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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801357

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Palliative care not only focuses on physical ailments associated with the disease, but also considers the psychological, social and spiritual needs of the patients. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of physical activity on palliative care patients, with special regard to the subjective assessment of severity of total pain and quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 92 palliative care patients either in a hospice or at home. The tool used to assess the patients was an original questionnaire focusing on the area of their independence and motor abilities. The study attempted to understand whether an appropriate physical activity and the instruction of palliative care patients and their families in the field of independence would improve the quality of life and reduce the intensity of total pain in the patients. RESULTS: All of the patients were at an advanced stage of cancer. The survey at time "0", conducted before the start of the instructions for patients and their relatives, showed that a majority of patients (47, 51.09%) often experienced limitations during the performance of daily activities. In the fourth visit, conducted one week after the fourth educational session, there was a significant increase in patients who did not experience any limitations in performing their daily activities or experienced them just sometimes. CONCLUSIONS: The ultimate effect of the proposed educational program on physical activity was an increase in the quality of life, a reduction in pain and a mood improvement. These results would need confirmation with more extensive studies.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804565

RESUMO

Thoracic outlet syndrome comprises a group of disorders that result in compression of the brachial plexus and subclavian vessels exiting the thoracic outlet. Symptoms include pain, paresthesia, pallor, and weakness depending upon the compromised structures. While consensus in diagnostic criteria has not yet been established, a thorough patient history, physical exam, and appropriate imaging studies are helpful in diagnosis. General first-line therapy for thoracic outlet syndrome is a conservative treatment, and may include physical therapy, lifestyle modifications, NSAIDs, and injection therapy of botulinum toxin A or steroids. Patients who have failed conservative therapy are considered for surgical decompression. This article aims to review the epidemiology, etiology, relevant anatomy, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and management of thoracic outlet syndrome.

4.
Pain Ther ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730338

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A previous Delphi survey from the Rational Use of Analgesics (RUA) project involving Italian palliative care specialists revealed some discrepancies between current guidelines and clinical practice with a lack of consensus on items regarding the use of strong opioids in treating cancer pain. Those results represented the basis for a new Delphi study addressing a better approach to pain treatment in patients with cancer. METHODS: The study consisted of a two-round multidisciplinary Delphi study. Specialists rated their agreement with a set of 17 statements using a 5-point Likert scale (0 = totally disagree and 4 = totally agree). Consensus on a statement was achieved if the median consensus score (MCS) (expressed as value at which at least 50% of participants agreed) was at least 4 and the interquartile range (IQR) was 3-4. RESULTS: This survey included input from 186 palliative care specialists representing all Italian territory. Consensus was reached on seven statements. More than 70% of participants agreed with the use of low dose of strong opioids in moderate pain treatment and valued transdermal route as an effective option when the oral route is not available. There was strong consensus on the importance of knowing opioid pharmacokinetics for therapy personalization and on identifying immediate-release opioids as key for tailoring therapy to patients' needs. Limited agreement was reached on items regarding breakthrough pain and the management of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. CONCLUSION: These findings may assist clinicians in applying clinical evidence to routine care settings and call for a reappraisal of current pain treatment recommendations with the final aim of optimizing the clinical use of strong opioids in patients with cancer.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689517

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Opioid analgesia for acute painful conditions has come under increasing scrutiny with the public health crisis of opioid overdose, leading clinicians to seek nonopioid alternatives, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acetaminophen (paracetamol). AREAS COVERED: This perspective evaluates recent clinical trials of nonopioids, opioids, and combination therapy for use in acute pain. Acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often provide adequate analgesia, although these agents are not without risks. Combination therapy using a small amount of opioid together with a nonopioid pain reliever has been shown effective and reduces opioid consumption. EXPERT OPINION: The short-term use of opioids under close clinical supervision, such as in-hospital use of opioid analgesics for postoperative pain, may be appropriate, but even here, combination therapy or nonopioid therapy may be preferred. The use of opioids even for acute pain of short duration has been questioned. The ideal analgesic has yet to be developed, but effective pain control pharmacological regimens for acute pain are available.

