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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361740

RESUMO

There is a challenging need for the development of new alternative nanostructures that can allow the coupling and/or encapsulation of therapeutic/diagnostic molecules while reducing their toxicity and improving their circulation and in-vivo targeting. Among the new materials using natural building blocks, peptides have attracted significant interest because of their simple structure, relative chemical and physical stability, diversity of sequences and forms, their easy functionalization with (bio)molecules and the possibility of synthesizing them in large quantities. A number of them have the ability to self-assemble into nanotubes, -spheres, -vesicles or -rods under mild conditions, which opens up new applications in biology and nanomedicine due to their intrinsic biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as their surface chemical reactivity via amino- and carboxyl groups. In order to obtain nanostructures suitable for biomedical applications, the structure, size, shape and surface chemistry of these nanoplatforms must be optimized. These properties depend directly on the nature and sequence of the amino acids that constitute them. It is therefore essential to control the order in which the amino acids are introduced during the synthesis of short peptide chains and to evaluate their in-vitro and in-vivo physico-chemical properties before testing them for biomedical applications. This review therefore focuses on the synthesis, functionalization and characterization of peptide sequences that can self-assemble to form nanostructures. The synthesis in batch or with new continuous flow and microflow techniques will be described and compared in terms of amino acids sequence, purification processes, functionalization or encapsulation of targeting ligands, imaging probes as well as therapeutic molecules. Their chemical and biological characterization will be presented to evaluate their purity, toxicity, biocompatibility and biodistribution, and some therapeutic properties in vitro and in vivo. Finally, their main applications in the biomedical field will be presented so as to highlight their importance and advantages over classical nanostructures.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/síntese química , Portadores de Fármacos/síntese química , Nanoestruturas/química , Peptídeos/síntese química , Técnicas de Síntese em Fase Sólida/métodos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacocinética , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Peptídeos/farmacocinética , Distribuição Tecidual
2.
Analyst ; 146(17): 5245-5254, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296726

RESUMO

The affinity between functional nanoparticles (NPs) and proteins could determine the efficacy of nanoprobes, nanosensors, nanocarriers, and many other devices for biomedical applications. Therefore, it is necessary to develop analytical strategies to accurately evaluate the magnitude of these protein corona interactions in physiological media. In this work, different electrokinetic strategies were implemented to accurately determine the interactions between PEGylated ZnGa1.995Cr0.005O4 persistent luminescent NPs (ZGO-PEG) and two important serum proteins: human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant serum protein, and apolipoprotein-E (ApoE), associated with the active transport of NPs through the blood-brain barrier. Firstly, the injection of ZGO-PEG in a background electrolyte (BGE) containing individual proteins allowed an affinity study to separately characterize each NP-protein system. Then, the same procedure was applied in a buffer containing a mixture of the two proteins at different molar ratios. Finally, the NPs were pre-incubated with one protein and thereafter electrokinetically separated in a BGE containing the second protein. These analytical strategies revealed the mechanisms (comparative, cooperative or competitive systems) and the magnitude of their interactions, resulting in all cases in notably higher affinity and stability between ZGO-PEG and ApoE (Ka = 1.96 ± 0.25 × 1010 M-M) compared to HSA (Ka = 4.60 ± 0.41 × 106 M-M). For the first time, the inter-protein ApoE/HSA interactions with ZGO-PEG were also demonstrated, highlighting the formation of a ternary ZGO-PEG/ApoE/HSA nanocomplex. These results open the way for a deeper understanding of the protein corona formation, and the development of versatile optical imaging applications for ZGO-PEG and other systemically delivered nanoprobes ideally vectorized to the brain.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Coroa de Proteína , Albuminas , Apolipoproteínas , Apolipoproteínas E , Humanos , Luminescência
3.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(19): 4595-4608, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494917

RESUMO

Waste printed circuit boards are a major source of strategic materials such as platinum group metals since they are used for the fabrication of technological devices, such as hard drive discs, capacitors, and diodes. Because of the high cost of platinum, palladium, and gold (> 25 k€/kg), an economic and environmental challenge is their recycling from printed circuit boards that represent around 2% weight of electronic equipment. Hydrometallurgical treatments allow the recovery of these metals in solution, with a high recovery rate for a leaching liquor made of thiourea in hydrochloric acid. So as to develop an efficient recycling process from this leach liquor, one requires the speciation of these strategic metals, as well as their extraction and quantitation in the mixture. For this purpose, platinum, palladium, and gold were dissolved in model leach liquors made of hydrochloric acid and thiourea at low concentration. The identification of metal complexes was determined as a function of thiourea concentration (between 10 µmol/L and 10 mmol/L) by the combination of UV-visible spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry, and for the first time capillary electrophoresis. The electrokinetic method was then applied for the quantitation of trace metal analyses in leach samples from waste printed circuit boards reprocessing, demonstrating its applicability for industrializable recycling applications. Graphical abstract.

