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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 305-313, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), the second leading cause of death in patients with cancer can be treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) according to guidelines. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multicenter prospective observational study was carried out to record anti-thrombotic treatment practice, assess thrombosis recurrence and bleeding, and identify potential risk factors. Adult patients from 18 Oncology Departments throughout Greece were followed-up for 12 months. RESULTS: A total of 120 patients with CAT receiving anticoagulant treatment were enrolled (35% incidental); 85% were treated for more than 6 months, 95.8% were treated with tinzaparin and smaller percentages with other agents. Thrombosis recurred in three patients and there was minor bleeding in four patients. Bleeding was associated with high body mass index (>35 kg/m2), trauma history, renal insufficiency and bevacizumab use. CONCLUSION: Incidental thrombosis contributes significantly to CAT burden. Long-term use of LMWH seems to be effective and safe. Several risk factors associated with bleeding should be considered during anti-coagulation therapy planning.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/complicações , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/terapia , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Fatores de Risco
2.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226853, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Analysis of circulating tumor nucleic acids in plasma of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients is the most widespread and documented form of "liquid biopsy" and provides real-time information on the molecular profile of the tumor without an invasive tissue biopsy. METHODS: Liquid biopsy analysis was requested by the referral physician in 121 NSCLC patients at diagnosis and was performed using a sensitive Next Generation Sequencing assay. Additionally, a comparative analysis of NSCLC patients at relapse following EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKIs) treatment was performed in 50 patients by both the cobas and NGS platforms. RESULTS: At least one mutation was identified in almost 49% of the cases by the NGS approach in NSCLC patients analyzed at diagnosis. In 36 cases with paired tissue available a high concordance of 86.11% was observed for clinically relevant mutations, with a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 88.89%. Furthermore, a concordance rate of 82% between cobas and the NGS approach for the EGFR sensitizing mutations (in exons 18, 19, 21) was observed in patients with acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs, while this concordance was 94% for the p.T790M mutation, with NGS being able to detect this mutation in three 3 additional patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates the feasibility of circulating tumor nucleic acids (ctNA) analysis as a tumor biopsy surrogate in clinical practice for NSCLC personalized treatment decision making. The use of new sensitive NGS techniques can reliably detect tumor-derived mutations in liquid biopsy and provide clinically relevant information both before and after targeted treatment in patients with NSCLC. Thus, it could aid physicians in treatment decision making in clinical practice.

3.
ESMO Open ; 4(2): e000474, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231557

RESUMO

Background: The clinical relevance of mismatch repair (MMR) status in patients with nonmetastatic cancer across tumour types remains unclear. Our goal was to investigate the prognostic role of MMR deficiency in patients with stage I-III colorectal and endometrial cancer. Methods: Patients with nonmetastatic colorectal and endometrial cancer with tumour tissue available for analysis were identified through the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG)'s tumour repository. Patients had been referred to Departments of Medical Oncology affiliated with HeCOG. MMR protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The primary outcome measure was overall survival (OS). Results: From May 1990 to September 2012, 1158 patients with nonmetastatic colorectal (N = 991) and endometrial cancer (N = 167) were identified (median age: 64 years, men: 544). All patients with colorectal and 109 (65%) with endometrial cancer had received adjuvant treatment. MMR deficiency was observed in 114 (11.5%) of colorectal and 80 (47.9%) of endometrial tumours. More commonly deficient proteins were PMS2 (69 patients, 7%) and MLH1 (63 patients, 6.5%) in colorectal cancer and MSH2 (58 patients, 34.7%) in endometrial cancer. Colorectal MMR-deficient (dMMR) tumours were more likely to be right sided (65 % dMMR vs 27 % proficient MMR, pMMR; p < 0.001), high grade (31% vs 15%, χ2, p < 0.001) and with a mucinous component (64% vs 42%, p < 0.001). Endometrial dMMR tumours were more often of endometrioid histology (51.4 % endometrioid vs 20 % serous/clear cell, p = 0.020). Compared with MMR proficiency, MMR deficiency was associated with improved OS in patients with endometrial cancer (HR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.76, p = 0.006), but not in patients with colorectal cancer (HR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.09, p = 0.130). After adjusting for age, stage and grade, MMR deficiency maintained its favourable prognostic significance in patients with endometrial cancer (HR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.88, p = 0.021). Conclusions: DMMR was associated with improved outcomes in patients with nonmetastatic endometrial cancer, but not in patients with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer who received adjuvant chemotherapy.