6.
Pain Ther ; 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713307

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low back pain (LBP) is a common reason for adults to seek medical care and is associated with important functional limitation and patient burden. Yet, heterogeneity in the causes and presentation of LBP and a lack of standardization in its management impede effective prevention and treatment. METHODS: We conducted a modified Delphi study to generate consensus statements for the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of LBP. A panel of five experts proposed 19 statements that were subsequently evaluated by physicians who treat LBP in their everyday clinical practice. Physicians were asked to validate statements in the form of a web survey assessing level of agreement on a five-point Likert-like scale. RESULTS: Consensus (≥ 70% agreement) was obtained for all 19 statements. Strength of agreement and physician comments highlighted the importance of pain management, but also strategies to ameliorate functional limitation and prevent future LBP episodes. Respondents favored multidisciplinary approaches and multimodal management for LBP, although there was some ambiguity as to how multidisciplinary strategies could be feasibly incorporated into daily practice. Finally, the results indicated some conflict regarding the use of imaging for the diagnosis of LBP and how to classify LBP for targeted treatment. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide a summary of favored clinical practice for the management of chronic LBP. While the consensus statements were generally agreeable to survey respondents, some areas of ambiguity, including how to increase the feasibility of multidisciplinary strategies, when and how to use diagnostic imaging in LBP, and LBP classification, necessitate clarification in future studies and guidelines.

7.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(2): 11, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547511

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This is a comprehensive review of the literature regarding post-surgical cutaneous nerve entrapment, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation. It focuses mainly on nerve entrapment leading to chronic pain and the available therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Cutaneous nerve entrapment is not an uncommon result (up to 30% of patients) of surgery and could lead to significant, difficult to treat chronic pain. Untreated, entrapment can lead to neuropathy and damage to enervated structures and musculature, and significant morbidity and financial loss. Nerve entrapment is defined as pressure neuropathy from chronic compression. It causes changes to all layers of the nerve tissue. It is most significantly associated with hernia repair and other procedures employing a Pfannenstiel incision. The initial insult is usually incising of the nerve, followed by formation of a neuroma, incorporation of the nerve during closing, or constriction from adhesions. The three most commonly involved nerves are the iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, and genitofemoral nerves. Cutaneous abdominal nerve entrapment could occur during thoracoabdominal surgery. The presentation of nerve entrapment usually involved post-surgical pain in the territory innervated by the trapped nerve, possibly with radiation that tracks the nerve course. Once a suspected neuropathy is identified, it can be diagnosed with relief in pain after a nerve block has been instilled. Treatment is usually started with pharmaceutical solutions, topical first and oral if those fail. Most patients require escalation to a second line of treatment and see good result with injection therapy. Those that require further escalation can choose between ablation and surgical therapies. Post-surgical nerve entrapment is not uncommon and causes serious morbidity and financial loss. It is underdiagnosed and thus undertreated. Preventing nerve entrapment is the best treatment; when it does occur, options include topical and oral analgesics, nerve blocks, ablation therapy, and repeat surgery.

8.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 27(4): 403-412, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621439

RESUMO

Retinal disorders are leading causes of blindness and are due to an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant scavenger (in favor of pro-oxidant species) or a disruption of redox signaling and control. Indeed, it is well known that oxidative stress is one of the leading causes of retinal degenerative diseases. Different approaches using nutraceuticals resulted in protective effects in these disorders. This review will discuss the impact of oxidative stress in retinal neurodegenerative diseases and the potential strategies for avoiding or counteracting oxidative damage in retinal tissues, with a specific focus on taurine. Increasing data indicate that taurine may be effective in slowing down the progression of degenerative retinal diseases, thus suggesting that taurine can be a promising candidate for the prevention or as adjuvant treatment of these diseases. The mechanism by which taurine supplementation acts is mainly related to the reduction of oxidative stress. In particular, it has been demonstrated to improve retinal reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities. Antiapoptotic effects are also involved; however, the protective mechanisms exerted by taurine against retinal damage remain to be further investigated.

