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1.
J Genet Couns ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142017

RESUMO

Exome/genome sequencing (ES/GS) is increasingly becoming routine in clinical genetic diagnosis, yet issues regarding how to disclose and manage secondary findings (SFs) remain to be addressed, and limited evidence is available on patients' preferences. We carried out semi-structured interviews with 307 individuals undergoing clinical genetic testing to explore their preferences for return of SFs in the hypothetical scenario that their test would be performed using ES/GS. Participants were 254 females (82.7%) and 53 males (17.3%), aged 18-86 years; 73.9% (81.1% of those with lower education levels) reported no prior knowledge of ES/GS. Prior knowledge of ES/GS was more common among patients tested for Mendelian conditions (34.5%), compared to those undergoing cancer genetic testing (22.3%) or carrier screening (7.4%). Despite this reported lack of knowledge, most participants (213, 69.6%) stated they would prefer to be informed of all possible results. Reasons in favor of disclosure included wanting to be aware of any risks (168; 83.6%) and to help relatives (23; 11.4%), but also hope that preventive measures might become available in the future (10, 5%). Conversely, potential negative impact on quality of life was the commonest motivation against disclosure. Among 179 participants seen for cancer genetic counseling who were interviewed again after test disclosure, 81.9% had not heard about ES/GS in the meantime; however, the proportion of participants opting for disclosure of any variants was lower (116; 64.8%), with 36 (20.1%) changing opinion compared to the first interview. Based on these findings, we conclude that genetic counseling for ES/GS should involve enhanced education and decision-making support to enable informed consent to SFs disclosure.

3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929237

RESUMO

Genomic testing expansion is accompanied by an increasing need for genetic counselling and intrafamilial communication. Genetic counselling can play an important role in facilitating intrafamilial communication and relationships. We conducted a cross-sectional, multicenter study including 252 Italian women, using a questionnaire divided in two sections, the first one to be filled after the pre-test counselling and the second after receiving BRCA test results. We assessed the factors influencing intrafamilial disclosure of genetic information for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, family members with whom probands are more prone to share genetic information, and the perceived understanding of information received by counselees during genetic counselling. Women were accompanied to the counselling more often by their husband/partner. Among those with a positive BRCA test result, 49% intended to communicate it to their offspring and 27% to their husband/partner. Younger women, those living with their husband/partner, and those who described family communication as open/profound and spontaneous/sincere had a higher probability of being accompanied during genetic counselling and discuss about it with relatives. Spontaneous/sincere or open/profound family communication and joyful/happy familial relationships were associated with the decision to undergo genetic testing as a responsibility towards relatives. Women had a good understanding of counselling contents (mean score 9.27 in a scale 1-10). Genetic counselling providers should consider that genetic information disclosure does not depend only on the clarity of the information provided, but also on pre-existing intrafamilial communication and relationships, family structure and marital status, indicating the need for a personalised approach accounting for these factors.

4.
J Clin Pathol ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895300

RESUMO

AIMS: Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based BRCA tumour tissue testing poses several challenges. As a first step of its implementation within a regional health service network, an in-house validation study was compared with published recommendations. METHODS: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens stored in the archives of the eight regional pathology units were selected from a consecutive series of patients with known BRCA germline status. Two expert pathologists evaluated tumour cell content for manual macrodissection. DNA extraction, library preparation and NGS analyses were performed blinded to the germinal status. Parameters used in the study were confronted with guidelines for the validation of NGS-based oncology panels and for BRCA tumour tissue testing. RESULTS: NGS analyses were successful in 66 of 67 EOC specimens, with good quality metrics and high reproducibility among different runs. In all, 19 BRCA pathogenic variants were identified: 12 were germline and 7 were somatic. A 100% concordance with blood tests was detected for germline variants. A BRCA1 variant showed a controversial classification. In different areas of two early stage EOCs showing somatic variants, intratumour heterogeneity not relevant for test results (variant allele frequency >5%) was observed. Compared with expert recommendations, main limitations of the study were absence of controls with known somatic BRCA status and exclusion from the validation of BRCA copy number variations (CNV). CONCLUSIONS: A close collaboration between pathology and genetics units provides advantages in the implementation of BRCA tumour tissue testing. The development of tools for designing and interpreting complex testing in-house validation could improve process quality.