4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2000: 373-385, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148026

RESUMO

Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) complemented with Taylor Dispersion Analysis-CE (TDA-CE) was developed to physicochemically characterize phthalocyanine-capped core/shell/shell quantum dots (QDs) at various pH and ionic strengths. An LED-induced fluorescence detector was used to specifically detect the QDs. The electropherograms and taylorgrams allowed calculating the phthalocyanine-QDs (Pc-QDs) ζ-potential and size, respectively, and determining the experimental conditions for colloidal stability. This methodology allowed evidencing either a colloidal stability or an aggregation state according to the background electrolytes nature. The calculated ζ-potential values of Pc-QDs decreased when ionic strength increased, being well correlated with the aggregation of the nanoconjugates at elevated salt concentrations. For the same reason, the hydrodynamic diameter of Pc-QDs increased with increasing background electrolyte ionic strength. The use of electrokinetic methodologies has provided insights into the colloidal stability of the photosensitizer-functionalized QDs in physiologically relevant solutions and, thereby, its usefulness for improving their design and applications for photodynamic therapy.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar , Indóis , Pontos Quânticos/química , Fluorescência , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Concentração Osmolar , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1855: 315-326, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426428

RESUMO

The self-assembly of peptide nanotubes (PNTs) depends on the structure and chemistry of cyclic peptide (CP) monomers, impacting on their properties, which makes the choice of their monomers and their characterization a high challenge. For this purpose, we developed for the first time a capillary electrophoresis coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) methodology and characterized a set of eight original CP sequences of 8, 10, and 12 D,L-α-alternate amino acids with a controlled internal diameter (from 7 to 13 Å) and various properties (diameter, global surface charge, hydrophobicity). This new CE-ESI-MS methodology allows verifying the structure, the purity, as well as the stability (when stored during several months) of interesting potential precursors for PNTs that could be employed as nanoplatforms in diagnostics or pseudo sieving tools for separation purposes.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Nanotubos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Eletricidade Estática
6.
Analyst ; 144(1): 180-185, 2018 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379147

RESUMO

S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) are very important biomolecules that play crucial roles in many physiological and physiopathological processes. They act as NO-donors and are candidates for future medicines. Their identification and quantitation are therefore important for biomedical applications. One, two or more RSNOs can then be combined to design a drug and therefore, the quantification of each is important to establish an acceptable quality control process. Till date, miniaturized devices have been used to detect RSNOs based on their total quantitation without a preceding separation step. This study reports on an original and integrated microdevice allowing for the successive electrokinetic separation of low molecular weight RSNOs, their decomposition under metal catalysis, and their quantitation by amperometric detection of the produced nitrite in the end-channel arrangement, leading to their quantitation in a single run. For this purpose, a commercial SU-8/Pyrex microfluidic system was coupled to a portable and wireless potentiostat. Different operating and running parameters were optimized to achieve the best analytical data, allowing for an LOD equal to 20 µM. The simultaneous separation of S-nitrosoglutathione and S-nitrosocysteine was successfully obtained within 75 s. The proposed methodology using SU-8/Pyrex microfluidic devices opens new possibilities to investigate future drug candidates for NO-donors.


Assuntos
Cisteína/análogos & derivados , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , S-Nitrosoglutationa/análise , S-Nitrosotióis/análise , Catálise , Cobre/química , Cisteína/análise , Cisteína/síntese química , Cisteína/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , S-Nitrosoglutationa/síntese química , S-Nitrosoglutationa/química , S-Nitrosotióis/síntese química , S-Nitrosotióis/química
7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(20): 17107-17116, 2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29701456

RESUMO

In the last decades, fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) have appeared as high-performance biological fluorescent nanoprobes and have been explored for a variety of biomedical optical imaging applications. However, many central challenges still exist concerning the control of the surface chemistry to ensure high biocompatibility, low toxicity, antifouling, and specific active targeting properties. Regarding in vivo applications, circulation time and clearance of the nanoprobe are also key parameters to control the design and characterization of new optical imaging agents. Herein, the complete design and characterization of a peptide-near-infrared-QD-based nanoprobe for biomedical optical imaging is presented from the synthesis of the QDs and the zwitterionic-azide copolymer ligand, enabling a bio-orthogonal coupling, till the final in vivo test through all the characterization steps. The developed nanoprobes show high fluorescence emission, controlled grafting rate, low toxicity, in vitro active specific targeting, and in vivo long circulating blood time. This is, to our knowledge, the first report characterizing the in vivo circulation kinetics and tumor accumulation of targeted zwitterionic QDs.