9.
Pain Ther ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33575951

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recently the DAVID study demonstrated the better analgesic efficacy of tramadol hydrochloride/dexketoprofen 75/25 mg (TRAM/DKP) over tramadol hydrochloride/paracetamol 75/650 mg (TRAM/paracetamol) in a model of moderate to severe acute pain following surgical removal of an impacted third molar. The aim of this subpopulation analysis was to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between baseline pain intensity (PI) level and the effectiveness in pain control of the TRAM/DKP combination in comparison with the TRAM/paracetamol combination. This will further improve and facilitate the accurate design of future acute pain studies for the use of the TRAM/DKP combination. METHODS: Patients experiencing at least moderate pain, defined as a PI score ≥ 4 in an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) were stratified according to NRS-PI at baseline (NRS ≥ 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8) or aggregated in two groups: (i) moderate pain, NRS-PI ≥ 4 to ≤ 6; (ii) severe pain, NRS-PI > 6. Analgesic efficacy was assessed at pre-specified time points by using pain relief (PAR) on a 5-point verbal rating scale (VRS) and PI on an 11-point NRS. The primary endpoint was total PAR over 6 h post-dose (TOTPAR6); secondary endpoints included, among others, the time course of mean PAR and PI scores over 8 h, TOTPAR over 2, 4, and 8 h post-dose, and the sum of PI difference (SPID) over 2, 4, 6, and 8 h. Safety evaluation was based on the incidence, seriousness, intensity, and causal relationship of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). RESULTS: The analgesic efficacy evaluated by TOTPAR6 (primary endpoint) remained steady across increasing baseline PI-NRS cutoff groups with TRAM/DKP, but not with TRAM/paracetamol. The study also demonstrated the superiority of TRAM/DKP combination over TRAM/paracetamol in terms of TOTPAR over 2, 4, and 8 h post-dose and SPID at 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post-dose in both baseline PI groups (moderate or severe); similarly, the time course of PAR and PI indicated better efficacy with TRAM/DKP as soon as 30 min and up to 4-6 h. The incidence of adverse drug reactions was not increased in the severe baseline PI group. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results of this subgroup analysis of the DAVID study confirmed the superiority of the analgesic efficacy of TRAM/DKP vs TRAM/paracetamol, irrespective of the baseline PI.

10.
Curr Oncol ; 28(1): 640-660, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494319

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by excessive clonal proliferation of plasma cells. The treatment of multiple myeloma presents a variety of unique challenges due to the complex molecular pathophysiology and incurable status of the disease at this time. Given that MM is the second most common blood cancer with a characteristic and unavoidable relapse/refractory state during the course of the disease, the development of new therapeutic modalities is crucial. Belantamab mafodotin (belamaf, GSK2857916) is a first-in-class therapeutic, indicated for patients who have previously attempted four other treatments, including an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody, a proteosome inhibitor, and an immunomodulatory agent. In November 2017, the FDA designated belamaf as a breakthrough therapy for heavily pretreated patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. In August 2020, the FDA granted accelerated approval as a monotherapy for relapsed or treatment-refractory multiple myeloma. The drug was also approved in the EU for this indication in late August 2020. Of note, belamaf is associated with the following adverse events: decreased platelets, corneal disease, decreased or blurred vision, anemia, infusion-related reactions, pyrexia, and fetal risk, among others. Further studies are necessary to evaluate efficacy in comparison to other standard treatment modalities and as future drugs in this class are developed.

11.
Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis ; 12: 1759720X20958979, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294037

RESUMO

Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic rhizotomy (ER) for denervation of lumbar facet joints in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) due to facet joint syndrome (FJS). Methods: A total of 50 consecutive patients suffering from chronic LBP due to facet joints were screened to be treated with ER. The patients participating in the study had a 2-year follow up. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were assessed in the preoperative and postoperative period. To evaluate secondary endpoints, patients were divided into groups. One group included the patients previously treated with percutaneous radiofrequency (RF). The other group comprised patients at their first interventional treatment. We also compared patients dividing them by age and by number of joints treated, trying to elucidate if these parameters could be predictive of effectiveness of the procedure. Results: All patients had a reduction in NRS and an improvement in ODI. NRS was reduced significantly after 1 month and remained the same until the end of the study. ODI was significantly improved from T1 (1 month after surgery) up to T7 (end of the study). The improvements did not differ whether already treated with percutaneous rhizotomy or not. Patients less than 60 years or with 1-2 joints treated had better improvement compared with the others. Conclusion: The results obtained demonstrate that ER for denervation of the facet joint is an effective treatment in patients with chronic LBP, with consistent and stable results at 2-year follow up. The technique has a rapid learning curve and no major complications occurred. Moreover, the previous percutaneous RF treatment had no influence on the results obtained with endoscopic technique. There is evidence that best results are obtained in younger patients and/or in patients with 1-2 joints treated. Lay summary: Low-back pain has facet joints inflammation or degeneration as pain generator in 20-40% of cases. Nervous lesion of the dorsal ramus innervating the facet joints has been shown as an efficacious treatment to obtain good analgesia. Percutaneous techniques have provided short term results for several reasons. This research aimed to see whether endoscopic denervation, which guarantees a more precise approach to anatomical structure, would result in more durable results. The study conducted on 40 patients has made it clear that this approach gives significant analgesia for at least 2 years, which was the time of patient follow up.