4.
Oncotarget ; 9(86): 35623-35638, 2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479693

RESUMO

Background: We explored the clinical significance of tumor genotypes and immunophenotypes in non-metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: In primary tumors (paraffin blocks) from 412 CRC patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, we examined pathogenic mutations (panel NGS; 347 informative); mismatch repair (MMR) immunophenotype (360 informative); and CD8+ lymphocyte density (high - low; 412 informative). The primary outcome measure was disease-free survival (DFS). Results: We evaluated 1713 pathogenic mutations (median: 3 per tumor; range 0-49); 118/412 (28.6%) tumors exhibited high CD8+ density; and, 40/360 (11.1%) were MMR-deficient. Compared to MMR-proficient, MMR-deficient tumors exhibited higher CD8+ density (chi-square, p<0.001) and higher pathogenic mutation numbers (p=0.003). High CD8+ density was an independent favorable prognosticator (HR=0.49, 95%CI 0.29-0.84, Wald's p=0.010). Pathogenic BRCA1 and ARID1A mutations were inversely associated with each other (p<0.001), were not associated with MMR-deficiency or CD8+ density, but both independently predicted for unfavorable DFS (HR=1.98, 95%CI 1.12-3.48, p=0.018 and HR=1.99, 95%CI 1.11-3.54, p=0.020, respectively). Conclusion: In non-metastatic CRC, high CD8+ lymphocyte density confers a favorable prognosis and may be developed as a single marker in routine diagnostics. The unfavorable prognostic effect of pathogenic BRCA1 and ARID1A mutations is a novel observation that, if further validated, may improve treatment selection.

5.
Target Oncol ; 13(6): 715-724, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer is dismal, and there is a need for novel and effective treatments. OBJECTIVES: Tο determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of a novel gemcitabine (G) and temsirolimus (T) combination (phase I) and estimate the 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) in patients treated with the T + G combination (phase II). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients with histologically confirmed inoperable or metastatic pancreatic carcinoma (MPC) were entered into the trial. G was given bi-weekly and T weekly in a 4-week cycle. The first dose level was set at G 800 mg/m2 and T 10 mg. G was escalated in increments of 200 mg/m2 and T in increments of 5 mg until DLT was reached, and the recommended dose was used for the phase II part. RESULTS: Thirty patients were enrolled in the phase I component at the pre-planned six dose levels; one bilirubin DLT of grade III occurred at the first dose level. The MTD was established as the approved doses of both drugs. Fifty-five patients were entered into the phase II component. Median relative dose intensities administered in the first cycle were 0.75 for T and 0.99 for G. Grade 3-4 hematological toxicities were recorded in 87.3% of patients. The most common non-hematological adverse events were metabolic disorders (81.8%) followed by gastrointestinal disorders (63.6%). Median PFS was 2.69 months (95% CI 1.74-4.95) and median OS was 4.95 months (95% CI 3.54-6.85), while the 6-month PFS rate was 30.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Combination of G and T is feasible in patients with locally advanced or MPC with manageable side effects, but lacks clinical efficacy. The study was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12611000643976).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico
6.
Med Oncol ; 35(7): 101, 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855806

RESUMO

This clinical trial assessed the efficacy and toxicity of panitumumab combined with oxaliplatin and capecitabine as first-line treatment in KRAS exon 2 wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Patients with exon 2 KRAS wild-type mCRC received panitumumab 9 mg/Kg, oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2, and capecitabine 2000 mg/m2 repeated every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR, minimum 42 responses). We retrospectively assessed mutations in genes implicated in CRC with massively parallel sequencing; ERBB2 and EGFR amplification with fluorescence in situ hybridization, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte density. Among 78 patients enrolled, 45 (57.7%) completed 6 cycles. Most common grade 3-4 toxicities were skin rash (19.2%), diarrhea (18%), and neuropathy (6.4%). Among 5 (6.4%) potentially treatment-related deaths, 2 (2.6%) were characterized toxic. Objective response occurred in 43 (55.1%) of the patients (complete 6.4% and partial response 48.7%; stable 17.9% and progressive disease 7.7%), while 3.8% were non-evaluable and 15% discontinued their treatment early. Additional mutations in KRAS/NRAS/BRAF were found in 11/62 assessable (18%) tumors. After 51 months median follow-up, median progression-free (PFS) was 8.1 and overall survival 20.2 months, independently of KRAS/NRAS/BRAF or PI3K-pathway mutation status. Patients with TP53 mutations (n = 34; 55%), as well as those with left colon primary tumors (n = 66; 85%), had significantly better PFS, also confirmed in multivariate analysis. Although the clinical trial met its primary endpoint, according to the current standards, the efficacy and tolerability of the drug combination are considered insufficient. Extended genotyping yielded interesting results regarding the significance of TP53 mutations.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01215539, Registration date: Sep 29, 2010.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos Organoplatínicos/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina , Panitumumabe , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
7.
Ann Gastroenterol ; 31(1): 65-70, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29333068