5.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 9(4)2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600986

RESUMO

In Italy, 5200 new ovarian cancers were diagnosed in 2018, highlighting an increasing need to test women for BRCA1/2. The number of labs offering this test is continuously increasing. The aim of this study was to show the results coming from the intersociety survey coordinated by four different Clinical and Laboratory Italian Scientific Societies (AIOM, SIAPEC-IAP, SIBIOC, and SIGU). A multidisciplinary team belonging to the four scientific societies drew up two different questionnaires: One was targeted toward all Italian Departments of Medical Oncology, and the second toward laboratories of clinical molecular biology. This survey was implemented from September 2017 to March 2018. Seventy-seven out of 305 (25%) Departments of Medical Oncology filled our survey form. Indeed, 59 molecular laboratories were invited. A total of 41 laboratories (70%) filled in the questionnaire. From 2014 to 2017, 16 new molecular laboratories were activated. A total of 12,559 tests were performed in the year 2016, with a mean of 339 tests and a median of 254 tests per laboratory, showing a glimpse of an extreme low number of tests performed per year by some laboratories. In terms of the type and number of professionals involved in the pre- and post-test counseling, results among the onco-genetic team were heterogeneous. Our data show that the number of laboratories providing BRCA1/2 germline assays is significantly increased with further implementation of the somatic test coming soon. The harmonization of the complete laboratory diagnostic path should be encouraged, particularly in order to reduce the gap between laboratories with high and low throughput.

6.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 100, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clustered protocadherins (PCDHs) map in tandem at human chromosome 5q31 and comprise three multi-genes clusters: α-, ß- and γ-PCDH. The expression of this cluster consists of a complex mechanism involving DNA hub formation through DNA-CCTC binding factor (CTCF) interaction. Methylation alterations can affect this interaction, leading to transcriptional dysregulation. In cancer, clustered PCDHs undergo a mechanism of long-range epigenetic silencing by hypermethylation. RESULTS: In this study, we detected frequent methylation alterations at CpG islands associated to these clustered PCDHs in all the solid tumours analysed (colorectal, gastric and biliary tract cancers, pilocytic astrocytoma), but not hematologic neoplasms such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Importantly, several altered CpG islands were associated with CTCF binding sites. Interestingly, our analysis revealed a hypomethylation event in pilocytic astrocytoma, suggesting that in neuronal tissue, where PCDHs are highly expressed, these genes become hypomethylated in this type of cancer. On the other hand, in tissues where PCDHs are lowly expressed, these CpG islands are targeted by DNA methylation. In fact, PCDH-associated CpG islands resulted hypermethylated in gastrointestinal tumours. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlighted a strong alteration of the clustered PCDHs methylation pattern in the analysed solid cancers and suggested these methylation aberrations in the CpG islands associated with PCDH genes as powerful diagnostic biomarkers.


Assuntos
Caderinas/genética , Metilação de DNA , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Família Multigênica , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Endocr Connect ; 8(8): 1224-1229, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336362

RESUMO

Breast cancer in men is a rare and still poorly characterized disease. Inherited mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2 genes, as well as common polymorphisms, play a role in male breast cancer genetic predisposition. Male breast cancer is considered a hormone-dependent tumor specifically related to hyperestrogenism. Polymorphisms in genes involved in estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism pathways, such as CYP17A1 and CYP1B1, have been associated with breast cancer risk. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of CYP17A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms in male breast cancer risk. A series of 597 male breast cancer cases and 1022 male controls, recruited within the Italian Multicenter Study on male breast cancer, was genotyped for CYP17A1 rs743572, CYP1B1 rs1056836 and rs1800440 polymorphisms by allelic discrimination real-time PCR with TaqMan probes. Associations with male breast cancer risk were estimated using logistic regression. No statistically significant associations between male breast cancer risk and the three analyzed polymorphisms emerged. Similar results were obtained also when BRCA1/2 mutational status was considered. No significant differences in the distribution of the genotypes according to estrogen receptor status emerged. In conclusion, our study, based on a large series of male breast cancer cases, is likely to exclude a relevant role of CYP17A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms in male breast cancer predisposition. Overall, these results add new data to the increasing evidence that polymorphisms in these genes may not be associated with breast cancer risk.