Assuntos
Pontos Quânticos , Humanos , Neoplasias , Imagem Óptica , Peptídeos
8.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 159: 437-444, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28826112

RESUMO

Nanoparticles (NPs) play an increasingly important role in the development of new biosensors, contrast agents for biomedical imaging and targeted therapy vectors thanks to their unique properties as well as their good detection sensitivity. However, a current challenge in developing such NPs is to ensure their biocompatibility, biodistribution, bioreactivity and in vivo stability. In the biomedical field, the adsorption of plasmatic proteins on the surface of NPs impacts on their circulation time in blood, degradation, biodistribution, accessibility, the efficiency of possible targeting agents on their surface, and their cellular uptake. NP surface passivation is therefore a very crucial challenge in biomedicine. We developed herein for the first time an electrokinetic Hummel-Dreyer method to quantitatively characterize the formation of protein corona on the surface of NPs. This strategy was designed and optimized to evaluate the non specific binding of bovine serum albumin with the recently discovered PEG-functionalized ZnGa1.995Cr0.005O4 persistent luminescence NPs developed for in vivo biological imaging. The binding strength and the number of binding sites were determined at different ionic strengths. This methodology opens the way to an easy, low sample- and low time-consuming evaluation of the impact of NP surface modification on protein-corona formation and therefore on their potential for various bio-medical applications.


Assuntos
Luminescência , Nanopartículas/química , Coroa de Proteína/química , Sítios de Ligação , Eletroforese Capilar , Soroalbumina Bovina/química
9.
Int J Pharm ; 532(2): 686-695, 2017 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28705622

RESUMO

The ZnGa1.995Cr0.005O4 persistent luminescence nanoparticles offer the promise of revolutionary tools for biological imaging with applications such as cell tracking or tumor detection. They can be re-excited through living tissues by visible photons, allowing observations without any time constraints and avoiding the undesirable auto-fluorescence signals observed when fluorescent probes are used. Despite all these advantages, their uses demand extensive toxicological evaluation and control. With this purpose, mice were injected with a single intravenous administration of hydroxylated or PEGylated persistent luminescence nanoparticles at different concentrations and then a set of standard tests were carried out 1day, 1 month and 6 months after the administration. High concentrations of hydroxylated nanoparticles generate structural alterations at histology level, endoplasmic reticulum damage and oxidative stress in liver, as well as rising in white blood cells counts. A mechanism involving the endoplasmic reticulum damage could be the responsible of the observed injuries in case of ZGO-OH. On the contrary, no toxicological effects related to PEGylated nanoprobes treatment were noted during our in vivo experiments, denoting the protective effect of PEG-functionalization and thereby, their potential as biocompatible in vivo diagnostic probes.


Assuntos
Cromo/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Óxidos/toxicidade , Zinco/toxicidade , Animais , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Ensaio Cometa , Gálio/toxicidade , Hidroxilação , Injeções Intravenosas , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/ultraestrutura , Luminescência , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/ultraestrutura
10.
Int J Pharm ; 532(2): 696-703, 2017 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28713002

RESUMO

Persistent luminescence nanoparticles made of ZnGa1.995Cr0.005O4 (ZGO-NPs) are innovative nanomaterials that emit photons during long periods of time after the end of the excitation, allowing their use as diagnosis probes for in vivo optical imaging. During the excitation process, a part of the energy is stored in traps to further emit photons over long time. However, we observed in this study that some of the energy reduces molecular oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Following this observation, theoxidative stress induction and cytotoxic effects of these NPs were investigated on human breast cancer cells. The results indicate that ROS production was stimulated by exposition of the hydroxylated ZGO-NPs to UV or visible light, and the oxidative stress induced in cells after internalization can be directly correlated to their dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability. On the contrary, PEGylated ZGONPs were not uptaken by cells and have no effect on the production of ROS. Thus, the cell viability was not altered by these nanoparticles. This study reveals the importance of considering light irradiation and surface coating of luminescent nanoparticles toxicity which open new perspectives for their use in photodynamic therapy.