RESUMO

Background: This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of nab-paclitaxel as second-line treatment in patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods: Thirty-nine pretreated patients [33 with taxane-based regimens (docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil)] and 6 with combination of fluoropyrimidines plus cisplatin with locally advanced inoperable and metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma were treated with weekly nab-paclitaxel (150 mg/m2 d1, d8, d15 in cycles of 28 days). Results: Partial response (PR) was documented in nine patients (23.1%; 95% confidence interval 10.1-37.2%), stable disease (SD) in 11 (28.2%) and disease progression in 18 (46.2%). The disease control rate (SD + PR + complete response) was 51.3%. Grade 3 and 4 neutropenia occurred in 10.2% and 5.1% of patients, respectively; grade 3 anemia in 5.1%; grade 3 neurotoxicity in 5.1%; and grade 2 pain in 5.1%. The median progression-free survival was 3.0 months (range 0.3-13.6) and the median overall survival 6.8 months (range 0.3-22). Conclusion: Nab-paclitaxel as second-line treatment in locally advanced inoperable or metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal junction carcinoma is an active chemotherapy regimen with a manageable toxicity profile and merits further evaluation.

8.
Br J Cancer ; 117(2): 164-170, 2017 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28641315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sequential anthracyclines and taxanes are standard adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with high-risk axillary node-positive breast cancer. We compared a sequential to a concurrent regimen in high-risk node-negative early breast cancer. METHODS: Patients were eligible if they had tumours >2 cm or T1c with two of the following characteristics: no oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression, histological grade III, Ki67 >40% and vascular, lymphovascular or perineural invasion. They were randomised to receive four cycles of epirubicin 90 mg m-2 followed by four cycles of docetaxel 75 mg m-2 (sequential regimen) or six cycles of epirubicin 75 mg m-2 plus docetaxel 75 mg m-2 (concurrent regimen). All chemotherapy cycles were administered every 21 days with G-CSF prophylaxis only for the concurrent arm. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2013, 658 women received the sequential (n=329) or the concurrent (n=329) regimen. The median age was 53 years, 43.9% of the patients were premenopausal and of the tumours 44.2% were ⩽2 cm, 52.7% histological grade 3 and 35.3% hormone receptor-negative. After a median follow-up of 70.5 months, there were 29 (8.8%) vs 42 (12.8%) disease relapses (P=0.102) and 11 (3.3%) vs 19 (5.8%) deaths (P=0.135), in the sequential and concurrent arm, respectively. The 5-year DFS rates were 92.6% vs 88.2% for sequential and concurrent arm, respectively (hazard ratio (HR): 1.591; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.990-2.556; P=0.055). Toxicity included grade 2-4 neutropenia in 54% vs 41% (P=0.001), febrile neutropenia 2.7% vs 6.1% (P=0.06), nausea/vomiting 18.5% vs 12.4% (P=0.03) of patients in the sequential and concurrent arm. There were no toxic deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Sequential compared with the concurrent administration of anthracyclines and taxanes is associated with a non-significant but possibly clinically meaningful improvement in DFS. In the era of molecular selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy, this study offers valuable information for the optimal administration of anthracyclines and taxanes in patients with node-negative disease.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Epirubicina/administração & dosagem , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
9.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 4(2): 211-220, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26893865