12.
Pain Ther ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145709

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) arises either acutely or in the chronic phase of a lesion or disease of the peripheral nervous system and is associated with a notable disease burden. The management of PNP is often challenging. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current evidence, derived from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have assessed pharmacological interventions for the treatment of PNP due to polyneuropathy (PN). METHODS: A systematic search of the PubMed database led to the identification of 538 papers, of which 457 were excluded due to not meeting the eligibility criteria, and two articles were identified through screening of the reference lists of the 81 eligible studies. Ultimately, 83 papers were included in this systematic review. RESULTS: The best available evidence for the management of painful diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is for amitriptyline, duloxetine, gabapentin, pregabalin and venlafaxine as monotherapies and oxycodone as add-on therapy (level II of evidence). Tramadol appears to be effective when used as a monotherapy and add-on therapy in patients with PN of various etiologies (level II of evidence). Weaker evidence (level III) is available on the effectiveness of several other agents discussed in this review for the management of PNP due to PN. DISCUSSION: Response to treatment may be affected by the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that are involved in the pathogenesis of the PN and, therefore, it is very important to thoroughly investigate patients presenting with PNP to determine the causes of this neuropathy. Future RCTs should be conducted to shed more light on the use of pharmacological approaches in patients with other forms of PNP and to design specific treatment algorithms.

13.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 355-368, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004153

RESUMO

Reclassification of chronic pain as a disease may be helpful because patients with chronic pain require significant treatment and rehabilitation with a clear diagnosis. This can help address critical factors including suffering, quality of life, participation, and with family and social life, which continue to become more important in evaluating the quality of the health care we give our patients today. During the past decade of the opioid epidemic, methadone was the primary treatment for opioid addiction until buprenorphine was approved. Buprenorphine's high-affinity partial agonist properties make it a good alternative to methadone due to lower abuse potential and safer adverse effect profile while maintaining significant efficacy. Expanded out-patient prescribing options have allowed physician and physician extenders such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners to treat these patients that otherwise would have been required to utilize methadone. With unique pharmacological properties, buprenorphine is a safe and effective analgesic for chronic pain. The literature for buprenorphine shows great potential for its utilization in the treatment of chronic pain.

14.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 369-382, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004154

RESUMO

Primary osteoarthritis (OA) hinders an aging global population as one of the leading causes of years-lost-to-disability (YLD). OA in most patients is considered to be an overuse injury that results in degenerative inflammation of the joints with the associated formation of bony outgrowths. Due to the escalating nature of this chronic pain disease, treatment management for OA can initially begin with a more conservative approach. It can eventually lead to more invasive surgical procedures. At present, the standard of care remains initial conservative management with lifestyle changes, including weight loss with concurrent anti-inflammatory regimens. Injections are frequently used for the escalation of care, but a significant number of patients ultimately resort to total knee arthroplasty. This review will focus specifically on knee OA, providing a brief overview of risk factors and early management and in-depth exploration of the invasive interventions that can offer symptomatic relief and return of function.

