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3.
Acta Neuropathol ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677015

RESUMO

Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common pediatric glioma, arising from a single driver MAPK pathway alteration. Classified as a grade I tumor according to the 2016 WHO classification, prognosis is excellent with a 10-year survival rate > 95% after surgery. However, rare cases present with anaplastic features, including an unexpected high mitotic/proliferative index, thus posing a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Based on small histomolecular series and case reports, such tumors arising at the time of diagnosis or recurrence have been designated by many names including pilocytic astrocytoma with anaplastic features (PAAF). Recent DNA methylation-profiling studies performed mainly on adult cases have revealed that PAAF exhibit a specific methylation signature, thus constituting a distinct methylation class from typical PA [methylation class anaplastic astrocytoma with piloid features-(MC-AAP)]. However, the diagnostic and prognostic significance of MC-AAP remains to be determined in children. We performed an integrative work on the largest pediatric cohort of PAAF, defined according to strict criteria: morphology compatible with the diagnosis of PA, with or without necrosis, ≥ 4 mitoses for 2.3 mm2, and MAPK pathway alteration. We subjected 31 tumors to clinical, imaging, morphological and molecular analyses, including DNA methylation profiling. We identified only one tumor belonging to the MC-AAP (3%), the others exhibiting a methylation profile typical for PA (77%), IDH-wild-type glioblastoma (7%), and diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor (3%), while three cases (10%) did not match to a known DNA methylation class. No significant outcome differences were observed between PAAF with necrosis versus no necrosis (p = 0.07), or with 4-6 mitoses versus 7 or more mitoses (p = 0.857). Our findings argue that the diagnostic histomolecular criteria established for anaplasia in adult PA are not of diagnostic or prognostic value in a pediatric setting. Further extensive and comprehensive integrative studies are necessary to accurately define this exceptional entity in children.

4.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; : 1-12, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642744

RESUMO

Background: BRAF mutation analysis is important to personalize the management with low-grade gliomas (LGG) in children and adults, with therapeutic and prognostic impacts. In recurrent tumors, targeted therapies such as BRAF inhibitors had been reported to induce disease stabilization and significant radiographic responses. This highlights the potential interest of BRAF mutation to stratify patients for targeted therapy. Standard operating procedures (SOP) for BRAF V600E mutation detection can be time-consuming and consequently delay treatment choice in patients with acute deterioration. Here, we evaluated IdyllaTM fully automated PCR (FA-PCR) assay for the rapid determination of BRAF mutational status in children and adult LGG. Methods: Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from three histological LGG subtypes (ganglioglioma, pleomorphic xantoastrocytoma, and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor) with previous SOP-characterized BRAF mutational status were re-analyzed using the FA-PCR. Overall concordance with the mutational status determined using SOP, as well as sensitivity and specificity of FA-PCR technique were assessed. Results: All 14 samples gave interpretable results with FA-PCR. Overall concordance of BRAF mutational status between FA-PCR and SOP was 100%. Sensitivity and specificity were 100%. Conclusion: This study confirms the reliability of FA-PCR for BRAF mutations analysis in children and adult LGG. Considering the short time to results enabled by FA-PCR, providing results in less than 90 minutes, this technique represents an interesting option for the molecular diagnosis of LGG and personalization of treatment.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1900577, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609649