8.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 140: 67-72, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176273

RESUMO

The current availability of new Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP)-inhibitors for the treatment of ovarian cancer patients independently of the presence of a BRCA pathogenic variant, together with the validation of somatic test for the analysis of BRCA1/2 genes, involves the need to optimise the guidelines for BRCA testing. The AIOM-SIGU-SIBIOC-SIAPEC-IAP Italian Scientific Societies, in this position paper, recommend the implementation of BRCA testing with 2 main objectives: the first is the identification of ovarian cancer patients with higher probability of benefit from specific anticancer treatments (test for response to therapy); the second goal, through BRCA testing in the family members of ovarian cancer patients, is the identification of carriers of pathogenic variant, who have inheredited predisposition to cancer development (test for cancer risk). These individuals with increased risk of cancer, should be encouraged to participate in dedicated high-risk surveillance clinics and specific risk-reducing measures (primary and/or secondary prevention programs).


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Testes Genéticos/normas , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Sociedades Médicas , Bioquímica , Feminino , Genética , Humanos , Itália , Oncologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico
9.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 28(5): e13083, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the era of cancer panel testing, new models of genetic counselling providing effective decision-making support are needed. As little is known about Southern European patients' and families' needs and experiences in this regard, we explored Italian women's experiences of clinical BRCA1/2 counselling and testing. METHODS: We interviewed 19 Italian women with a strong family history but no personal history of cancer who had had clinical BRCA1/2 testing. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and qualitative data were organised into themes. RESULTS: Most respondents had decided to pursue testing before pre-test counselling. Although half the sample reported having reached the decision without thinking through its implications, most participants qualified their choice as unequivocally "the right one." CONCLUSION: A subset of Italian women may arrive at their first cancer genetic consultation having already made a firm decision about testing. To empower women's decision-making, new models of cancer genetic counselling could usefully take into account differences in how they approach the testing process. This includes understanding decision-making from different cultural perspectives. In familistic countries like Italy, for example, decisional support may involve exploring widely shared assumptions regarding responsibilities towards family members and the prioritisation of family over self.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Aconselhamento Genético , Testes Genéticos , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
10.
Patient Educ Couns ; 102(6): 1210-1216, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the BRCA 1/2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and/or ovarian cancer compared with the general population. However, the risk is low at age 30, and for women younger than 25, no preventive or screening options are available. Scientists wonder whether genetic predictive BRCA testing is appropriate at a very young age. Furthermore, although young women have positive attitudes toward testing, their understanding of genetic information seems scarce. OBJECTIVE: To assess how young (18-24) versus adult (30-45) women at general population- level risk understand information about BRCA testing. METHODS: 302 women read an informative pamphlet and answered an ad-hoc questionnaire assessing usefulness of the information for decision making, intention to undergo predictive testing, and comprehension (perceived, general, and risk comprehension; open-ended questions). RESULTS: Younger women had a lower comprehension of important BRCA information; it was more difficult for young women to identify the risk figures of cancer, and they showed errors when answering open-ended questions. LIMITATIONS: Results are limited by the study's hypothetical nature. CONCLUSIONS: Young women seem to have particular difficulty understanding BRCA information. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Counsellors should be aware of the difficulties young women have in understanding information about BRCA predictive testing.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Compreensão , Tomada de Decisões , Testes Genéticos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Mulheres/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Humanos , Itália , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Int J Cancer ; 145(2): 390-400, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613976

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) in men is rare and genetic predisposition is likely to play a relevant role in its etiology. Inherited mutations in BRCA1/2 account for about 13% of all cases and additional genes that may contribute to the missing heritability need to be investigated. In our study, a well-characterized series of 523 male BC (MBC) patients from the Italian multicenter study on MBC, enriched for non-BRCA1/2 MBC cases, was screened by a multigene custom panel of 50 cancer-associated genes. The main clinical-pathologic characteristics of MBC in pathogenic variant carriers and non-carriers were also compared. BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants were detected in twenty patients, thus, a total of 503 non-BRCA1/2 MBC patients were examined in our study. Twenty-seven of the non-BRCA1/2 MBC patients were carriers of germline pathogenic variants in other genes, including two APC p.Ile1307Lys variant carriers and one MUTYH biallelic variant carrier. PALB2 was the most frequently altered gene (1.2%) and PALB2 pathogenic variants were significantly associated with high risk of MBC. Non-BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers were more likely to have personal (p = 0.0005) and family (p = 0.007) history of cancer. Results of our study support a central role of PALB2 in MBC susceptibility and show a low impact of CHEK2 on MBC predisposition in the Italian population. Overall, our data indicate that a multigene testing approach may benefit from appropriately selected patients with implications for clinical management and counseling of MBC patients and their family members.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Oncol ; 8: 583, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30564557

