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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639150

RESUMO

This review presents the latest data on the importance of selenium nanoparticles in human health, their use in medicine, and the main known methods of their production by various methods. In recent years, a multifaceted study of nanoscale complexes in medicine, including selenium nanoparticles, has become very important in view of a number of positive features that make it possible to create new drugs based on them or significantly improve the properties of existing drugs. It is known that selenium is an essential trace element that is part of key antioxidant enzymes. In mammals, there are 25 selenoproteins, in which selenium is a key component of the active site. The important role of selenium in human health has been repeatedly proven by several hundred works in the past few decades; in recent years, the study of selenium nanocomplexes has become the focus of researchers. A large amount of accumulated data requires generalization and systematization in order to improve understanding of the key mechanisms and prospects for the use of selenium nanoparticles in medicine, which is the purpose of this review.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360859

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the mechanisms of Ca2+ oscillation generation upon activation of connexin-43 and regulation of the lipolysis/lipogenesis balance in white adipocytes through vesicular ATP release. With fluorescence microscopy it was revealed that a decrease in the concentration of extracellular calcium ([Ca2+]ex) results in two types of Ca2+ responses in white adipocytes: Ca2+ oscillations and transient Ca2+ signals. It was found that activation of the connexin half-channels is involved in the generation of Ca2+ oscillations, since the blockers of the connexin hemichannels-carbenoxolone, octanol, proadifen and Gap26-as well as Cx43 gene knockdown led to complete suppression of these signals. The activation of Cx43 in response to the reduction of [Ca2+]ex was confirmed by TIRF microscopy. It was shown that in response to the activation of Cx43, ATP-containing vesicles were released from the adipocytes. This process was suppressed by knockdown of the Cx43 gene and by bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of vacuolar ATPase. At the level of intracellular signaling, the generation of Ca2+ oscillations in white adipocytes in response to a decrease in [Ca2+]ex occurred due to the mobilization of the Ca2+ ions from the thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+ pool of IP3R as a result of activation of the purinergic P2Y1 receptors and phosphoinositide signaling pathway. After activation of Cx43 and generation of the Ca2+ oscillations, changes in the expression levels of key genes and their encoding proteins involved in the regulation of lipolysis were observed in white adipocytes. This effect was accompanied by a decrease in the number of adipocytes containing lipid droplets, while inhibition or knockdown of Cx43 led to inhibition of lipolysis and accumulation of lipid droplets. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of Ca2+ oscillation generation in white adipocytes in response to a decrease in the concentration of Ca2+ ions in the external environment and established an interplay between periodic Ca2+ modes and the regulation of the lipolysis/lipogenesis balance.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Brancos/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Conexina 43/fisiologia , Lipogênese , Lipólise , Adipócitos Brancos/citologia , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio , Células Cultivadas , Camundongos
3.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439975

RESUMO

To date, there are practically no data on the mechanisms of the selenium nanoparticles action on calcium homeostasis, intracellular signaling in cancer cells, and on the relationship of signaling pathways activated by an increase in Ca2+ in the cytosol with the induction of apoptosis, which is of great importance. The study of these mechanisms is important for understanding the cytotoxic effect of selenium nanoparticles and the role of this microelement in the regulation of carcinogenesis. The work is devoted to the study of the role of selenium nanoparticles obtained by laser ablation in the activation of the calcium signaling system and the induction of apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells (A-172 cell line). In this work, it was shown for the first time that the generation of Ca2+ signals in A-172 cells occurs in response to the application of various concentrations of selenium nanoparticles. The intracellular mechanism responsible for the generation of these Ca2+ signals has also been established. It was found that nanoparticles promote the mobilization of Ca2+ ions from the endoplasmic reticulum through the IP3-receptor. This leads to the activation of vesicular release of ATP through connexin hemichannels (Cx43) and paracrine cell activation through purinergic receptors (mainly P2Y). In addition, it was shown that the activation of this signaling pathway is accompanied by an increase in the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and the induction of apoptosis. For the first time, the role of Cx43 in the regulation of apoptosis caused by selenium nanoparticles in glioblastoma cells has been shown. It was found that inhibition of Cx43 leads to a significant suppression of the induction of apoptosis in these cells after 24 h treatment of cells with selenium nanoparticles at a concentration of 5 µg/mL.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445509

RESUMO

Ischemia-like conditions reflect almost the entire spectrum of events that occur during cerebral ischemia, including the induction of oxidative stress, Ca2+ overload, glutamate excitotoxicity, and activation of necrosis and apoptosis in brain cells. Mechanisms for the protective effects of the antioxidant enzyme peroxiredoxin-6 (Prx-6) on hippocampal cells during oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) were investigated. Using the methods of fluorescence microscopy, inhibitory analysis, vitality tests and PCR, it was shown that 24-h incubation of mixed hippocampal cell cultures with Prx-6 does not affect the generation of a reversible phase of a OGD-induced rise in Ca2+ ions in cytosol ([Ca2+]i), but inhibits a global increase in [Ca2+]i in astrocytes completely and in neurons by 70%. In addition, after 40 min of OGD, cell necrosis is suppressed, especially in the astrocyte population. This effect is associated with the complex action of Prx-6 on neuroglial networks. As an antioxidant, Prx-6 has a more pronounced and astrocyte-directed effect, compared to the exogenous antioxidant vitamin E (Vit E). Prx-6 inhibits ROS production in mitochondria by increasing the antioxidant capacity of cells and altering the expression of genes encoding redox status proteins. Due to the close bond between [Ca2+]i and intracellular ROS, this effect of Prx-6 is one of its protective mechanisms. Moreover, Prx-6 effectively suppresses not only necrosis, but also apoptosis during OGD and reoxygenation. Incubation with Prx-6 leads to activation of the basic expression of genes encoding protective kinases-PI3K, CaMKII, PKC, anti-apoptotic proteins-Stat3 and Bcl-2, while inhibiting the expression of signaling kinases and factors involved in apoptosis activation-Ikk, Src, NF-κb, Caspase-3, p53, Fas, etc. This effect on the basic expression of the genome leads to the cell preconditions, which is expressed in the inhibition of caspase-3 during OGD/reoxygenation. A significant effect of Prx-6 is directed on suppression of the level of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1ß and factor TNFα, as well as genes encoding NMDA- and kainate receptor subunits, which was established for the first time for this antioxidant enzyme. The protective effect of Prx-6 is due to its antioxidant properties, since mutant Prx-6 (mutPrx-6, Prx6-C47S) leads to polar opposite effects, contributing to oxidative stress, activation of apoptosis and cell death through receptor action on TLR4.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/citologia , Hipocampo/citologia , Peroxirredoxina VI/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Citosol/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Peroxirredoxina VI/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360564