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The identification of a heritable tumor predisposition often leads to changes in management and increased surveillance of individuals who are at risk; however, for many rare entities, our knowledge of heritable predisposition is incomplete. METHODS: Families with childhood medulloblastoma, one of the most prevalent childhood malignant brain tumors, were investigated to identify predisposing germline mutations. Initial findings were extended to genomes and epigenomes of 1,044 medulloblastoma cases from international multicenter cohorts, including retrospective and prospective clinical studies and patient series. RESULTS: We identified heterozygous germline mutations in the G protein-coupled receptor 161 (GPR161) gene in six patients with infant-onset medulloblastoma (median age, 1.5 years). GPR161 mutations were exclusively associated with the sonic hedgehog medulloblastoma (MBSHH) subgroup and accounted for 5% of infant MBSHH cases in our cohorts. Molecular tumor profiling revealed a loss of heterozygosity at GPR161 in all affected MBSHH tumors, atypical somatic copy number landscapes, and no additional somatic driver events. Analysis of 226 MBSHH tumors revealed somatic copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 1q as the hallmark characteristic of GPR161 deficiency and the primary mechanism for biallelic inactivation of GPR161 in affected MBSHH tumors. CONCLUSION: Here, we describe a novel brain tumor predisposition syndrome that is caused by germline GPR161 mutations and characterized by MBSHH in infants. Additional studies are needed to identify a potential broader tumor spectrum associated with germline GPR161 mutations.

6.
Radiology ; 293(3): 633-643, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592732

RESUMO

Background Tumor location is a main prognostic parameter in patients with glioblastoma. Probabilistic MRI-based brain atlases specifying the probability of tumor location associated with important demographic, clinical, histomolecular, and management data are lacking for isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild-type glioblastomas. Purpose To correlate glioblastoma location with clinical phenotype, surgical management, and outcomes by using a probabilistic analysis in a three-dimensional (3D) MRI-based atlas. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included all adults surgically treated for newly diagnosed IDH wild-type supratentorial glioblastoma in a tertiary adult surgical neuro-oncology center (2006-2016). Semiautomated tumor segmentation and spatial normalization procedures to build a 3D MRI-based atlas were validated. The authors performed probabilistic analyses by using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping technology. The Liebermeister test was used for binary data, and the generalized linear model was used for continuous data. Results A total of 392 patients (mean age, 61 years ± 13; 233 men) were evaluated. The authors identified the preferential location of glioblastomas according to subventricular zone, age, sex, clinical presentation, revised Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-Recursive Partitioning Analysis class, Karnofsky performance status, O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation status, surgical management, and survival. The superficial location distant from the eloquent area was more likely associated with a preserved functional status at diagnosis (348 of 392 patients [89%], P < .05), a large surgical resection (173 of 392 patients [44%], P < .05), and prolonged overall survival (163 of 334 patients [49%], P < .05). In contrast, deep location and location within eloquent brain areas were more likely associated with an impaired functional status at diagnosis (44 of 392 patients [11%], P < .05), a neurologic deficit (282 of 392 patients [72%], P < .05), treatment with biopsy only (183 of 392 patients [47%], P < .05), and shortened overall survival (171 of 334 patients [51%], P < .05). Conclusion The authors identified the preferential location of isocitrate dehydrogenase wild-type glioblastomas according to parameters of interest and provided an image-based integration of multimodal information impacting survival results. This suggests the role of glioblastoma location as a surrogate and multimodal parameter integrating several known prognostic factors. © RSNA, 2019 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Huang in this issue.

7.
Acta Neuropathol ; 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563982

RESUMO

The "isomorphic subtype of diffuse astrocytoma" was identified histologically in 2004 as a supratentorial, highly differentiated glioma with low cellularity, low proliferation and focal diffuse brain infiltration. Patients typically had seizures since childhood and all were operated on as adults. To define the position of these lesions among brain tumours, we histologically, molecularly and clinically analysed 26 histologically prototypical isomorphic diffuse gliomas. Immunohistochemically, they were GFAP-positive, MAP2-, OLIG2- and CD34-negative, nuclear ATRX-expression was retained and proliferation was low. All 24 cases sequenced were IDH-wildtype. In cluster analyses of DNA methylation data, isomorphic diffuse gliomas formed a group clearly distinct from other glial/glio-neuronal brain tumours and normal hemispheric tissue, most closely related to paediatric MYB/MYBL1-altered diffuse astrocytomas and angiocentric gliomas. Half of the isomorphic diffuse gliomas had copy number alterations of MYBL1 or MYB (13/25, 52%). Gene fusions of MYBL1 or MYB with various gene partners were identified in 11/22 (50%) and were associated with an increased RNA-expression of the respective MYB-family gene. Integrating copy number alterations and available RNA sequencing data, 20/26 (77%) of isomorphic diffuse gliomas demonstrated MYBL1 (54%) or MYB (23%) alterations. Clinically, 89% of patients were seizure-free after surgery and all had a good outcome. In summary, we here define a distinct benign tumour class belonging to the family of MYB/MYBL1-altered gliomas. Isomorphic diffuse glioma occurs both in children and adults, has a concise morphology, frequent MYBL1 and MYB alterations and a specific DNA methylation profile. As an exclusively histological diagnosis may be very challenging and as paediatric MYB/MYBL1-altered diffuse astrocytomas may have the same gene fusions, we consider DNA methylation profiling very helpful for their identification.

