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1.
J Hepatol ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Autophagy-related gene 3 (ATG3) is an enzyme mainly known for its actions in the LC3 lipidation process, which is essential for autophagy. Whether ATG3 plays a role in lipid metabolism or contributes to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unknown. METHODS: By performing a liver proteomic analysis from mice with genetic manipulation of hepatic p63, a regulator of fatty acid metabolism, we identified ATG3 as a new target downstream of p63. ATG3 was evaluated in liver samples of patients with NAFLD. Further, genetic manipulation of ATG3 was performed in human hepatocyte cell lines, primary hepatocytes and in the liver of mice. RESULTS: ATG3 expression is induced in the liver of animal models and patients with NAFLD (both steatosis and NASH) compared with those without liver disease. Moreover, genetic knockdown of ATG3 in mice and human hepatocytes ameliorates p63- and diet-induced steatosis, while its overexpression increases the lipid load in hepatocytes. The inhibition of hepatic ATG3 improves fatty acid metabolism by reducing c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase 1 (JNK1), which increases sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), carnitine palmitoiltransferase I (CPT1a), and mitochondrial function. Hepatic knockdown of SIRT1 and CPT1a blunts the effects of ATG3 on mitochondrial activity. Unexpectedly, these effects are independent of an autophagic action. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these findings indicate that ATG3 is a novel protein implicated in the development of steatosis. LAY SUMMARY: We show that autophagy-related gene 3 (ATG3) contributes to the progression of NAFLD in humans and mice. Hepatic knockdown of ATG3 ameliorates the development of NAFLD, by stimulating SIRT1, CPT1a and mitochondrial function. Thus, ATG3 is an important factor implicated in steatosis.

2.
Hepatology ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is the leading cause of early post-transplantation organ failure, as mitochondrial respiration and ATP production are affected. Shortage of donors has extended liver donor criteria, including aged or steatotic livers, which are more susceptible to IRI. Given the lack of an effective treatment and the extensive transplantation waitlist, we aimed at characterizing the effects of an accelerated mitochondrial activity by silencing Methylation-controlled J protein (MCJ) in three pre-clinical models of IRI and liver regeneration, focusing on metabolically compromised animal models. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Wt, MCJ KO and Mcj silenced Wt mice were subjected to 70% Partial hepatectomy (Phx), prolonged IRI and 70% Phx with IRI. Old and mice with metabolic syndrome were also subjected to these procedures. Expression of MCJ, an endogenous negative regulator of mitochondrial respiration, increases in pre-clinical models of Phx with or without vascular occlusion, and in donors' livers. Mice lacking MCJ initiate liver regeneration 12h faster than WT, show reduced ischemic injury and increased survival. MCJ knockdown enables a mitochondrial adaptation that restores the bioenergetic supply for enhanced regeneration and prevents cell death after IRI. Mechanistically, increased ATP secretion facilitates the early activation of kupffer cells and production of TNF, IL-6 and HB-EGF accelerating the priming phase and the progression through G1/S transition during liver regeneration. Therapeutic silencing of MCJ in 15-month-old mice and in mice fed with a high fat-high fructose diet for 12 weeks improves mitochondrial respiration, reduces steatosis and overcomes regenerative limitations. CONCLUSIONS: Boosting mitochondrial activity by silencing MCJ could pave the way for a novel protective approach after major liver resection or IRI, specially in metabolically compromised, IRI susceptible organs.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5068, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417460

RESUMO

p53 regulates several signaling pathways to maintain the metabolic homeostasis of cells and modulates the cellular response to stress. Deficiency or excess of nutrients causes cellular metabolic stress, and we hypothesized that p53 could be linked to glucose maintenance. We show here that upon starvation hepatic p53 is stabilized by O-GlcNAcylation and plays an essential role in the physiological regulation of glucose homeostasis. More specifically, p53 binds to PCK1 promoter and regulates its transcriptional activation, thereby controlling hepatic glucose production. Mice lacking p53 in the liver show a reduced gluconeogenic response during calorie restriction. Glucagon, adrenaline and glucocorticoids augment protein levels of p53, and administration of these hormones to p53 deficient human hepatocytes and to liver-specific p53 deficient mice fails to increase glucose levels. Moreover, insulin decreases p53 levels, and over-expression of p53 impairs insulin sensitivity. Finally, protein levels of p53, as well as genes responsible of O-GlcNAcylation are elevated in the liver of type 2 diabetic patients and positively correlate with glucose and HOMA-IR. Overall these results indicate that the O-GlcNAcylation of p53 plays an unsuspected key role regulating in vivo glucose homeostasis.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Restrição Calórica , Linhagem Celular , Colforsina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Epinefrina/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosilação , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (GTP)/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
4.
Cancer Res ; 81(11): 2874-2887, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771899