RESUMO

In recent decades, studies on the functional features of Se nanoparticles (SeNP) have gained great popularity due to their high biocompatibility, stability, and pronounced selectivity. A large number of works prove the anticarcinogenic effect of SeNP. In this work, the molecular mechanisms regulating the cytotoxic effects of SeNP, obtained by laser ablation, were studied by the example of four human cancer cell lines: A-172 (glioblastoma), Caco-2, (colorectal adenocarcinoma), DU-145 (prostate carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma). It was found that SeNP had different concentration-dependent effects on cancer cells of the four studied human lines. SeNP at concentrations of less than 1 µg/mL had no cytotoxic effect on the studied cancer cells, with the exception of the A-172 cell line, for which 0.5 µg/mL SeNP was the minimum concentration affecting its metabolic activity. It was shown that SeNP concentration-dependently caused cancer cell apoptosis, but not necrosis. In addition, it was found that SeNP enhanced the expression of pro-apoptotic genes in almost all cancer cell lines, with the exception of Caco-2 and activated various pathways of adaptive and pro-apoptotic signaling pathways of UPR. Different effects of SeNP on the expression of ER-resident selenoproteins and selenium-containing glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases, depending on the cell line, were established. In addition, SeNP triggered Ca2+ signals in all investigated cancer cell lines. Different sensitivity of cancer cell lines to SeNP can determine the induction of the process of apoptosis in them through regulation of the Ca2+ signaling system, mechanisms of ER stress, and activation of various expression patterns of genes encoding pro-apoptotic proteins.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Apoptose , Citotoxinas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Selênio/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Citotoxinas/química , Humanos , Nanopartículas/química , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205571

RESUMO

Studies of recent decades have repeatedly demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of selenium-containing compounds on cancer cells of various origins. Particular attention in these studies is paid to methylseleninic acid, a widespread selenium-containing compound of organic nature, for several reasons: it has a selective cytotoxic effect on cancer cells, it is cytotoxic in small doses, it is able to generate methylselenol, excluding the action of the enzyme ß-lyase. All these qualities make methylseleninic acid an attractive substrate for the production of anticancer drugs on its basis with a well-pronounced selective effect. However, the studies available to date indicate that there is no strictly specific molecular mechanism of its cytotoxic effect in relation to different cancer cell lines and cancer models. This review contains generalized information on the dose- and time-dependent regulation of the toxic effect of methylseleninic acid on the proliferative properties of a number of cancer cell lines. In addition, special attention in this review is paid to the influence of this selenium-containing compound on the regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and on the expression of seven selenoproteins, which are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxinas/uso terapêutico , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Organosselênicos/toxicidade , Animais , Humanos , Compostos Organosselênicos/uso terapêutico , Selenoproteínas/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073140

RESUMO

Transcription factors Satb1 and Satb2 are involved in the processes of cortex development and maturation of neurons. Alterations in the expression of their target genes can lead to neurodegenerative processes. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of regulation of neurotransmission by these transcription factors remain poorly understood. In this study, we have shown that transcription factors Satb1 and Satb2 participate in the regulation of genes encoding the NMDA-, AMPA-, and KA- receptor subunits and the inhibitory GABA(A) receptor. Deletion of gene for either Satb1 or Satb2 homologous factors induces the expression of genes encoding the NMDA receptor subunits, thereby leading to higher amplitudes of Ca2+-signals in neurons derived from the Satb1-deficient (Satb1fl/+ * NexCre/+) and Satb1-null mice (Satb1fl/fl * NexCre/+) in response to the selective agonist reducing the EC50 for the NMDA receptor. Simultaneously, there is an increase in the expression of the Gria2 gene, encoding the AMPA receptor subunit, thus decreasing the Ca2+-signals of neurons in response to the treatment with a selective agonist (5-Fluorowillardiine (FW)). The Satb1 deletion increases the sensitivity of the KA receptor to the agonist (domoic acid), in the cortical neurons of the Satb1-deficient mice but decreases it in the Satb1-null mice. At the same time, the Satb2 deletion decreases Ca2+-signals and the sensitivity of the KA receptor to the agonist in neurons from the Satb1-null and the Satb1-deficient mice. The Satb1 deletion affects the development of the inhibitory system of neurotransmission resulting in the suppression of the neuron maturation process and switching the GABAergic responses from excitatory to inhibitory, while the Satb2 deletion has a similar effect only in the Satb1-null mice. We show that the Satb1 and Satb2 transcription factors are involved in the regulation of the transmission of excitatory signals and inhibition of the neuronal network in the cortical cell culture.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio , Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/fisiologia , Neuroglia , Receptores de Glutamato/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neuroglia/citologia , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA/metabolismo
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