8.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medulloblastomas may occur in a predisposition context, including familial adenomatosis polyposis. Medulloblastomas related to APC germline pathogenic variant remain rare and poorly described. Their similarities with sporadic WNT medulloblastomas still require to be described. METHODS: We performed a multicentric retrospective review of 12 patients treated between 1988 and 2018 for medulloblastoma with identified or highly suspected (personal of familial history) APC germline pathogenic variant. We report personal and familial history, APC gene pathogenic variant whenever available, clinical and histological characteristics of the medulloblastoma, treatments, and long-term outcome including second tumor and late sequelae. RESULTS: Medulloblastomas associated with APC pathogenic variant are mainly classic (11/11 patients, 1 NA), non-metastatic (10/12 patients) medulloblastomas, with nuclear immunoreactivity for ß-catenin (9/9 tested cases). 10/11 assessable patients are disease-free with a median follow-up of 10.7 years [1-28]. Secondary tumors included desmoid tumors in 7 patients (9 tumors), 1 thyroid carcinoma, 2 pilomatricomas, 1 osteoma, 1 vertebral hemangioma, and 1 malignant Triton in the radiation field which caused the only cancer-related death in our series. CONCLUSIONS: Medulloblastomas associated with APC pathogenic variant have an overall favorable outcome, even for metastatic tumors. Yet, long-term survival is clouded by second tumor occurrence; treatment may play some role in some of these second malignancies. Our findings raise the question of applying de-escalation therapeutic protocol to treat patients with APC germline pathogenic variant given the excellent outcome, and reduced intensity of craniospinal irradiation may be further evaluated.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(22): 6788-6800, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481512

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) are the most severe pediatric brain tumors. Although accepted as the standard therapeutic, radiotherapy is only efficient transiently and not even in every patient. The goal of the study was to identify the underlying molecular determinants of response to radiotherapy in DIPG. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We assessed in vitro response to ionizing radiations in 13 different DIPG cellular models derived from treatment-naïve stereotactic biopsies reflecting the genotype variability encountered in patients at diagnosis and correlated it to their principal molecular alterations. Clinical and radiologic response to radiotherapy of a large cohort of 73 DIPG was analyzed according to their genotype. Using a kinome-wide synthetic lethality RNAi screen, we further identified target genes that can sensitize DIPG cells to ionizing radiations. RESULTS: We uncover TP53 mutation as the main driver of increased radioresistance and validated this finding in four isogenic pairs of TP53WT DIPG cells with or without TP53 knockdown. In an integrated clinical, radiological, and molecular study, we show that TP53MUT DIPG patients respond less to irradiation, relapse earlier after radiotherapy, and have a worse prognosis than their TP53WT counterparts. Finally, a kinome-wide synthetic lethality RNAi screen identifies CHK1 as a potential target, whose inhibition increases response to radiation specifically in TP53MUT cells. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we demonstrate that TP53 mutations are driving DIPG radioresistance both in patients and corresponding cellular models. We suggest alternative treatment strategies to mitigate radioresistance with CHK1 inhibitors. These findings will allow to consequently refine radiotherapy schedules in DIPG.