RESUMO

Lipid metabolism rearrangements in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) contribute to disease progression. NAFLD has emerged as a major risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), where metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark. Identification of metabolic drivers might reveal therapeutic targets to improve HCC treatment. Here, we investigated the contribution of transcription factors E2F1 and E2F2 to NAFLD-related HCC and their involvement in metabolic rewiring during disease progression. In mice receiving a high-fat diet (HFD) and diethylnitrosamine (DEN) administration, E2f1 and E2f2 expressions were increased in NAFLD-related HCC. In human NAFLD, E2F1 and E2F2 levels were also increased and positively correlated. E2f1 -/- and E2f2 -/- mice were resistant to DEN-HFD-induced hepatocarcinogenesis and associated lipid accumulation. Administration of DEN-HFD in E2f1 -/- and E2f2 -/- mice enhanced fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increased expression of Cpt2, an enzyme essential for FAO, whose downregulation is linked to NAFLD-related hepatocarcinogenesis. These results were recapitulated following E2f2 knockdown in liver, and overexpression of E2f2 elicited opposing effects. E2F2 binding to the Cpt2 promoter was enhanced in DEN-HFD-administered mouse livers compared with controls, implying a direct role for E2F2 in transcriptional repression. In human HCC, E2F1 and E2F2 expressions inversely correlated with CPT2 expression. Collectively, these results indicate that activation of the E2F1-E2F2-CPT2 axis provides a lipid-rich environment required for hepatocarcinogenesis. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify E2F1 and E2F2 transcription factors as metabolic drivers of hepatocellular carcinoma, where deletion of just one is sufficient to prevent disease. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/81/11/2874/F1.large.jpg.

5.
J Hepatol ; 75(1): 34-45, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Perturbations of intracellular magnesium (Mg2+) homeostasis have implications for cell physiology. The cyclin M family, CNNM, perform key functions in the transport of Mg2+ across cell membranes. Herein, we aimed to elucidate the role of CNNM4 in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: Serum Mg2+ levels and hepatic CNNM4 expression were characterised in clinical samples. Primary hepatocytes were cultured under methionine and choline deprivation. A 0.1% methionine and choline-deficient diet, or a choline-deficient high-fat diet were used to induce NASH in our in vivo rodent models. Cnnm4 was silenced using siRNA, in vitro with DharmaFECT and in vivo with Invivofectamine® or conjugated to N-acetylgalactosamine. RESULTS: Patients with NASH showed hepatic CNNM4 overexpression and dysregulated Mg2+ levels in the serum. Cnnm4 silencing ameliorated hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and fibrosis in the rodent NASH models. Mechanistically, CNNM4 knockdown in hepatocytes induced cellular Mg2+ accumulation, reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress, and increased microsomal triglyceride transfer activity, which promoted hepatic lipid clearance by increasing the secretion of VLDLs. CONCLUSIONS: CNNM4 is overexpressed in patients with NASH and is responsible for dysregulated Mg2+ transport. Hepatic CNNM4 is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of NASH. LAY SUMMARY: Cyclin M4 (CNNM4) is overexpressed in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and promotes the export of magnesium from the liver. The liver-specific silencing of Cnnm4 ameliorates NASH by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and promoting the activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

6.
Hepatology ; 73(2): 606-624, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 55 is a putative cannabinoid receptor, and l-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is its only known endogenous ligand. Although GPR55 has been linked to energy homeostasis in different organs, its specific role in lipid metabolism in the liver and its contribution to the pathophysiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unknown. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We measured (1) GPR55 expression in the liver of patients with NAFLD compared with individuals without obesity and without liver disease, as well as animal models with steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and (2) the effects of LPI and genetic disruption of GPR55 in mice, human hepatocytes, and human hepatic stellate cells. Notably, we found that circulating LPI and liver expression of GPR55 were up-regulated in patients with NASH. LPI induced adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) and increased lipid content in human hepatocytes and in the liver of treated mice by inducing de novo lipogenesis and decreasing ß-oxidation. The inhibition of GPR55 and ACCα blocked the effects of LPI, and the in vivo knockdown of GPR55 was sufficient to improve liver damage in mice fed a high-fat diet and in mice fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet. Finally, LPI promoted the initiation of hepatic stellate cell activation by stimulating GPR55 and activation of ACC. CONCLUSIONS: The LPI/GPR55 system plays a role in the development of NAFLD and NASH by activating ACC.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3360, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620763