RESUMO

Prophylactic erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) administration for chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA) is not supported by current guidelines. Long-term follow-up of patients WHO had been treated with ESA for CIA in the past may provide useful information. In 2002, we undertook a prospective, randomized phase III trial of prophylactic vs. hemoglobin (Hb)-based (threshold: 11 mg/dl) ESA administration in patients with solid tumors and CIA. ESA administration FOR CIA was permanently suspended in 2007 in view of published data at that time, while patient surveillance continued. Among 630 evaluable patients, 38.6% were male, 50.9% had advanced cancer at diagnosis, 40.6% had Hb levels <12 mg/dl at baseline and 47.9% received ESA prophylactically (1:1 randomization). The major tumor types included colorectal (36.0%), breast (20.6%), non-prostate genitourinary (11.0%) and lung CANCER (8.4%). After a median follow-up of 85.4 months, 358 patients had relapsed and 380 had succumbed to the disease. Patients in the prophylactic ESA group (GROUP A; experimental arm), as compared with those in the Hb-based group (GROUP B; iron supplementation alone), exhibited A significantly more prominent increase in median Hb levels, particularly in the subset of patients with non-metastatic disease (two-sided P<0.01) among patients receiving chemotherapy for advanced cancer, those who received ESAs prophylactically exhibited a lower incidence of CIA (all grades: P=0.014, grades 3-4: P=0.034) and fatigue (all grades: P<0.001, grades 3-4: P=0.055), but a higher rate of a composite outcome encompassing all thrombosis-related events (all grades: P=0.043, grades 3-4: P=0.099). These differences were less prominent in the group of patients who received adjuvant treatment. There were no significant differences in overall mortality and relapse/progression rates between the two groups. therefore, prophylactic, compared with Hb-based, administration of ESAs for CIA in patients with solid tumors, was found to be associated with a significantly lower incidence of anemia and fatigue, but with a marginally higher rate of thrombosis-related adverse events, particularly in patients receiving first-line chemotherapy for advanced cancer.