15.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 449-461, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004158

RESUMO

Chronic pain is a common condition that is being increasingly recognized, diagnosed, and treated in a variety of settings. Opioids can be used to treat chronic pain but at the cost of adverse effects and risk of dependence. Recently, there has been a movement to improve analgesic care in the setting of the opioid epidemic and the overprescribing of opioids, causing over-accessibility, dependence, and large numbers of overdose deaths. Opioid-specific receptors, including the µ, δ, κ, and opioid receptor like-1 (ORL-1) receptors, are each 7-transmembrane spanning proteins, which affect the G-protein and ß-arrestin cascades. Each opioid class can act differently on the receptors, resulting in full, partial, or antagonizing effects. This comprehensive review looks at different agents in major classes, nonselective and mixed/partial agonists/antagonists, including the nonselective partial agonists, levorphanol and tramadol. Mixed partial agonists/antagonists include buprenorphine, pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol. Oliceridine is the only current selective partial agonist that agonizes specific pathways to promote analgesic effects and discourage adverse effects.

16.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 463-477, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004159

RESUMO

Chronic pain can be recurrent or constant pain that lasts for longer than 3 months and can result in disability, suffering, and a physical disturbance. Related to the complex nature of chronic pain, treatments have a pharmacological and non-pharmacological approach. Due to the opioid epidemic, alternative therapies have been introduced, and components of the plant Cannabis Sativa, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) have gained recent interest as a choice of treatment. The exact mechanism for CBD is currently unknown, but unlike the CBD's psychoactive counterpart, THC, the side effects of CBD itself have been shown to be overall much more benign. The current pharmaceutical products for the treatment of chronic pain are known as nabiximols, and they contain a ratio of THC combined with CBD, which has been promising. This review focuses on the treatment efficacy of CBD, THC: CBD-based treatments for chronic pain and adverse events with each.

17.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 507-516, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004162

RESUMO

Chronic pain is typically defined as pain that persists after acute tissue damage and inflammation or as pain that follows a chronic disease process and lasts more than three months. Because of its debilitating impact on the quality of life of patients, recent research aims to investigate the mechanisms behind nociception to discover novel therapeutic agents to alleviate pain. One such target is the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which has shown to play an integral role in migraine pathophysiology. Effective treatments of migraines with CGRP antagonists have stimulated our efforts toward checking a possible involvement of CGRP in nonheadache pain conditions such as hypertension, congestive heart failure, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular ischemia. Here, we provide a brief overview of chronic pain, with a particular emphasis on the role of CGRP as a fundamental mediator of nociceptive pain as well as a target for novel therapeutic agents.

18.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 529-537, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004164

RESUMO

Although pain treatment has been described as a fundamental human right, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forced healthcare systems worldwide to redistribute healthcare resources toward intensive care units and other COVID-19 dedicated sites. As most chronic pain services were subsequently deemed non-urgent, all outpatient and elective interventional procedures have been reduced or interrupted during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to reduce the risk of viral spread. The shutdown of pain services jointly to the home lockdown imposed by governments has affected chronic pain management worldwide with additional impact on patients' psychological health. Therefore, the aim of this review is to analyze the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on chronic pain treatment and to address what types of strategies can be implemented or supported in order to overcome imposed limitations in delivery of chronic pain patient care.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Dor Crônica/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Humanos
19.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 539-551, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004165

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly around the world with devastating consequences on patients, healthcare workers, health systems, as well as economies. While, healthcare systems are globally operating at maximum capacity, healthcare workers and especially anesthesia providers are facing extreme pressures, something that is also leading to declining availability and increasing stress. In this regard, it is extremely concerning the fact that some regions worldwide have reported up to 20% of their cases to be healthcare workers. When considering that the global case fatality rate may be as much as 5.4%, these numbers are concerning and unacceptable. As this pandemic accelerates, access to personal protective equipment for health workers is a key concern since at present, healthcare workers are every country's most valuable resource in the fight against COVID-19. Governments and heath organizations should take care of their staff and support them in any way possible. This review aims to describe the current situation anesthesia providers are facing in the setting of COVID-19 and provide solutions and evidence on important concerns, including which guidance to follow, the level of equipment that is adequate, and the level of protection they need for every patient being administered an anesthetic.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual
20.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(3): 553-560, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004166

RESUMO

This comprehensive review aims to explain the potential impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on mental wellbeing of healthcare professionals (HCPs). Based on up-to-date research and psychological diagnostic manuals of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and International Classification of Diseases, 11th revision, we describe associated psychological disorders and experiences that may arise related to COVID-19. Appropriate psychological measures are introduced, along with potential methodological limitations. Lastly, resilience building and preventative measures with interventions that may mitigate the impact on mental health of HCPs are described.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias
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