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the next major health epidemic with an estimated 25% worldwide prevalence. No drugs have yet been approved and NAFLD remains a major unmet need. Here, we identify MCJ (Methylation-Controlled J protein) as a target for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an advanced phase of NAFLD. MCJ is an endogenous negative regulator of the respiratory chain Complex I that acts to restrain mitochondrial respiration. We show that therapeutic targeting of MCJ in the liver with nanoparticle- and GalNAc-formulated siRNA efficiently reduces liver lipid accumulation and fibrosis in multiple NASH mouse models. Decreasing MCJ expression enhances the capacity of hepatocytes to mediate ß-oxidation of fatty acids and minimizes lipid accumulation, which results in reduced hepatocyte damage and fibrosis. Moreover, MCJ levels in the liver of NAFLD patients are elevated relative to healthy subjects. Thus, inhibition of MCJ emerges as an alternative approach to treat NAFLD.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/antagonistas & inibidores , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , RNA-Seq
8.
J Clin Invest ; 130(7): 3848-3864, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315290

RESUMO

Cancer cells can develop a strong addiction to discrete molecular regulators, which control the aberrant gene expression programs that drive and maintain the cancer phenotype. Here, we report the identification of the RNA-binding protein HuR/ELAVL1 as a central oncogenic driver for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), which are highly aggressive sarcomas that originate from cells of the Schwann cell lineage. HuR was found to be highly elevated and bound to a multitude of cancer-associated transcripts in human MPNST samples. Accordingly, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of HuR had potent cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on tumor growth, and strongly suppressed metastatic capacity in vivo. Importantly, we linked the profound tumorigenic function of HuR to its ability to simultaneously regulate multiple essential oncogenic pathways in MPNST cells, including the Wnt/ß-catenin, YAP/TAZ, RB/E2F, and BET pathways, which converge on key transcriptional networks. Given the exceptional dependency of MPNST cells on HuR for survival, proliferation, and dissemination, we propose that HuR represents a promising therapeutic target for MPNST treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Proteína Semelhante a ELAV 1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteína Semelhante a ELAV 1/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural/genética , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural/patologia
9.
Cell Metab ; 31(3): 605-622.e10, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084378

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by the accumulation of hepatic fat in an inflammatory/fibrotic background. Herein, we show that the hepatic high-activity glutaminase 1 isoform (GLS1) is overexpressed in NASH. Importantly, GLS1 inhibition reduces lipid content in choline and/or methionine deprivation-induced steatotic mouse primary hepatocytes, in human hepatocyte cell lines, and in NASH mouse livers. We suggest that under these circumstances, defective glutamine fueling of anaplerotic mitochondrial metabolism and concomitant reduction of oxidative stress promotes a reprogramming of serine metabolism, wherein serine is shifted from the generation of the antioxidant glutathione and channeled to provide one-carbon units to regenerate the methionine cycle. The restored methionine cycle can induce phosphatidylcholine synthesis from the phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase-mediated and CDP-choline pathways as well as by base-exchange reactions between phospholipids, thereby restoring hepatic phosphatidylcholine content and very-low-density lipoprotein export. Overall, we provide evidence that hepatic GLS1 targeting is a valuable therapeutic approach in NASH.

