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J Med Genet ; 56(8): 521-525, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580288


IMPORTANCE: Genetic testing of hereditary cancer using comprehensive gene panels can identify patients with more than one pathogenic mutation in high and/or moderate-risk-associated cancer genes. This phenomenon is known as multilocus inherited neoplasia alleles syndrome (MINAS), which has been potentially linked to more severe clinical manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and clinical features of MINAS in a large cohort of adult patients with hereditary cancer homogeneously tested with the same gene panel. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort of 1023 unrelated patients with suspicion of hereditary cancer was screened using a validated panel including up to 135 genes associated with hereditary cancer and phakomatoses. RESULTS: Thirteen (1.37%) patients harbouring two pathogenic mutations in dominant cancer-predisposing genes were identified, representing 5.7% (13/226) of patients with pathogenic mutations. Most (10/13) of these cases presented clinical manifestations associated with only one of the mutations identified. One case showed mutations in MEN1 and MLH1 and developed tumours associated with both cancer syndromes. Interestingly, three of the double mutants had a young age of onset or severe breast cancer phenotype and carried mutations in moderate to low-risk DNA damage repair-associated genes; two of them presented biallelic inactivation of CHEK2. We included these two patients for the sake of their clinical interest although we are aware that they do not exactly fulfil the definition of MINAS since both mutations are in the same gene. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Genetic analysis of a broad cancer gene panel identified the largest series of patients with MINAS described in a single study. Overall, our data do not support the existence of more severe manifestations in double mutants at the time of diagnosis although they do confirm previous evidence of severe phenotype in biallelic CHEK2 and other DNA repair cancer-predisposing genes.

Eur J Cancer ; 50(13): 2241-50, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24953332


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Individuals with tumours showing mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency not linked to germline mutations or somatic methylation of MMR genes have been recently referred as having 'Lynch-like syndrome' (LLS). The genetic basis of these LLS cases is unknown. MUTYH-associated polyposis patients show some phenotypic similarities to Lynch syndrome patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of germline MUTYH mutations in a large series of LLS patients. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-five probands fulfilling LLS criteria were included in this study. Screening of MUTYH recurrent mutations, whole coding sequencing and a large rearrangement analysis were undertaken. Age, sex, clinical, pathological and molecular characteristics of tumours including KRAS mutations were assessed. RESULTS: We found a prevalence of 3.1% of MAP syndrome in the whole series of LLS (7/225) and 3.9% when only cases fulfilling clinical criteria were considered (7/178). Patients with MUTYH biallelic mutations had more adenomas than monoallelic (P=0.02) and wildtype patients (P<0.0001). Six out of nine analysed tumours from six biallelic MUTYH carriers harboured KRAS-p.G12C mutation. This mutation was found to be associated with biallelic MUTYH germline mutation when compared with reported series of unselected colorectal cancer cohorts (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: A proportion of unexplained LLS cases is caused by biallelic MUTYH mutations. The obtained results further justify the inclusion of MUTYH in the diagnostic strategy for Lynch syndrome-suspected patients.

Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras) , Proteínas ras/genética
Hum Mol Genet ; 23(13): 3506-12, 2014 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24501277


Germline mutations in DNA polymerase ɛ (POLE) and δ (POLD1) have been recently identified in families with multiple colorectal adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC). All reported cases carried POLE c.1270C>G (p.Leu424Val) or POLD1 c.1433G>A (p.Ser478Asn) mutations. Due to the scarcity of cases reported so far, an accurate clinical phenotype has not been defined. We aimed to assess the prevalence of these recurrent mutations in unexplained familial and early-onset CRC and polyposis, and to add additional information to define the clinical characteristics of mutated cases. A total of 858 familial/early onset CRC and polyposis patients were studied: 581 familial and early-onset CRC cases without mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency, 86 cases with MMR deficiency and 191 polyposis cases. Mutation screening was performed by KASPar genotyping assays and/or Sanger sequencing of the involved exons. POLE p.L424V was identified in a 28-year-old polyposis and CRC patient, as a de novo mutation. None of the 858 cases studied carried POLD1 p.S478N. A new mutation, POLD1 c.1421T>C (p.Leu474Pro), was identified in a mismatch repair proficient Amsterdam II family. Its pathogenicity was supported by cosegregation in the family, in silico predictions, and previously published yeast assays. POLE and POLD1 mutations explain a fraction of familial CRC and polyposis. Sequencing the proofreading domains of POLE and POLD1 should be considered in routine genetic diagnostics. Until additional evidence is gathered, POLE and POLD1 genetic testing should not be restricted to polyposis cases, and the presence of de novo mutations, considered.

Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , DNA Polimerase III/genética , DNA Polimerase II/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose
Eur J Hum Genet ; 20(12): 1256-64, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22763379


Recently, constitutional MLH1 epimutations have been identified in a subset of Lynch syndrome (LS) cases. The aim of this study was the identification of patients harboring constitutional MLH1 epimutations in a set of 34 patients with a clinical suspicion of LS, MLH1-methylated tumors and non-detected germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MLH1 promoter methylation was analyzed in lymphocyte DNA samples by MS-MLPA (Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification). Confirmation of MLH1 constitutional methylation was performed by MS-MCA (Methylation-specific melting curve analysis), bisulfite sequencing and pyrosequencing in different biological samples. Allelic expression was determined using heterozygous polymorphisms. Vertical transmission was evaluated by MS-MLPA and haplotype analyses. MS-MLPA analysis detected constitutional MLH1 methylation in 2 of the 34 individuals whose colorectal cancers showed MLH1 methylation (5.9%). These results were confirmed by bisulfite-based methods. Both epimutation carriers had developed metachronous early-onset LS tumors, with no family history of LS-associated cancers in their first-degree relatives. In one of the cases, the identified MLH1 constitutional methylation was monoallelic and results in MLH1 and EPM2AIP1 allele-specific transcriptional silencing. It was present in normal somatic tissues and absent in spermatozoa. The methylated MLH1 allele was maternally transmitted and methylation was reversed in a daughter who inherited the same allele. MLH1 methylation screening in lymphocyte DNA from patients with early-onset MLH1-methylated LS-associated tumors allows the identification of epimutation carriers. The present study adds further evidence to the emerging entity of soma-wide MLH1 epimutation and its heritability.

Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Metilação de DNA , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Heterozigoto , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Inativação Gênica , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Especificidade de Órgãos , Linhagem , Polimorfismo Genético , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transcrição Genética