10.
Breast ; 25: 27-33, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26801413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use and impact of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) on chemotherapy delivery and neutropenia management in breast cancer in a clinical practice setting. METHODS: IMPACT Solid was an international, prospective observational study in patients with a physician-assessed febrile neutropenia (FN) risk of ≥20%. This analysis focused on stages I-III breast cancer patients who received a standard chemotherapy regimen for which the FN risk was published. Chemotherapy delivery and neutropenia-related outcomes were reported according to the FN risk of the regimen and intent of G-CSF use. RESULTS: 690 patients received a standard chemotherapy regimen; 483 received the textbook dose/schedule with a majority of these regimens (84%) having a FN risk ≥10%. Patients receiving a regimen with a FN risk ≥10% were younger with better performance status than those receiving a regimen with a FN risk <10%. Patients who received higher-risk regimens were more likely to receive G-CSF primary prophylaxis (48% vs 22%), complete their planned chemotherapy (97% vs 88%) and achieve relative dose intensity ≥85% (93% vs 86%) than those receiving lower-risk regimens. Most first FN events (56%) occurred in cycles not supported with G-CSF primary prophylaxis. CONCLUSION: Physicians generally recommend standard adjuvant chemotherapy regimens and were more likely to follow G-CSF guidelines for younger, good performance status patients in the curative setting, and often modify standard regimens in more compromised patients. However, G-CSF support is not optimal, indicated by G-CSF primary prophylaxis use in <50% of high-risk patients and observation of FN without G-CSF support.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Neutropenia Febril/prevenção & controle , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Neutropenia Febril/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 14(2): e153-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26437909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced urothelial cancer (AUCa) is associated with poor long-term survival. Two major concerns are related to nonexposure to cisplatin-based chemotherapy and poor outcome after relapse. Our purpose was to record patterns of practice in AUCa in Greece, focusing on first-line treatment and management of relapsed disease. METHODS: Patients with AUCa treated from 2011 to 2013 were included in the analysis. Fitness for cisplatin was assessed by recently established criteria. RESULTS: Of 327 patients treated with first-line chemotherapy, 179 (55%) did not receive cisplatin. Criteria for unfitness for cisplatin were: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) ≥ 2, 21%; creatinine clearance ≤ 60 mL/min, 55%; hearing impairment, 8%; neuropathy, 1%; and cardiac failure, 5%. Forty-six patients (27%) did not fulfill any criterion for unfitness for cisplatin. The main reasons for these deviations were comorbidities (28%) and advanced age (32%). Seventy-four (68%) of 109 patients who experienced a relapse received second-line chemotherapy. The most frequent reason for not offering second-line chemotherapy was poor PS or limited life expectancy (66%). CONCLUSION: In line with international data, approximately 50% of Greek patients with AUCa do not receive cisplatin-based chemotherapy, although 27% of them were suitable for such treatment. In addition, about one third of patients with relapse did not receive second-line chemotherapy because of poor PS or short life expectancy. Enforcing criteria for fitness for cisplatin and earlier diagnosis of relapse represent 2 targets for improvement in current treatment practice for AUCa.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Urológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Urotélio/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Urológicas/patologia
12.
PLoS One ; 10(10): e0140293, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26452060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in breast cancer. PIK3CA mutations are most frequently found in the helical (exon 9) and kinase (exon 20) domains of this protein. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of different types of PIK3CA mutations in combination with molecular biomarkers related to PI3K-AKT signaling in patients with early breast cancer. METHODS: Tumor tissue samples from 1008 early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in two similar randomized trials of HeCOG were examined. Tumors were subtyped with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and FISH for ER, PgR, Ki67, HER2 and androgen receptor (AR). PIK3CA mutations were analyzed by Sanger sequencing (exon 20) and qPCR (exon 9) (Sanger/qPCR mutations). In 610 cases, next generation sequencing (NGS) PIK3CA mutation data were also available. PIK3CA mutations and PTEN protein expression (IHC) were analyzed in luminal tumors (ER and/or PgR positive), molecular apocrine carcinomas (MAC; ER/PgR negative / AR positive) and hormone receptor (ER/PgR/AR) negative tumors. RESULTS: PIK3CA mutations were detected in 235/1008 tumors (23%) with Sanger/qPCR and in 149/610 tumors (24%) with NGS. Concordance between the two methods was good with a Kappa coefficient of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.82). Lobular histology, low tumor grade and luminal A tumors were associated with helical domain mutations (PIK3CAhel), while luminal B with kinase domain mutations (PIK3CAkin). The overall incidence of PIK3CA mutations was higher in luminal as compared to MAC and hormone receptor negative tumors (p = 0.004). Disease-free and overall survival did not significantly differ with respect to PIK3CA mutation presence and type. However, a statistically significant interaction between PIK3CA mutation status and PTEN low protein expression with regard to prognosis was identified. CONCLUSIONS: The present study did not show any prognostic significance of specific PIK3CA mutations in a large group of predominantly lymph-node positive breast cancer women treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Further analyses in larger cohorts are warranted to investigate possible differential effect of distinct PIK3CA mutations in small subgroups of patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 10(5): e0124612, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25970543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although host immune response is an emerging prognostic factor for colorectal cancer, there is no consensus on the optimal methodology, surrogate markers or tissue for study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumour blocks were prospectively collected from 344 patients with stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Whole section lymphocytic infiltration was studied along with mRNA expression of CD3Z, CD8, CD4, CXCL9, CXCL13, IGHM, FOXP3, SNAI2 and ESR1 by qRT-qPCR in tissue microarray (TMA) cores from the centre of tumour, invasive margin and adjacent normal mucosa. RESULTS: Lymphocytic infiltration, deficient MMR (10.9%), KRAS (40.7%) and BRAF (4.9%) mutations or single mRNA gene expression were not prognostic. Tumour ESR1 gene expression (Hazard Ratio [HR] for relapse 2.33, 95% CI 1.35-4.02; HR for death 1.74, 95% CI 1.02-2.97) and absence of necrosis (HR for relapse 1.71, 95% CI 1.05-2.71; HR for death 1.98, 95% CI 1.14-3.43) were adverse prognostic features. We used CD3Z and CD8 expression in order to devise the mRNA-based Immune Score (mIS) and proceeded to partitioning analysis in 267 patients, with age, stage, tumour site (Right vs Left CRC), KRAS mutation and tumour mIS as input factors. Only in patients with stage III right-sided colon cancer, a low immune response was associated with inferior disease-free survival (mIS-low, HR for relapse 2.28, 95% CI 1.05-8.02). No prognostic significance was seen for tumour mIS in any other stage or site of CRC, or for a similar mIS score derived from adjacent normal mucosa. Independent adverse prognostic significance was retained in multivariable analysis for absence of necrosis, tumour ESR1 expression in all patients and low tumour mIS in stage III right-sided CRC. CONCLUSIONS: In localised CRC, mRNA-based CD3Z/CD8 profiling of tumour immune response may have stage, site and tissue-specific prognostic significance, along with ESR1 expression. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ANZCTR.org.au ACTRN12610000509066.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Antígenos CD/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Heterozigoto , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Quimiocinas CXC/genética , Quimiocinas CXC/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/imunologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia
14.
Histol Histopathol ; 30(9): 1129-41, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25807307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metronomic taxane administration has putative antiangiogenic properties. Herein, we examined the baseline tumor angiogenic profile of patients with metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) in a prospective-retrospective translational research study. The interplay between the angiogenic factors expressed in the tumors and their prognostic value in MBC were investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor tissues from patients with MBC treated with weekly docetaxel (n=159) were examined by immunohistochemistry for VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3 and osteopontin (OPN) and by mRNA analysis for expression of VEGF-A, VEGFxxxa, VEGFxxxb, VEGF-C, thrombospondin-1 (THBS-1), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) genes. Associations between these parameters and outcome were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Statistically significant correlations were identified between almost all biomarkers examined in continuous form, particularly at the mRNA level: VEGF-A with VEGFxxxa (rho=0.70); VEGF-C with VEGFxxxa, VEGFxxxb and VHL (rho=0.51, 0.60 and 0.44 respectively); HIF-1α with VEGF-C and THBS1 (rho= 0.48 and 0.45). High VEGF-A mRNA was associated with worse survival (p=0.0279) and marginally with progression free survival (PFS). Intratumoral co-expression of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 proteins was associated with more favorable survival (p=0.0337). In multivariate analysis, only high VEGF-A mRNA levels retained their prognostic role for worse PFS and survival (PFS: HR=2.34, 95% CI=1.25-4.40, p=0.0080; survival: HR=3.15, 95% CI=1.48-6.72, p=0.0029). CONCLUSIONS: In MBC, this study confirms the adverse prognostic effect of high intratumoral VEGF-A mRNA and reveals the combined VEGFR-1/VEGFR-2 protein expression as a potentially favorable prognosticator, which merits further evaluation in larger studies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Taxoides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/mortalidade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Anticancer Res ; 35(2): 1105-13, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25667500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Recent progress with BRAF and immune checkpoint inhibitors has dramatically changed the treatment landscape of metastatic melanoma (MM). The limited duration of responses to new agents, however, justifies the, still important, role of chemotherapy in the management of MM. This study prospectively explored biomarkers to first-line temozolomide-based chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor samples from patients with advanced MM who received first-line therapy with the PVT combination (cisplatin-vinblastine-temozolomide), i.e. cisplatin (CDDP) 30 mg/m2 (days 1-3) i.v., vinblastine (CVT) 2 mg/m2 (days 1-3) i.v., temozolomide (TMZ) 150 mg/m2 (days 1-5) orally, every 21 days, were collected. Biomarkers (MGMT, ERCC1, p16), were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and BRAF mutations by PCR/sequencing. RESULTS: Out of 35 patients included in this clinical phase II study, 12 objective response rates were achieved (ORR; 34%) including 1 complete response CR; 9 disease stabilisations (SD; 26%), with overall clinical benefit rate (CR+PR+SD) 60%, median response duration 6 months (95% confidence interval (CI)=2-16), median PFS 4 months (95% CI=2-6), median OS 12 months (95% CI=6-25) and 1-year survival rate 52%. From 24 tumor samples evaluated for biomarkers, 13 (54%) were BRAF mutated and 11 (46%) wild-type (wt). Patients with BRAF-mutated tumors showed better response rates compared to BRAF wild-type (39% vs. 27%) and improved PFS/OS. Sub-analyses, according to BRAF status, did not reveal any significant correlations with excision repair cross-complementation group 1 enzyme (ERCC1), however, in patients with BRAF-mutated tumors, low O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) nuclear expression correlated with better PFS, p=0.0384. CONCLUSION: First-line PVT chemotherapy for MM is efficacious and well-tolerated. Interesting 'hypothesis-generating' results show that candidate predictive biomarkers could identify subgroups of patients, i.e. tumors with BRAF mutation and low MGMT expression, with better outcomes following TMZ-based chemotherapy, thus warranting further evaluation in larger cohorts.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Dacarbazina/administração & dosagem , Dacarbazina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Temozolomida , Vimblastina/administração & dosagem
16.
BMC Cancer ; 14: 515, 2014 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25026897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dose-dense sequential chemotherapy including anthracyclines and taxanes has been established in the adjuvant setting of high-risk operable breast cancer. However, the preferable taxane and optimal schedule of administration in a dose-dense regimen have not been defined yet. METHODS: From July 2005 to November 2008, 1001 patients (990 eligible) were randomized to receive, every 2 weeks, 3 cycles of epirubicin 110 mg/m2 followed by 3 cycles of paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 followed by 3 cycles of intensified CMF (Arm A; 333 patients), or 3 cycles of epirubicin followed by 3 cycles of CMF, as in Arm A, followed 3 weeks later by 9 weekly cycles of docetaxel 35 mg/m2 (Arm B; 331), or 9 weekly cycles of paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 (Arm C; 326). Trastuzumab was administered for one year to HER2-positive patients post-radiation. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 60.5 months, the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 86%, 90% and 88%, for Arms A, B and C, respectively, while the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96% in all arms. No differences were found in DFS or OS between the combined B and C Arms versus Arm A (DFS: HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.59-1.11, P = 0.20; OS: HR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.55-1.30, P = 0.43). Among the 255 patients who received trastuzumab, 189 patients (74%) completed 1 year of treatment uneventfully. In all arms, the most frequently reported severe adverse events were neutropenia (30% vs. 27% vs. 26%) and leucopenia (12% vs. 13% vs. 12%), while febrile neutropenia occurred in fifty-one patients (6% vs. 4% vs. 5%). Patients in Arm A experienced more often severe pain (P = 0.002), neurological complications (P = 0.004) and allergic reactions (P = 0.004), while patients in Arm B suffered more often from severe skin reactions (P = 0.020). CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences in survival between the regimens were found in the present phase III trial. Taxane scheduling influenced the type of severe toxicities. HER2-positive patients demonstrated comparable 3-year DFS and OS rates with those reported in other similar studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000151033.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trastuzumab , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Cancer ; 14: 111, 2014 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24555920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab, an antibody neutralizing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), is licensed for the management of patients with advanced colon cancer. However, tumor biomarkers identifying the molecular tumor subsets most amenable to angiogenesis modulation are lacking. METHODS: We profiled expession of 24526 genes by means of whole genome 24 K DASL (c-DNA-mediated, Annealing, Selection and Ligation) arrays, (Illumina, CA) in 16 bevacizumab-treated patients with advanced colon cancer (Test set). Genes with correlation to 8-month Progression-free status were studied by means of qPCR in two independent colon cancer cohorts: 49 patients treated with bevacizumab + chemotherapy (Bevacizumab qPCR set) and 72 patients treated with chemotherapy only (Control qPCR set). Endpoints were best tumor response before metastasectomy (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Five genes were significantly correlated to 8-month progression-free status in the Test set: overexpression of KLF12 and downregulation of AGR2, ALDH6A1, MCM5, TFF2. In the two independent datasets, irinotecan- or oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy was administered as first-line treatment and metastasectomies were subsequently applied in 8-14% of patients. No prognostically significant gene classifier encompassing all five genes could be validated in the Bevacizumab or Control qPCR sets. The complex gene expression profile of all-low tumor (ALDH6A1 + TFF2 + MCM5) was strongly associated with ORR in the Bevacizumab qPCR set (ORR 85.7%, p = 0.007), but not in the Control set (ORR 36.4%, p = 0.747). The Odds Ratio for response for the all-low tumor (ALDH6A1 + TFF2 + MCM5) profile versus any other ALDH6A1 + TFF2 + MCM5 profile was 15 (p = 0.018) in the Bevacizumab qPCR set but only 0.72 (p = 0.63) in the Control set. The tumor expression profile of (KLF12-high + TFF2-low) was significantly associated with PFS only in the Bevacizumab qPCR set: bevacizumab-treated patients with (KLF12-high + TFF2-low) tumors had superior PFS (median 14 months, 95% CI 2-21) compared to patients with any other (KLF12 + TFF2) expression profile (median PFS 7 months, 95% CI 5-10, p = 0.021). The Hazard Ratio for disease progression for (KLF12-high + TFF2-low) versus any other KLF12 + TFF2 expression profile was 2.92 (p = 0.03) in the Validation and 1.29 (p = 0.39) in the Control set. CONCLUSIONS: Our «three-stage¼ hypothesis-generating study failed to validate the prognostic significance of a five-gene classifier in mCRC patients. Exploratory analyses suggest two gene signatures that are potentially associated with bevazicumab benefit in patients with advanced colon cancer.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Oncologia/métodos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Bevacizumab , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator Trefoil-2 , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Cancer ; 13: 263, 2013 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23718900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metronomic chemotherapy is considered an anti-angiogenic therapy that involves chronic administration of low-dose chemotherapy at regular short intervals. We investigated the optimal metronomic dose of oral vinorelbine when given as monotherapy in patients with metastatic cancer. METHODS: Patients with recurrent metastatic breast (BC), prostate (PC) or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and adequate organ functions were randomly assigned to 30, 40 or 50 mg vinorelbine, taken orally three times a week. Treatment continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, withdrawal of consent or maximum 24 months. Primary endpoint was time-to-treatment failure (TTF) and secondary were progression-free survival (PFS), toxicity, changes in blood concentrations of angiogenesis-associated biomarkers and pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: Seventy-three patients were enrolled. Four-month TTF rate did not differ between the three arms: 25.9% (11.1%-46.2% 95% Confidence Interval), 33.3% (15.6%-55.3%) and 18.2% (5.2%-40.3%) for the 30 mg, 40 mg and 50 mg arms (p-value = 0.56). Objective response was seen in 2 patients with NSCLC (treated at 30 and 50 mg respectively), one with BC (at 40 m g) and one with PC (at 50 mg) and lasted from 4 to 100 weeks, with maximum response duration achieved at 50 mg. Adverse events were mild and negligible and did not differ between the three arms. Blood levels of vinorelbine reached steady state from the second week of treatment and mean values for the 30, 40 and 50 mg were respectively 1.8 ng/ml (SD 1.10), 2.2 ng/ml (SD 1.87) and 2.6 ng/ml (SD 0.69). Low pre-treatment blood concentrations of FGF2 and IL8 predicted favorable response to therapy (p values 0.02 and 0.006, respectively), while high levels of TEK gene transcript predicted treatment resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the antitumor activity and response duration, the negligible toxicity of the highest dose investigated and the lack of drug accumulation over time, we suggest that 50 mg given three times a week is the optimal dose for metronomic oral vinorelbine. Further investigation of metronomic oral vinorelbine (MOVIN) at this dose is warranted in combination with conventional chemotherapy regimens and targeted therapies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00278070.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Vimblastina/análogos & derivados , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tempo para o Tratamento , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Vimblastina/administração & dosagem , Vinorelbina , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Chemother ; 25(1): 49-55, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23433445