RESUMO

Inherited mutations in BRCA1, and, mainly, BRCA2 genes are associated with increased risk of male breast cancer (MBC). Mutations in PALB2 and CHEK2 genes may also increase MBC risk. Overall, these genes are functionally linked to DNA repair pathways, highlighting the central role of genome maintenance in MBC genetic predisposition. MUTYH is a DNA repair gene whose biallelic germline variants cause MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) syndrome. Monoallelic MUTYH variants have been reported in families with both colorectal and breast cancer and there is some evidence on increased breast cancer risk in women with monoallelic variants. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether MUTYH germline variants may contribute to MBC susceptibility. To this aim, we screened the entire coding region of MUTYH in 503 BRCA1/2 mutation negative MBC cases by multigene panel analysis. Moreover, we genotyped selected variants, including p.Tyr179Cys, p.Gly396Asp, p.Arg245His, p.Gly264Trpfs*7, and p.Gln338His, in a total of 560 MBC cases and 1,540 male controls. Biallelic MUTYH pathogenic variants (p.Tyr179Cys/p.Arg241Trp) were identified in one MBC patient with phenotypic manifestation of adenomatous polyposis. Monoallelic pathogenic variants were identified in 14 (2.5%) MBC patients, in particular, p.Tyr179Cys was detected in seven cases, p.Gly396Asp in five cases, p.Arg245His and p.Gly264Trpfs*7 in one case each. The majority of MBC cases with MUTYH pathogenic variants had family history of cancer including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. In the case-control study, an association between the variant p.Tyr179Cys and increased MBC risk emerged by multivariate analysis [odds ratio (OR) = 4.54; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-17.58; p = 0.028]. Overall, our study suggests that MUTYH pathogenic variants may have a role in MBC and, in particular, the p.Tyr179Cys variant may be a low/moderate penetrance risk allele for MBC. Moreover, our results suggest that MBC may be part of the tumor spectrum associated with MAP syndrome, with implication in the clinical management of patients and their relatives. Large-scale collaborative studies are needed to validate these findings.

14.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197522, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29782524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL-TL) was proposed as a biomarker of cancer risk. Recent scientific evidence suggested PBL-TL plays a diverse role in different cancers. Inconsistent results were obtained on PBL-TL in relation to breast cancer risk and specifically to the presence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. The aim of the present case-control study was to analyse the correlation between family history of breast cancer or presence of a BRCA mutation and PBL-TL in the hypothesis that TL is a modifier of cancer risk. METHODS: PBL-TL was measured using the real-time quantitative PCR method in DNA for 142 cases and 239 controls. All the women enrolled were characterized for cancer family history. A subgroup of 48 women were classified for the presence of a BRCA mutation. PBL-TL were summarized as means and standard deviations, and compared by standard analysis of variance. A multivariable Generalised Linear Model was fitted to the data with PBL-TL as the dependent variable, case/control status and presence of a BRCA/VUS mutation as factors, and age in 4 strata as a covariate. RESULTS: Age was significantly associated with decreasing PBL-TL in controls (p = 0.01), but not in BC cases. The telomere length is shorter in cases than in controls after adjusting for age. No effect on PBL-TL of BMI, smoke nor of the most common risk factors for breast cancer was observed. No association between PBL-TL and family history was detected both in BC cases and controls. In the multivariate model, no association was observed between BRCA mutation and decreased PBL-TL. A statistically significant interaction (p = 0.031) between case-control status and a BRCA-mutation/VUS was observed, but no effect was detected for the interaction of cancer status and BRCA or VUS. CONCLUSION: Our study fails to provide support to the hypothesis that PBL-TL is associated with the risk of hereditary BC, or that is a marker of inherited mutations in BRCA genes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Leucócitos/ultraestrutura , Telômero/genética , Telômero/ultraestrutura , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Instabilidade Genômica , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Mutação , Fatores de Risco , Homeostase do Telômero/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Cancer ; 143(4): 907-920, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29542109