Assuntos
Luz , Nanopartículas/efeitos da radiação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Luminescência , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Electrophoresis ; 38(19): 2456-2461, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28370135

RESUMO

There is a great demand for integrating sample treatment into µTASs. In this context, we developed a new sol-gel phase for extraction of trace compounds in complex matrices. For this purpose, the incorporation of aptamers in silica-based gel within PDMS/glass microfluidic channels was performed for the first time by a one-step sol-gel process. The effective gel attachment onto microchannel walls and aptamer incorporation in the polymerized gel were evaluated using fluorescence microscopy. A good gel stability and aptamer incorporation inside the microchannel was demonstrated upon rinsing and over storage time. The ability of gel-encapsulated aptamers to interact with its specific target (either sulforhodamine B as model fluorescent target, or diclofenac, a pain killer drug) was assessed too. The binding capacity of entrapped aptamers was quantified (in the micromolar range) and the selectivity of the interaction was evidenced. Preservation of aptamers binding affinity to target molecules was therefore demonstrated. Dissociation constant of the aptamer-target complex and interaction selectivity were evaluated similar to those in bulk solution. This opens the way to new selective on-chip SPE techniques for sample pretreatment.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/análise , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica/métodos , Sílica Gel/química , Analgésicos/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Diclofenaco/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Transição de Fase , Rodaminas/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
12.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 409(6): 1707-1715, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27928609

RESUMO

In this work, we characterized different phtalocyanine-capped core/shell/shell quantum dots (QDs) in terms of stability, ζ-potential, and size at various pH and ionic strengths, by means of capillary electrophoresis (CE), and compared these results to the ones obtained by laser Doppler electrophoresis (LDE) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The effect of the phthalocyanine metallic center (Zn, Al, or In), the number (one or four), and nature of substituents (carboxyphenoxy- or sulfonated-) of functionalization on the phthalocyanine physicochemical properties were evaluated. Whereas QDs capped with zinc mono-carboxyphenoxy-phtalocyanine (ZnMCPPc-QDs) remained aggregated in the whole analyzed pH range, even at low ionic strength, QDs capped with zinc tetracarboxyphenoxy phtalocyanine (ZnTPPc-QDs) were easily dispersed in buffers at pH equal to or higher than 7.4. QDs capped with aluminum tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (AlTSPPc-QDs) and indium tetracarboxyphenoxy phthalocyanines (InTCPPc-QDs) were stable in aqueous suspension only at pH higher than 9.0 due to the presence of functional groups bound to the metallic center of the phthalocyanine. The ζ-potential values determined by CE for all the samples decreased when ionic strength increased, being well correlated with the aggregation of the nanoconjugates at elevated salt concentrations. The use of electrokinetic methodologies has provided insights into the colloidal stability of the photosensitizer-functionalized QDs in physiological relevant solutions and thereby, its usefulness for improving their design and applications for photodynamic therapy. Graphical Abstract Schematic illustration of the phthalocyanine capped QDs nanoconjugates and the capillary electrophoresis methods applied for size and ζ-potential characterization.


Assuntos
Indóis/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz/métodos , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Índio/química , Lasers , Metais/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Concentração Osmolar , Tamanho da Partícula , Eletricidade Estática , Zinco/química
13.
Analyst ; 141(22): 6314-6320, 2016 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27722230

RESUMO

A disposable microfluidic paper-based analytical device (µPAD) was developed to easily analyse different S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) through colorimetric measurements. RSNOs are carriers of nitric oxide (NO) that play several physiological and physiopathological roles. The quantification of RSNOs relies on their decomposition using several protocols and the colorimetric detection of the final product, NO or nitrite. µPADs were fabricated by wax printing technology in a geometry containing one central zone for the sample inlet and eight circular detection zones interconnected by microfluidic channels for decomposition and posterior detection of decayed products. Different decomposition protocols including mercuric ions and light (UV, visible, and infrared) were tested on µPADs. For this purpose, a 3D printed holder was coupled with µPADs to easily design a simultaneous decomposition procedure using different light sources. The Griess reagent was added to detect NO and nitrite produced by the different decomposition methods. µPADs were then scanned using a flat board scanner and calibration curves based on color intensity were plotted. The limit of detection (LOD) values achieved for nitrite (used as a reference compound) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) using mercuric decomposition were 3 and 4 µM, respectively. The LOD reported herein for nitrite is considered among the lowest LODs already reported for this compound using µPADs. The results also show that low-molecular-weight RSNO, namely S-nitrosocysteine, decomposes more easily than high-molecular-weight RSNOs with light. As a proof of concept, RSNOs in human plasma were successfully detected on µPADs. For this purpose, a preliminary treatment step was optimized and the presence of high-molecular-weight (HMW) RSNOs was evidenced in the available plasma samples. The concentrations of HMW-RSNOs and nitrite in the various samples ranged from 5 to 16 µM and from 37 to 58 µM, respectively.