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Frequent administration of low doses of cytotoxic drugs (metronomic chemotherapy) has been suggested to suppress tumour growth possibly by inhibiting angiogenesis. We evaluated a metronomic regimen of oral vinorelbine in pre-treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Forty-six pre-treated NSCLC patients received oral vinorelbine at a fixed dose of 50 mg three times a week. RESULTS: Treatment was administered as second-line in 12 (26·1%) patients and as third- or further-line in 34 (73·9%). Grade 3-4 neutropenia was observed in 23·9% and febrile neutropenia in 10·9%. Grade 3 fatigue was the most common severe non-hematologic toxicity (10·9%). Response rate was 10·9%; 19·6% achieved disease stabilization. Median tumour progression (TTP) was 2·2 months, median overall survival 9·4 months and the 1-year survival rate was 30·1%. CONCLUSION: The administration of metronomic oral vinorelbine is feasible and results in acceptable clinical efficacy associated with manageable toxicity in a population consisting mostly of heavily pre-treated NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Vimblastina/análogos & derivados , Administração Metronômica , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Vimblastina/administração & dosagem , Vimblastina/efeitos adversos , Vinorelbina
20.
BMC Cancer ; 12: 271, 2012 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22748098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to compare two standard chemotherapy regimens combined with bevacizumab as first-line treatment in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS: Patients previously untreated for metastatic disease were randomized in: group A (irinotecan, capecitabine, bevacizumab, every 3 weeks; XELIRI-bevacizumab) and group B (irinotecan, leucovorin, fluorouracil, bevacizumab, every 2 weeks; FOLFIRI-bevacizumab). Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Plasma concentrations of nitric oxide, osteopontin, TGF-ß1 and VEGF-A were measured at baseline and during treatment. RESULTS: Among 285 eligible patients, 143 were randomized to group A and 142 to group B. Fifty-five patients (38.5%) in group A and 57 (40.1%) in group B responded (p = 0.81). After a median follow-up of 42 months, median PFS was 10.2 and 10.8 months (p = 0.74), while median OS was 20.0 and 25.3 months (p = 0.099), for groups A and B, respectively. Most frequent grade 3-4 toxicities (group A vs group B) were neutropenia (13% vs 22%, p = 0.053) and diarrhea (19% vs 11%, p = 0.082). Baseline plasma osteopontin concentrations demonstrated prognostic significance for both PFS and OS. CONCLUSIONS: This trial did not show significant differences in efficacy between the groups. However, the toxicity profile was different. Baseline plasma osteopontin concentrations demonstrated independent prognostic significance. ( REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12610000270011).


Assuntos
Proteínas Angiogênicas/sangue , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab , Biomarcadores/sangue , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Capecitabina , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Irinotecano , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Osteopontina/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
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