10.
Cells ; 8(12)2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817258

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is characterized by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins including collagen that occurs in most types of chronic liver disease. Even though our knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver fibrosis has deeply improved in the last years, therapeutic approaches for liver fibrosis remain limited. Profiling and characterization of the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, and more specifically NEDDylation and SUMOylation ubiquitin-like (Ubls) modifications, can provide a better understanding of the liver fibrosis pathology as well as novel and more effective therapeutic approaches. On this basis, in the last years, several studies have described how changes in the intermediates of the Ubl cascades are altered during liver fibrosis and how specific targeting of particular enzymes mediating these ubiquitin-like modifications can improve liver fibrosis, mainly in in vitro models of hepatic stellate cells, the main fibrogenic cell type, and in pre-clinical mouse models of liver fibrosis. The development of novel inhibitors of the Ubl modifications as well as novel strategies to assess the modified proteome can provide new insights into the overall role of Ubl modifications in liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Animais , Humanos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases Nedd4/metabolismo , Proteínas Modificadoras Pequenas Relacionadas à Ubiquitina/metabolismo
11.
Mol Metab ; 29: 40-54, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex pathology in which several dysfunctions, including alterations in metabolic pathways, mitochondrial functionality and unbalanced lipid import/export, lead to lipid accumulation and progression to inflammation and fibrosis. The enzyme glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT), the most important enzyme implicated in S-adenosylmethionine catabolism in the liver, is downregulated during NAFLD progression. We have studied the mechanism involved in GNMT downregulation by its repressor microRNA miR-873-5p and the metabolic pathways affected in NAFLD as well as the benefit of recovery GNMT expression. METHODS: miR-873-5p and GNMT expression were evaluated in liver biopsies of NAFLD/NASH patients. Different in vitro and in vivo NAFLD murine models were used to assess miR-873-5p/GNMT involvement in fatty liver progression through targeting of the miR-873-5p as NAFLD therapy. RESULTS: We describe a new function of GNMT as an essential regulator of Complex II activity in the electron transport chain in the mitochondria. In NAFLD, GNMT expression is controlled by miR-873-5p in the hepatocytes, leading to disruptions in mitochondrial functionality in a preclinical murine non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model. Upregulation of miR-873-5p is shown in the liver of NAFLD/NASH patients, correlating with hepatic GNMT depletion. Importantly, NASH therapies based on anti-miR-873-5p resolve lipid accumulation, inflammation and fibrosis by enhancing fatty acid ß-oxidation in the mitochondria. Therefore, miR-873-5p inhibitor emerges as a potential tool for NASH treatment. CONCLUSION: GNMT participates in the regulation of metabolic pathways and mitochondrial functionality through the regulation of Complex II activity in the electron transport chain. In NAFLD, GNMT is repressed by miR-873-5p and its targeting arises as a valuable therapeutic option for treatment.


Assuntos
Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Glicina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Antagomirs/metabolismo , Antagomirs/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Glicina N-Metiltransferase/deficiência , Glicina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
12.
Hepatology ; 69(2): 699-716, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30229970

RESUMO

Cholestasis comprises aetiologically heterogeneous conditions characterized by accumulation of bile acids in the liver that actively contribute to liver damage. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) regulates liver regeneration and bile acid metabolism by modulating farnesoid X receptor (FXR); we here investigate its role in cholestatic liver disease. We determined SIRT1 expression in livers from patients with cholestatic disease, in two experimental models of cholestasis, as well as in human and murine liver cells in response to bile acid loading. SIRT1-overexpressing (SIRToe ) and hepatocyte-specific SIRT1-KO (knockout) mice (SIRThep-/- ) were subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL) and were fed with a 0.1% DDC (3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine) diet to determine the biological relevance of SIRT1 during cholestasis. The effect of NorUDCA (24-norursodeoxycholic acid) was tested in BDL/SIRToe mice. We found that SIRT1 was highly expressed in livers from cholestatic patients, mice after BDL, and Mdr2 knockout mice (Mdr2-/- ) animals. The detrimental effects of SIRT1 during cholestasis were validated in vivo and in vitro. SIRToe mice showed exacerbated parenchymal injury whereas SIRThep-/- mice evidenced a moderate improvement after BDL and 0.1% DDC feeding. Likewise, hepatocytes isolated from SIRToe mice showed increased apoptosis in response to bile acids, whereas a significant reduction was observed in SIRThep-/- hepatocytes. Importantly, the decrease, but not complete inhibition, of SIRT1 exerted by norUDCA treatment correlated with pronounced improvement in liver parenchyma in BDL/SIRToe mice. Interestingly, both SIRT1 overexpression and hepatocyte-specific SIRT1 depletion correlated with inhibition of FXR, whereas modulation of SIRT1 by NorUDCA associated with restored FXR signaling. Conclusion: SIRT1 expression is increased during human and murine cholestasis. Fine-tuning expression of SIRT1 is essential to protect the liver from cholestatic liver damage.