10.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) adult glioma grading system is questionable in paediatric high-grade gliomas (HGGs), which are biologically distinct from adult HGGs. We took advantage of the neuropathological review data obtained during one of the largest prospective randomized pediatric HGG trials, namely HERBY (NCT01390948), to address this issue in children with newly diagnosed non-brainstem HGG. METHODS: HGG diagnosis was confirmed by pre-randomization, real-time central pathology review using WHO 2007 criteria, followed by a consensus review blinded to clinical factors and outcomes. We evaluated association between WHO 2007 grade and other clinical/radiological/biological characteristics; and the prognostic value of WHO 2007 grade, midline location and selected biomarkers (Ki-67 index/Olig2/CD34/EGFR/p53/H3F3A K27M mutation) on overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Real-time central neuropathological review was feasible in a multicenter study, with a mean time 2.4 days, and led to the rejection of high-grade glioma diagnosis in 20/163 cases (12.3%). The different grading criteria and resulting WHO grade were not significantly associated with overall survival in the entire population (n=118), nor in midline and non-midline subgroups. H3F3A K27M-mutation was significantly associated with poor outcome. No significant prognostic value was observed for grade, even after regrading H3F3A K27M-mutated midline glioma as grade IV (WHO 2016). Midline location and a high Ki-67 index (≥20%) were associated with poor outcome (p=0.004 and p=0.04, respectively). A 10% increase in Ki-67 index was associated with a HR of 1.53 (95% CI 1.27-1.83; p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest WHO grade III vs. IV has no prognostic value in paediatric HGG.

11.
J Biophotonics ; 12(11): e201900111, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276313

RESUMO

The surgical outcome of brain tumor resection and needle biopsy is significantly correlated to the patient's prognosis. Brain tumor surgery is limited to resecting the solid portion of the tumor as current intraoperative imaging modalities are incapable of delineating infiltrative regions. For accurate delineation, in situ tissue interrogation at the submicron scale is warranted. Additionally, multimodal detection is required to remediate the genetically and molecularly heterogeneous nature of brain tumors, notably, that of gliomas, meningioma and brain metastasis. Multimodal detection, such as spectrally- and temporally-resolved fluorescence under one- and two-photon excitation, enables characterizing tissue based on several endogenous optical contrasts. In order to assign the optically-derived parameters to different tissue types, construction of an optical database obtained from biopsied tissue is warranted. This report showcases the different quantitative and semi-quantitative optical markers that may comprise the tissue discrimination database. These include: the optical index ratio, the optical redox ratio, the relative collagen density, spectrally-resolved fluorescence lifetime parameters, two-photon fluorescence imaging and second harmonic generation imaging.

12.
Neurosurgery ; 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No link has been demonstrated between diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma and developmental venous anomaly in pediatric patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of developmental venous anomaly in a pediatric cohort of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study (1998-2017) of consecutive pediatric patients harboring a diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (experimental set, n = 162) or a craniopharyngioma (control set, n = 142) in a tertiary pediatric neurosurgical center. The inclusion criteria were the following: age <18 yr at diagnosis; histopathological diagnosis of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma or craniopharyngioma according to the 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system; no previous oncological treatment; and available preoperative magnetic resonance imaging performed with similar acquisition protocol. RESULTS: We found a significantly higher prevalence of developmental venous anomaly in the experimental set of 162 diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (24.1%) than in the control set of 142 craniopharyngiomas (10.6%; P = .001). The prevalence of developmental venous anomalies was not significantly impacted by demographic data (sex, age at diagnosis, and underlying pathological condition), biomolecular analysis (H3-K27M-mutant subgroup, H3.1-K27M-mutant subgroup, and H3.3-K27M-mutant subgroup), or imaging findings (anatomic location, anatomic extension, side, and obstructive hydrocephalus) of the studied diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. CONCLUSION: We report a higher prevalence of developmental venous anomaly in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma patients than in control patients, which suggests a potential underlying common predisposition or a causal relationship that will require deeper investigations.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8786, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217542