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through the accumulation of both genetic and epigenetic alterations. However, while the former are already used as prognostic and predictive biomarkers, the latter are less well characterized. Here, performing global methylation analysis on both CRCs and adenomas by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Bead Chips, we identified a panel of 74 altered CpG islands, demonstrating that the earliest methylation alterations affect genes coding for proteins involved in the crosstalk between cell and surrounding environment. The panel discriminates CRCs and adenomas from peritumoral and normal mucosa with very high specificity (100%) and sensitivity (99.9%). Interestingly, over 70% of the hypermethylated islands resulted in downregulation of gene expression. To establish the possible usefulness of these non-invasive markers for detection of colon cancer, we selected three biomarkers and identified the presence of altered methylation in stool DNA and plasma cell-free circulating DNA from CRC patients.


Assuntos
Adenoma/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Adenoma/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Simulação por Computador , Ilhas de CpG , Regulação para Baixo , Fezes , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Hum Mutat ; 39(5): 729-741, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460995

RESUMO

Although the spliceogenic nature of the BRCA2 c.68-7T > A variant has been demonstrated, its association with cancer risk remains controversial. In this study, we accurately quantified by real-time PCR and digital PCR (dPCR), the BRCA2 isoforms retaining or missing exon 3. In addition, the combined odds ratio for causality of the variant was estimated using genetic and clinical data, and its associated cancer risk was estimated by case-control analysis in 83,636 individuals. Co-occurrence in trans with pathogenic BRCA2 variants was assessed in 5,382 families. Exon 3 exclusion rate was 4.5-fold higher in variant carriers (13%) than controls (3%), indicating an exclusion rate for the c.68-7T > A allele of approximately 20%. The posterior probability of pathogenicity was 7.44 × 10-115 . There was neither evidence for increased risk of breast cancer (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.86-1.24) nor for a deleterious effect of the variant when co-occurring with pathogenic variants. Our data provide for the first time robust evidence of the nonpathogenicity of the BRCA2 c.68-7T > A. Genetic and quantitative transcript analyses together inform the threshold for the ratio between functional and altered BRCA2 isoforms compatible with normal cell function. These findings might be exploited to assess the relevance for cancer risk of other BRCA2 spliceogenic variants.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Variação Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Processamento de RNA/genética , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Calibragem , Linhagem Celular , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mitomicina/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
17.
Breast ; 38: 92-97, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287190

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer (BC) in men is a rare disease, whose etiology appears to be associated with genetic factors. Inherited mutations in BRCA1/2 genes account for about 10-15% of all cases. FANCM, functionally linked to BRCA1/2, has been suggested as a novel BC susceptibility gene. Our aim was to test if FANCM germline mutations could further explain male BC (MBC) susceptibility. METHODS: We screened the entire coding region of FANCM in 286 MBCs by a multi-gene panel analysis, and compared these data with available whole exome sequencing data from 415 men used as population controls. Moreover, we genotyped the two most frequent FANCM mutations (c.5101C>T and c.5791C>T) in 506 MBCs and 854 healthy male controls. RESULTS: Two FANCM truncating mutations, the c.1432C>T (p.Arg478Ter) and c.1972C>T (p.Arg658Ter), were identified in two MBC cases (0.7%). When specifically considering cases at increased genetic risk for BC, FANCM mutation frequency raises up to 1%. One mutation, the c.2201_2202delCT (p.Ser734Terfs), was found among controls (0.24%). Mutation frequency in cases was higher than in controls, however this difference was not statistically significant. FANCM c.5101C>T was not present in any of the cases and controls analyzed, whereas FANCM c.5791C>T was found in two controls (0.23%). CONCLUSION: Rare FANCM truncating mutations, other than c.5101C>T and c.5791C>T, may have a role in MBC susceptibility. The inclusion of FANCM in gene panels for research purpose would allow for the identification of a higher number of mutation carriers, thus helping estimate BC risk associated with FANCM mutations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
18.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 56(12): 846-854, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28791770