14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1466: 57-66, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27473481

RESUMO

Capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) is a high-resolution technique for the separation of ampholytes, such as proteins, according to their isoelectric point. CIEF coupled online with MS is regarded as a promising alternative to 2-D PAGE for fast proteome analysis with high-resolving capabilities and enhanced structural information without the drawbacks of conventional slab-gel electrophoresis. However, online coupling has been rarely described, as it presents some difficulties. A new methodology for the online coupling of CIEF with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been developed in glycerol-water media. This new integrated methodology provides a mean for the characterization of a large number of hydrophilic and hydrophobic proteins.


Assuntos
Focalização Isoelétrica/métodos , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Glicerol/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteínas/química , Água/química
15.
Anal Biochem ; 502: 8-15, 2016 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26969790

RESUMO

The self-assembly of peptide nanotubes (PNTs) depends on the structure and chemistry of cyclic peptide (CP) monomers, having an impact on their properties, making the choice of their monomers and their characterization a great challenge. We synthesized for the first time a new set of eight original CP sequences of 8, 10, and 12 d,l-α-alternate amino acids with a controlled internal diameter from 7 to 13 Å. They present various properties (e.g., diameter, global surface charge, hydrophobicity) that can open the way to new applications. Their structure and purity were determined thanks to a capillary electrophoresis coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) methodology developed for the first time for this purpose. The CPs were successfully separated in a basic hydro-organic background electrolyte (BGE, pH 8.0, H2O/EtOH 50:50, v/v) and analyzed in MS positive mode. The effect of CP structure on electrophoretic mobility was studied, and the mass spectra were deeply analyzed. This methodology allowed verifying their purity and the absence of linear peptide precursors as well as their stability when stored over several months. Therefore, we have developed a new CE-ESI-MS methodology for the structure and purity control of interesting potential precursors for PNTs that could be employed as nanoplatforms in diagnostics or as pseudo sieving tools for separative purposes.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/síntese química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Desenho de Fármacos , Eletroforese Capilar , Conformação Molecular
16.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 408(11): 2669-75, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26800982

RESUMO

This paper gives a critical overview of capillary electrophoresis (CE) methodologies recently developed for controlling and optimizing the synthesis of nanoparticles as well as characterizing their functionalization in terms of physicochemical properties. Thanks to their electrophoretic mobility, various parameters can be determined, such as NP size and charge distribution, ζ-potential, surface functionality, colloidal stability, grafting rates, and dissociation constants, allowing not only the complete characterization of new nanoprobes but also helping in their design and in the selection of chemical conditions for their storage and further manipulation. New strategies for the improvement of CE detection sensitivity are also described.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Nanopartículas
17.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 136: 272-81, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26409685

RESUMO

Zinc gallate nanoparticles doped with chromium (III) (ZnGa1.995O4:Cr0.005) are innovative persistent luminescence materials with particular optical properties allowing their use for in vivo imaging. They can be excited in the tissue transparency window by visible photons and emit light for hours after the end of the excitation. This allows to observe the probe without any time constraints and without autofluorescence signals produced by biological tissues. Modification of the surface of these nanoparticles is essential to be colloidally stable not only for cell targeting applications but also for proper distribution in living organisms. The use of different methods for controlling and characterizing the functionalization process is imperative to better understand the subsequent interactions with biological elements. This work explores for the first time the characterization and optimization of a classic functionalization sequence, starting with hydroxyl groups (ZGO-OH) at the nanoparticle surface, followed by an aminosilane-functionalization intermediate stage (ZGO-NH2) before PEGylation (ZGO-PEG). Dynamic light scattering and laser doppler electrophoresis were used in combination with capillary electrophoresis to characterize the nanoparticle functionalization processes and control their colloidal and chemical stability. The hydrodynamic diameter, zeta potential, electrophoretic mobility, stability over time and aggregation state of persistent luminescence nanoparticles under physiological-based solution conditions have been studied for each functional state. Additionally, a new protocol to improve ZGO-NH2 stability based on a thermal treatment to complete covalent binding of (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane onto the particle surface has been optimized. This thorough control increases our knowledge on these nanoparticles for subsequent toxicological studies and ultimately medical application.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Fluxometria por Laser-Doppler/métodos , Nanopartículas , Luz , Luminescência , Espalhamento de Radiação
18.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 407(20): 6221-6, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26044739