RESUMO

Among all the tumors of the central nervous system (CNS), glioma are the most deadly and the most malignant. Surgical resection is the standard therapeutic method to treat this type of brain cancer. But the diffusive character of these tumors create many problems for surgeons during the operation. In fact, these tumors migrate outside the tumor solid zone and invade the surrounding healthy tissues. These infiltrative tissues have the same visual appearance as healthy tissues, making it very difficult for surgeons to distinguish the healthy ones from the diffused ones. The surgeon, therefore, cannot properly remove the tumor margins increasing the recurrence risk of the tumor. To resolve this problem, our team has developed a multimodal two-photon fibered endomicroscope, compatible with the surgeon trocar, to better delimitate tumor boundaries by relying on the endogenous fluorescence of brain tissues. In this context, and in order to characterize the optical signature of glioma tumors, this study offers multimodal and multi-scaled optical measurements from healthy tissues to high grade glioma. We can interrogate tissue from deep ultra-violet to near infrared excitation by working with spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging, two-photon fluorescene imaging and Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) imaging. Optically derived ratios such as the Tryptophan/Collagen ratio, the optical redox ratio and the long lifetime intensity fraction, discriminated diseased tissue from its normal counterparts when fitted by Gaussian ellipsoids and choosing a threshold for each. Additionally two-photon fluorescence and SHG images were shown to display similar histological features as Hematoxylin-Eosin stained images.

14.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 7(1): 78, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109382

RESUMO

The recently described malignant neuro-epithelial tumors with histone H3F3A point mutations at G34 (NET-H3-G34) occur most often in cerebral hemispheres of teenagers and young adults, and have a generally adverse prognosis. These tumors have been histologically classified as glioblastoma or primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in the past, and have not been defined as a separate entity in the revised WHO classification of tumors of the CNS 2016. Here, we report two cases of NET-H3-G34 with glial and dysplastic ganglion cell components affecting teenagers. Patients were treated with surgery and radiochemotherapy with temozolomide. One patient underwent partial resection and deceased 21 months after diagnosis, while the other patient is alive without evidence of disease 15 months after total resection. So far, a dysplastic ganglion cell component has not been described in NET-H-G34, and its presence raises a possible relation to (anaplastic) gangliogliomas. Genome-wide copy number analysis did not provide unequivocal evidence that these tumors represent anaplastic variants of gangliogliomas, as opposed to NET-H3-G34. Our observations expand the morphologic spectrum of NET-H3-G34. Further cases of NET-H3-G34 with dysplastic ganglion cells should be clinically followed to find differences or similarities in their biological behavior, as compared to NET-H3-G34 and anaplastic gangliogliomas.

15.
Acta Neuropathol ; 137(5): 837-846, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759284

RESUMO

Papillary glioneuronal tumor (PGNT) is a WHO-defined brain tumor entity that poses a major diagnostic challenge. Recently, SLC44A1-PRKCA fusions have been described in PGNT. We subjected 28 brain tumors from different institutions histologically diagnosed as PGNT to molecular and morphological analysis. Array-based methylation analysis revealed that 17/28 tumors exhibited methylation profiles typical for other tumor entities, mostly dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor and hemispheric pilocytic astrocytoma. Conversely, 11/28 tumors exhibited a unique profile, thus constituting a distinct methylation class PGNT. By screening the extended Heidelberg cohort containing over 25,000 CNS tumors, we identified three additional tumors belonging to this methylation cluster but originally histologically diagnosed otherwise. RNA sequencing for the detection of SLC44A1-PRKCA fusions could be performed on 19 of the tumors, 10 of them belonging to the methylation class PGNT. In two additional cases, SLC44A1-PRKCA fusions were confirmed by FISH. We detected fusions involving PRKCA in all cases of this methylation class with material available for analyses: the canonical SLC44A1-PRKCA fusion was observed in 11/12 tumors, while the remaining case exhibited a NOTCH1-PRKCA fusion. Neither of the fusions was found in the tumors belonging to other methylation classes. Our results point towards a high misclassification rate of the morphological diagnosis PGNT and clearly demonstrate the necessity of molecular analyses. PRKCA fusions are highly diagnostic for PGNT, and detection by RNA sequencing enables the identification of rare fusion partners. Methylation analysis recognizes a unique methylation class PGNT irrespective of the nature of the PRKCA fusion.