RESUMO

Familial adenomatous polyposis is a Mendelian syndrome in which germline loss-of-function mutations of APC are associated with multiple adenomatous polyps of the large bowel, a multiplicity of extracolonic features, and a high lifetime risk of colorectal cancer. Different APC germline mutations have been identified, including sequence changes, genomic rearrangements, and expression defects. Recently, very rare families have been associated with constitutive large deletions encompassing the APC-5' regulatory region, while leaving the remaining gene sequence intact; the regulatory region contains a proximal and a distal promoter, called 1A and 1B, respectively. We identified a novel deletion encompassing promoter 1B in a large Italian family that manifested polyposis in three of the six branches descending from a founding couple married in 1797. By combining different molecular approaches on both DNA and RNA, we precisely mapped this deletion (6858 bp in length) that proved to be associated with APC allele silencing. The finding of the same deletion in two additional polyposis families pointed to a founder mutation in Italy. Deletion carriers from the three families all showed a "classical" polyposis phenotype. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying promoter deletions, we performed an in silico analysis of the breakpoints of 1A and 1B rearrangements so far reported in the literature; moreover, to decipher genotype-phenotype correlations, we critically reviewed current knowledge on deletions versus point mutations in the APC-5' regulatory region.


Assuntos
Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Efeito Fundador , Deleção de Genes , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
19.
J Genet Couns ; 26(5): 1144-1152, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28337671

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess attitudes toward ovarian cancer risk management options for BRCA mutation carriers in healthy Italian women, and to identify predictors of the preference for risk reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) over surveillance. One hundred eighty-one women aged 30-45 completed a questionnaire about preferences, knowledge, risk perception, and socio-demographic information. Participants were randomly presented with a pamphlet about BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation-specific testing, consequences of testing and preventive options for carriers, and they were stratified by having children or not and by age group. Surveillance was the preferred option (64.6%), followed by RRSO (24.3%). Although RRSO is the only effective strategy available to BRCA carriers, most healthy women faced for the first time with this option may not consider it as their preferred choice. Predictors associated with a higher likelihood to prefer surgery over surveillance were: knowing that life expectancy is longer with surgery, perceived comprehension of the consequences of testing, previous knowledge about BRCA testing, anticipated worry about developing cancer, and feelings of risk. Childbearing intentions and the effect of childbearing intentions on choice were associated with a lower preference for surgery. Further research is needed to confirm the role of the factors identified in this study in order to promote informed decision-making about RRSO.


Assuntos
Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Itália , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Salpingectomia
20.
J Hum Genet ; 62(2): 309-315, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27829682

RESUMO

To determine prevalence, spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlations of MUTYH variants in Italian patients with suspected MAP (MUTYH-associated polyposis), a retrospective analysis was conducted to identify patients who had undergone MUTYH genetic testing from September 2002 to February 2014. Results of genetic testing and patient clinical characteristics were collected (gender, number of polyps, age at polyp diagnosis, presence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and/or other cancers, family data). The presence of large rearrangements of the MUTYH gene was evaluated by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification analysis. In all, 299 patients with colorectal neoplasia were evaluated: 61.2% were males, the median age at polyps or cancer diagnosis was 50 years (16-80 years), 65.2% had <100 polyps and 51.8% had CRC. A total of 36 different MUTYH variants were identified: 13 (36.1%) were classified as pathogenetic, whereas 23 (63.9%) were variants of unknown significance (VUS). Two pathogenetic variants were observed in 78 patients (26.1%). A large homozygous deletion of exon 15 was found in one patient (<1.0%). MAP patients were younger than those with negative MUTYH testing at polyps diagnosis (P<0.0001) and at first cancer diagnosis (P=0.007). MAP patients carrying the p.Glu480del variant presented with a younger age at polyp diagnosis as compared to patients carrying p.Gly396Asp and p.Tyr179Cys variants. A high heterogeneity of MUTYH variants and a high rate of VUS were identified in a cohort of Italian patients with suspected MAP. Genotype-phenotype analysis suggests that the p.Glu480del variant is associated with a severe phenotype.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Mutação , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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