Assuntos
Colestase/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/biossíntese , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos
13.
EBioMedicine ; 40: 406-421, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is usually described as a tumor suppressor in a wide variety of tissues, it has been shown that LKB1 aberrant expression is associated with bad prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Herein we have overexpressed LKB1 in human hepatoma cells and by using histidine pull-down assay we have investigated the role of the hypoxia-related post-translational modification of Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier (SUMO)ylation in the regulation of LKB1 oncogenic role. Molecular modelling between LKB1 and its interactors, involved in regulation of LKB1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and LKB1 activity, was performed. Finally, high affinity SUMO binding entities-based technology were used to validate our findings in a pre-clinical mouse model and in clinical HCC. FINDINGS: We found that in human hepatoma cells under hypoxic stress, LKB1 overexpression increases cell viability and aggressiveness in association with changes in LKB1 cellular localization. Moreover, by using site-directed mutagenesis, we have shown that LKB1 is SUMOylated by SUMO-2 at Lys178 hampering LKB1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and fueling hepatoma cell growth. Molecular modelling of SUMO modified LKB1 further confirmed steric impedance between SUMOylated LKB1 and the STe20-Related ADaptor cofactor (STRADα), involved in LKB1 export from the nucleus. Finally, we provide evidence that endogenous LKB1 is modified by SUMO in pre-clinical mouse models of HCC and clinical HCC, where LKB1 SUMOylation is higher in fast growing tumors. INTERPRETATION: Overall, SUMO-2 modification of LKB1 at Lys178 mediates LKB1 cellular localization and its oncogenic role in liver cancer. FUND: This work was supported by grants from NIH (US Department of Health and Human services)-R01AR001576-11A1 (J.M.M and M.L.M-C.), Gobierno Vasco-Departamento de Salud 2013111114 (to M.L.M.-C), ELKARTEK 2016, Departamento de Industria del Gobierno Vasco (to M.L.M.-C), MINECO: SAF2017-87301-R and SAF2014-52097-R integrado en el Plan Estatal de Investigación Cientifica y Técnica y Innovación 2013-2016 cofinanciado con Fondos FEDER (to M.L.M.-C and J.M.M., respectively), BFU2015-71017/BMC MINECO/FEDER, EU (to A.D.Q. and I.D.M.), BIOEF (Basque Foundation for Innovation and Health Research): EITB Maratoia BIO15/CA/014; Instituto de Salud Carlos III:PIE14/00031, integrado en el Plan Estatal de Investigación Cientifica y Técnica y Innovacion 2013-2016 cofinanciado con Fondos FEDER (to M.L.M.-C and J.M.M), Asociación Española contra el Cáncer (T.C.D, P·F-T and M.L.M-C), Daniel Alagille award from EASL (to T.C.D), Fundación Científica de la Asociación Española Contra el Cancer (AECC Scientific Foundation) Rare Tumor Calls 2017 (to M.L.M and M.A), La Caixa Foundation Program (to M.L.M), Programma di Ricerca Regione-Università 2007-2009 and 2011-2012, Regione Emilia-Romagna (to E.V.), Ramón Areces Foundation and the Andalusian Government (BIO-198) (A.D.Q. and I.D.M.), ayudas para apoyar grupos de investigación del sistema Universitario Vasco IT971-16 (P.A.), MINECO:SAF2015-64352-R (P.A.), Institut National du Cancer, FRANCE, INCa grant PLBIO16-251 (M.S.R.), MINECO - BFU2016-76872-R to (E.B.). Work produced with the support of a 2017 Leonardo Grant for Researchers and Cultural Creators, BBVA Foundation (M.V-R). Finally, Ciberehd_ISCIII_MINECO is funded by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III. We thank MINECO for the Severo Ochoa Excellence Accreditation to CIC bioGUNE (SEV-2016-0644). Funding sources had no involvement in study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the paper for publication.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas Oncogênicas/química , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sumoilação
14.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(10): 958, 2018 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237481