16.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(2): 171-181, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30671780

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are associated in the definition of Evans syndrome (ES). The occurrence of neurological involvement in this population is poorly described and suggests an underlying primary immunodeficiency (PID). We aimed to describe the clinical manifestations, evolution, and PID profiles of these patients. METHODS: OBS'CEREVANCE is a French, nationwide prospective cohort that includes children with chronic ITP, AIHA, and ES. Patients with a neurological involvement were described. Centralized radiological and pathological reviews and genetic analyses were performed. RESULTS: On October 2016, eight patients (7/181 ES, 1/371 AIHA, and 0/615 ITP) were identified, all male, with a median age (range) at cytopenia onset of 11.5 years (1.6-15.8). Neurological symptoms appeared with a median delay of 6 years (2.5-18) after cytopenia and were polymorphic: seizures (n = 4), cranial nerve palsy (n = 2), Brown-Sequard syndrome (n = 2), intracranial pressure (n = 2), vertigo (n = 1), and/or sensory neuropathy (n = 1). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed inflammatory lesions, confirmed by pathology for five patients with macrophagic or lymphoplasmocytic infiltrates. All patients had other relevant immunopathological manifestations: pulmonary nodules (n = 6), lymphoproliferation (n = 4), abnormal immunophenotype (n = 8), and hypogammaglobulinemia (n = 7). Treatment consisted of steroids that improved symptomatology and MRI. Five patients relapsed and three had an asymptomatic radiological progression. A PID was identified in 3/8 patients: 22q11.2 microdeletion (n = 1) and CTLA deficiency (n = 2). CONCLUSION: Neurological involvement is a rare and severe late event in the course of childhood ES, which can reveal an underlying PID. Imaging and pathology examination highlight a causative immune dysregulation that may guide targeted therapeutic strategies.

17.
Nat Med ; 25(1): 176-187, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531922

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common tumor predisposition syndrome in which glioma is one of the prevalent tumors. Gliomagenesis in NF1 results in a heterogeneous spectrum of low- to high-grade neoplasms occurring during the entire lifespan of patients. The pattern of genetic and epigenetic alterations of glioma that develops in NF1 patients and the similarities with sporadic glioma remain unknown. Here, we present the molecular landscape of low- and high-grade gliomas in patients affected by NF1 (NF1-glioma). We found that the predisposing germline mutation of the NF1 gene was frequently converted to homozygosity and the somatic mutational load of NF1-glioma was influenced by age and grade. High-grade tumors harbored genetic alterations of TP53 and CDKN2A, frequent mutations of ATRX associated with Alternative Lengthening of Telomere, and were enriched in genetic alterations of transcription/chromatin regulation and PI3 kinase pathways. Low-grade tumors exhibited fewer mutations that were over-represented in genes of the MAP kinase pathway. Approximately 50% of low-grade NF1-gliomas displayed an immune signature, T lymphocyte infiltrates, and increased neo-antigen load. DNA methylation assigned NF1-glioma to LGm6, a poorly defined Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 wild-type subgroup enriched with ATRX mutations. Thus, the profiling of NF1-glioma defined a distinct landscape that recapitulates a subset of sporadic tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Glioma/complicações , Glioma/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/complicações , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Glioma/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Proteína Nuclear Ligada ao X/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Neurology ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of developmental venous anomaly in adult patients with diffuse glioma. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study (2010-2016) of consecutive adult patients harboring a supratentorial diffuse glioma in 2 centers: Sainte-Anne Hospital (experimental and control sets) and Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital (external validation set). We included 219 patients with diffuse glioma (experimental set), 252 patients with brain metastasis (control set), and 200 patients with diffuse glioma (validation set). The inclusion criteria were age ≥18 years at diagnosis, histopathologic diagnosis of diffuse glioma according to the 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the CNS, surgery as first-line treatment without previous oncologic treatment, available presurgical MRI performed with similar acquisition protocol, and absence of a nodular-like or a ring-like pattern of contrast enhancement on MRI that may preclude the identification of a possible developmental venous anomaly within the glioma. RESULTS: We found more developmental venous anomaly in the experimental set (21.5%) than in the control set (5.2%, p < 0.001). Similarly, we found more developmental venous anomaly in the validation set (23.5%) than in the control set (5.2%, p < 0.001). There was no difference in the developmental venous anomaly prevalence between the experimental and validation sets. The developmental venous anomaly distribution was not significantly associated with histopathologic, molecular, or imaging findings of the diffuse gliomas. CONCLUSIONS: We report and replicate in an external cohort a high prevalence of developmental venous anomaly in adult patients with diffuse glioma, which suggests a potential underlying common predisposition or a causal relationship that requires deeper investigations.