RESUMO

S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is a very important biomolecule that has crucial functions in many physiological and physiopathological processes. GSNO acts as NO donor and is a candidate for future medicines. This work describes, for the first time, the separation and the detection of GSNO and its decomposition products using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS). The separation was performed in slightly alkaline medium (pH 8.5) under positive-ionization MS detection. The identification of three byproducts of GSNO was formally performed for the first time: oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione sulfinic acid (GSO2H), and glutathione sulfonic acid (GSO3H). GSO2H and GSO3H are known to have important biological activity, including inhibition of the glutathione transferase family of enzymes which are responsible for the elimination of many mutagenic, carcinogenic, and pharmacologically active molecules. We observed, after the ageing of GSNO in the solid state, that the proportion of both GSSG and GSO3H increases whereas that of GSO2H decreases. These results enabled us to propose an oxidation scheme explaining the formation of such products.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , S-Nitrosoglutationa/análise , Ácidos Sulfínicos/análise , Ácidos Sulfônicos/análise , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Dissulfeto de Glutationa/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Oxirredução , S-Nitrosoglutationa/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Sulfínicos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Sulfônicos/isolamento & purificação
19.
Electrophoresis ; 36(16): 1982-8, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25999258

RESUMO

S-Nitrosothiols (RSNO) are composed of a NO group bound to the sulfhydryl group of a peptide or protein. RSNO are very important biological molecules, since they have many effects on human health. RSNO are easily naturally decomposed by metal ions, light, and heat, with different kinetics. They can furthermore undergo transnitrosation (NO moieties exchange), which is a crucial point in physiological conditions since the concentration ratios between the different nitrosothiols is a key factor in many physiopathological processes. There is therefore a great need for their quantitation. Many S-nitrosothiol detection and quantitation methods need their previous decomposition, leading thus to some limitations. We propose a direct quantitation method employing the coupling of capillary electrophoresis with a homemade capacitively coupled contactless conductivity (C(4) D) detector in order to separate and quantify S-nitrosoglutathione and its decomposition products. After optimization of the method, we have studied the kinetics of decomposition using light and heat. Our results show that the decomposition by light is first order (kobs   =  (3.40 ± 0.15) × 10(-3)  s(-1) ) while that using heat (at 80°C) is zeroth order (kobs,80°C   =  (4.34 ± 0.14) × 10(-6)  mol L(-1) s(-1) ). Transnitrosation reaction between S-nitrosoglutathione and cysteine was also studied, showing the possibility of separation and detection of all the products of this reaction in less than 2.5 min.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , S-Nitrosoglutationa/análise , S-Nitrosoglutationa/química , Cisteína/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Luz , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Óxido Nítrico/química , S-Nitrosoglutationa/efeitos da radiação , Temperatura
20.
Analyst ; 140(2): 543-50, 2015 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25408953

RESUMO

The on-line hyphenation of Capillary IsoElectric Focusing (CIEF) with ElectroSpray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI/MS) has been carried out in a non-denaturing detection mode at the CIEF-MS interface. This CIEF-MS coupling methodology relied on the use of 40% glycerol-water medium as anti-convective agent in the CE capillary and the addition of 10 mM ammonium acetate buffer, pH 5, as a volatile aqueous sheath liquid. These CIEF-MS coupling conditions allowed the characterization of the highly basic cytokine human interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and its detection as a non-covalent homodimer (33,814.3 g mol(-1)) corresponding to the active form of this immune-regulatory protein. An experimental pI value of 9.95 was determined for the human IFN-γ homodimer in these conditions. The CIEF-MS analysis of several variants bearing punctual or deletion mutations within the two D1 and D2 basic clusters at the C-terminal end of IFN-γ revealed the different contribution of these domains to the charge properties of this heparan sulfate-binding protein.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/análise , Focalização Isoelétrica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética
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