RESUMO

Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is the most abundant methyltransferase in the liver and a master regulator of the transmethylation flux. GNMT downregulation leads to loss of liver function progressing to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, GNMT deficiency aggravates cholestasis-induced fibrogenesis. To date, little is known about the mechanisms underlying downregulation of GNMT levels in hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. On this basis, microRNAs are epigenetic regulatory elements that play important roles in liver pathology. In this work, we aim to study the regulation of GNMT by microRNAs during liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Luciferase assay on the 3'UTR-Gnmt was used to confirm in silico analysis showing that GNMT is potentially targeted by the microRNA miR-873-5p. Correlation between GNMT and miR-873-5p in human cholestasis and cirrhosis together with miR-873-5p inhibition in vivo in different mouse models of liver cholestasis and fibrosis [bile duct ligation and Mdr2 (Abcb4)-/- mouse] were then assessed. The analysis of liver tissue from cirrhotic and cholestatic patients, as well as from the animal models, showed that miR-873-5p inversely correlated with the expression of GNMT. Importantly, high circulating miR-873-5p was also detected in cholestastic and cirrhotic patients. Preclinical studies with anti-miR-873-5p treatment in bile duct ligation and Mdr2-/- mice recovered GNMT levels in association with ameliorated inflammation and fibrosis mainly by counteracting hepatocyte apoptosis and cholangiocyte proliferation. In conclusion, miR-873-5p emerges as a novel marker for liver fibrosis, cholestasis, and cirrhosis and therapeutic approaches based on anti-miR-873-5p may be effective treatments for liver fibrosis and cholestatic liver disease.


Assuntos
Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proliferação de Células/genética , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Glicina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Glicina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1791: 81-93, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006703

RESUMO

Schwann cells are the main glial cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and play key roles in peripheral nerve development and function, including providing myelin that is essential for normal movement and sensation in the adult. Schwann cells can be readily destabilized by a wide variety of distinct conditions that range from nerve injury to immune assaults, metabolic disturbances, microbial infections, or genetic defects, leading to the breakdown of myelin (demyelination) and a subsequent switch in phenotypic states. This striking feature of Schwann cells forms the cornerstone of several debilitating and even fatal PNS neurological disorders that include the demyelinating neuropathies Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), and PNS cancers, including Neurofibromatosis.Primary Schwann cell cultures have proved a valuable tool to dissect key mechanisms that regulate proliferation, survival, differentiation, and myelination of these glial cell types. In this chapter, we describe the steps involved in the isolation and purification of Schwann cells from rodent peripheral nerves and the use of these cultures to model myelination in vitro.


Assuntos
Separação Celular/métodos , Células de Schwann , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Citometria de Fluxo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Sistema Nervoso Periférico/citologia , Sistema Nervoso Periférico/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Ratos , Roedores , Células de Schwann/citologia , Células de Schwann/metabolismo
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1791: 193-206, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006711

RESUMO

Autophagy is a key cellular mechanism involved in the degradation of long-lived proteins and organelles. We and others have previously shown that Schwann cells are able to degrade their own myelin by a form of selective autophagy, or myelinophagy. There is now increasing evidence that myelinophagy could also be aberrantly activated in other demyelinating diseases, including hereditary or inflammatory neuropathies, implicating this pathway in the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this chapter, we describe our protocol to monitor autophagy in peripheral nerves, using the autophagy flux assay. This assay can be useful to compare basal and demyelination-induced autophagy in genetic mice models, or after treatment with specific compounds.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células de Schwann/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Doenças Desmielinizantes/etiologia , Doenças Desmielinizantes/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Ratos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050997

RESUMO

Liver cancer is the sixth most prevailing cancer worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common form of primary liver cancer, has a rather heterogeneous pathogenesis making it highly refractive to current therapeutic approaches. Hence, HCC patients have a poor and gloomy prognosis making liver cancer the second leading cause of global cancer-related deaths. On this basis, a more global mechanism, such as post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, may provide a valuable therapeutic approach for HCC clinical management by simultaneously regulating multiple disrupted signaling pathways. In the last years, the ubiquitin-like molecule NEDD8 (Neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated-8) conjugation pathway, neddylation, was shown to be aberrant in HCC patients with a significant positive correlation found among global levels of neddylation and poorer prognosis. Even though the best-established role for NEDD8 is the activation of ubiquitin E3 ligase family of cullin-RING ligases, the putative role for other NEDD8 substrates has been explored in recent years leading to the identification of novel neddylation targets in HCC. Importantly, treatment with the small pharmacological inhibitor Pevonedistat (MLN4924) (Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Takeda Pharmaceutical), currently in clinical trials for the treatment of some types of leukemias and other advanced solid tumors, was shown to suppress the outgrowth of hepatoma cells and liver cancer in pre-clinical mouse models. Overall, considering that the neddylation inhibitor Pevonedistat was well-tolerated and displayed a significant antitumor effect in pre-clinical models, combinatory pharmacological treatment based on Pevonedistat are highly recommended to enter clinical trials targeting advanced HCC.

