volume management in acute decompensated and chronic heart failure (HF) remains a significant challenge. Although progress has been made in the development of mortality-reducing neurohormonal regimens in the reduced ejection fraction population, no clinical trial has yet demonstrated anything more than symptomatic relief or biomarker reduction with pharmacotherapeutic volume-based interventions made in the acutely decompensated individual or those with evolving outpatient congestion. As the number of patients with HF continues to grow, in addition to HF-related hospitalizations, identifying therapies that have the potential to aid in diuresis more safely and efficaciously is paramount to decreasing inpatient length of stay and preventing unnecessary admissions. More recently, a significant amount of research has been dedicated to the use of vasopressin antagonists, specifically tolvaptan, as adjunctive therapy to loop and thiazide diuretics. Although these agents do not seem to have a pervasive role in fluid management in the acute decompensated and chronic HF populations, they are effective tools to have available for specific clinical situations. This review summarizes the literature surrounding the use of tolvaptan for volume management in congestive HF, as well as offering practical guidance for use of this agent.

19.
JACC Heart Fail ; 6(10): 844-855, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate and contribute to the limited data on U.S. hospital practice patterns with respect to respiratory vaccination in patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Respiratory infection is a major driver of morbidity in patients with HF, and many influenza and pneumococcal infections may be prevented by vaccination. METHODS: This study evaluated patients hospitalized at centers participating in the Get With The Guidelines-HF (GWTG-HF) registry from October 2012 to March 2017. The proportion of patients receiving vaccination was described for influenza and pneumococcal vaccination, respectively. The association of hospital-level vaccination rates with individual GWTG-HF performance measures and defect-free care was evaluated using multivariable modeling. RESULTS: This study evaluated 313,761 patients discharged from 392 hospitals during the study period. The proportion of patients receiving influenza vaccination was 68% overall and declined from 70% in 2012 to 2013 to 66% in 2016 to 2017 (p < 0.001), although this was not statistically significant after adjustment (odds ratio: 1.05 per flu season; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94 to 1.18). The proportion of patients receiving pneumococcal vaccination was 66% overall and decreased over the study period from 71% in 2013 to 60% in 2016 (p < 0.001), remaining significant after adjustment (odds ratio: 0.75 per calendar year; 95% CI: 0.67 to 0.84). Hospitals with higher vaccination rates were more likely to discharge patients with higher performance on defect-free care and individual GWTG-HF performance measures (p < 0.001). In a subset of patients with linked Medicare claims, vaccinated patients had similar rates of 1-year all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.96 [95% CI: 0.89 to 1.03] for influenza vaccination; adjusted hazard ratio: 0.95 [95% CI: 0.89 to 1.01] for pneumococcal vaccination) compared with those not vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 1 in 3 patients hospitalized with HF at participating hospitals were not vaccinated for influenza or pneumococcal pneumonia, and vaccination rates did not improve from 2012 to 2017. Hospitals that exhibited higher vaccination rates performed well with respect to other HF quality of care measures. Vaccination status was not associated with differences in clinical outcomes. Further randomized controlled data are needed to assess the relationship between vaccination and outcomes.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/uso terapêutico , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/prevenção & controle , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos
20.
Am Heart J ; 202: 97-103, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza leads to significant cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality-particularly in patients with cardiovascular disease-that may be prevented with a standard influenza vaccine. However, patients with cardiovascular conditions have a reduced immune response to influenza vaccine, potentially resulting in reduced effectiveness for preventing clinical events. High-dose vaccine augments immune response in cardiac patients, suggesting that a high-dose influenza vaccination strategy may further reduce morbidity and mortality. Alternatively, broader coverage with an influenza vaccine containing an increased number of viral strains is an alternative strategy without direct evaluation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: INfluenza Vaccine to Effectively Stop Cardio Thoracic Events and Decompensated heart failure (INVESTED) is a pragmatic, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of an annual vaccination strategy of high-dose trivalent versus standard-dose quadrivalent influenza vaccine in patients with a history of recent heart failure or myocardial infarction hospitalization. The trial will enroll approximately 9,300 patients over 4 influenza seasons. The primary hypothesis is that high-dose influenza vaccine will reduce the composite outcome of all-cause mortality and hospitalization from a cardiovascular or pulmonary cause compared with standard-dose influenza vaccine within each enrolling season. Approximately 1,300 primary outcome events will provide >90% power to detect an 18% relative risk reduction at a 2-sided α level of .05. CONCLUSION: INVESTED is the largest and longest study to assess whether high-dose influenza vaccine is superior to standard-dose influenza vaccine in reducing cardiopulmonary events in a high-risk cardiovascular population (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02787044).


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hospitalização , Humanos , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco
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