19.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 6(1): 117, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396367

RESUMO

Diffuse midline glioma (DMG), H3 K27M-mutant, is a new entity in the updated WHO classification grouping together diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas and infiltrating glial neoplasms of the midline harboring the same canonical mutation at the Lysine 27 of the histones H3 tail.Two hundred and fifteen patients younger than 18 years old with centrally-reviewed pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG) were included in this study. Comprehensive transcriptomic (n = 140) and methylation (n = 80) profiling was performed depending on the material available, in order to assess the biological uniqueness of this new entity compared to other midline and hemispheric pHGG.Tumor classification based on gene expression (GE) data highlighted the similarity of K27M DMG independently of their location along the midline. T-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (tSNE) analysis of methylation profiling confirms the discrimination of DMG from other well defined supratentorial tumor subgroups. Patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) and thalamic DMG exhibited a similarly poor prognosis (11.1 and 10.8 months median overall survival, respectively). Interestingly, H3.1-K27M and H3.3-K27M primary tumor samples could be distinguished based both on their GE and DNA methylation profiles, suggesting that they might arise from a different precursor or from a different epigenetic reorganization.These differences in DNA methylation profiles were conserved in glioma stem-like cell culture models of DIPG which mimicked their corresponding primary tumor. ChIP-seq profiling of H3K27me3 in these models indicate that H3.3-K27M mutated DIPG stem cells exhibit higher levels of H3K27 trimethylation which are correlated with fewer genes expressed by RNAseq. When considering the global distribution of the H3K27me3 mark, we observed that intergenic regions were more trimethylated in the H3.3-K27M mutated cells compared to the H3.1-K27M mutated ones.H3 K27M-mutant DMG represent a homogenous group of neoplasms compared to other pediatric gliomas that could be further separated based on the type of histone H3 variant mutated and their respective epigenetic landscapes. As these characteristics drive different phenotypes, these findings may have important implication for the design of future trials in these specific types of neoplasms.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14888, 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291269

RESUMO

The primary line of therapy for high-grade brain tumor is surgical resection, however, identifying tumor margins in vivo remains a major challenge. Despite the progress in computer-assisted imaging techniques, biopsy analysis remains the standard diagnostic tool when it comes to delineating tumor margins. Our group aims to answer this challenge by exploiting optical imaging of endogenous fluorescence in order to provide a reliable and reproducible diagnosis close to neuropathology. In this study, we first establish the ability of two-photon microscopy (TPM) to discriminate normal brain tissue from glioblastomas and brain metastasis using the endogenous fluorescence response of fresh human brain sample. Two-photon fluorescence images were compared to gold standard neuropathology. "Blind" diagnosis realized by a neuropathologist on a group of TPM images show a good sensitivity, 100%, and specificity, 50% to discriminate non tumoral brain tissue versus glioblastoma or brain metastasis. Quantitative analysis on spectral and fluorescence lifetime measurements resulted in building a scoring system to discriminate brain tissue samples.

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