18.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 2068, 2017 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233977

RESUMO

Acetaminophen (APAP) is the active component of many medications used to treat pain and fever worldwide. Its overuse provokes liver injury and it is the second most common cause of liver failure. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to APAP-induced liver injury but the mechanism by which APAP causes hepatocyte toxicity is not completely understood. Therefore, we lack efficient therapeutic strategies to treat this pathology. Here we show that APAP interferes with the formation of mitochondrial respiratory supercomplexes via the mitochondrial negative regulator MCJ, and leads to decreased production of ATP and increased generation of ROS. In vivo treatment with an inhibitor of MCJ expression protects liver from acetaminophen-induced liver injury at a time when N-acetylcysteine, the standard therapy, has no efficacy. We also show elevated levels of MCJ in the liver of patients with acetaminophen overdose. We suggest that MCJ may represent a therapeutic target to prevent and rescue liver injury caused by acetaminophen.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Overdose de Drogas/complicações , Overdose de Drogas/etiologia , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/antagonistas & inibidores , Hepatócitos , Humanos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Mitocondriais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/antagonistas & inibidores , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Rotenona/farmacologia , Rotenona/uso terapêutico , Desacopladores/farmacologia , Desacopladores/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
19.
Hepatol Commun ; 1(9): 911-927, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159325

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the advanced form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which sets the stage for further liver damage. The mechanism for the progression of NASH involves multiple parallel hits including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and others. Manipulation of any of these pathways may be an approach to prevent NASH development and progression. Aramchol (arachidyl-amido cholanoic acid) is presently in a phase IIb NASH study. The aim of this study was to investigate Aramchol's mechanism of action and its effect on fibrosis using the methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet model of NASH. We collected liver and serum from mice fed a MCD diet containing 0.1% methionine (0.1MCD) for four weeks, which developed steatohepatitis and fibrosis, as well as mice receiving a control diet; the metabolomes and proteomes were determined. 0.1MCD fed mice were given Aramchol (5mg/kg/day for the last 2 weeks); liver samples were analyzed histologically. Aramchol administration reduced features of steatohepatitis and fibrosis in 0.1MCD fed mice. Aramchol downregulated stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), a key enzyme involved in triglyceride biosynthesis whose loss enhances fatty acid ß-oxidation. Aramchol increased the flux through the transsulfuration pathway, leading to a rise in glutathione (GSH) and GSH/GSSG ratio, the main cellular antioxidant that maintains intracellular redox status. Comparison of serum metabolomic pattern between 0.1MCD fed mice and NAFLD patients showed a substantial overlap. Conclusions: Aramchol treatment improved steatohepatitis and fibrosis by 1) decreasing SCD1, and 2) increasing the flux through the transsulfuration pathway maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. We also demonstrated that the 0.1MCD model resembles the metabolic phenotype observed in about 50% of NAFLD patients, which supports the potential use of Aramchol in NASH treatment.

20.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0173914, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28319158

RESUMO

Hyperammonemia is a metabolic condition characterized by elevated levels of ammonia and a common event in acute liver injury/failure and chronic liver disease. Even though hepatic ammonia levels are potential predictive factors of patient outcome, easy and inexpensive methods aiming at the detection of liver ammonia accumulation in the clinical setting remain unavailable. Thus, herein we have developed a morphological method, based on the utilization of Nessler´s reagent, to accurately and precisely detect the accumulation of ammonia in biological tissue. We have validated our method against a commercially available kit in mouse tissue samples and, by using this modified method, we have confirmed the hepatic accumulation of ammonia in clinical and animal models of acute and chronic advanced liver injury as well as in the progression of fatty liver disease. Overall, we propose a morphological method for ammonia detection in liver that correlates well with the degree of liver disease severity and therefore can be potentially used to predict patient outcome.


Assuntos
Amônia/metabolismo , Técnicas Citológicas/métodos , Iodetos/metabolismo , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Compostos de Mercúrio/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Fígado/lesões , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
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