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1.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 41: 101065, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35663623

RESUMO

Background: The incidence rates and importance of traditional risk factors in dilated cardiomyopathy among first-degree relatives are unknown. Methods and Results: We identified all probands with dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 13,714, mean age at diagnosis 63 years) from the Danish nationwide registries between 1994 and 2017. Incidence rates among first-degree relatives (n = 29,671, mean age 38 years) and for up to 10 age- and sex-matched controls were calculated. Totally 233 (0.8%) first-degree relatives and 285 (0.1%) controls developed dilated cardiomyopathy during a median follow-up of 8.2 (Q1-Q3 4.4-13.3) years. Incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years) were 86.4 (95% confidence interval 73.9-101.0) and 111.1 (79.4-128.7) for first-degree relatives aged < 50 and ≥ 50 years, respectively, versus 7.5 (6.4-8.9) and 19.7 (16.8-23.2) for controls. Atrial fibrillation, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension were associated with increased risks of developing dilated cardiomyopathy both in first-degree relatives and controls. Population attributable fractions for the 4 risk factors were 27.7% for first-degree relatives and 37.3% for controls aged < 50 years, and 46.4% versus 58.4% for first-degree relatives and controls among people aged ≥ 50 years, respectively. Conclusions: The absolute incidence rates of dilated cardiomyopathy in first-degree relatives to patients with dilated cardiomyopathy were low, but significantly higher than in matched controls and elevated by the presence of additional risk factors, especially atrial fibrillation. Additional investigations are warranted to assess whether aggressive treatment of risk factors translates into a reduction of dilated cardiomyopathy in first-degree relatives.

2.
Res Sq ; 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35664994

RESUMO

To create a scientific resource of expression quantitative trail loci (eQTL), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using genotypes obtained from whole genome sequencing (WGS) of DNA and gene expression levels from RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of whole blood in 2622 participants in Framingham Heart Study. We identified 6,778,286 cis -eQTL variant-gene transcript (eGene) pairs at p < 5x10 - 8 (2,855,111 unique cis -eQTL variants and 15,982 unique eGenes) and 1,469,754 trans -eQTL variant-eGene pairs at p < 1e-12 (526,056 unique trans -eQTL variants and 7,233 unique eGenes). In addition, 442,379 cis -eQTL variants were associated with expression of 1518 long non-protein coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Gene Ontology (GO) analyses revealed that the top GO terms for cis- eGenes are enriched for immune functions (FDR < 0.05). The cis -eQTL variants are enriched for SNPs reported to be associated with 815 traits in prior GWAS, including cardiovascular disease risk factors. As proof of concept, we used this eQTL resource in conjunction with genetic variants from public GWAS databases in causal inference testing (e.g., COVID-19 severity). After Bonferroni correction, Mendelian randomization analyses identified putative causal associations of 60 eGenes with systolic blood pressure, 13 genes with coronary artery disease, and seven genes with COVID-19 severity. This study created a comprehensive eQTL resource via BioData Catalyst that will be made available to the scientific community. This will advance understanding of the genetic architecture of gene expression underlying a wide range of diseases.

3.
JAMA Neurol ; 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666520

RESUMO

Importance: Aortic stiffness is associated with clinical hallmarks of Alzheimer disease and related dementias and could be a modifiable target for disease prevention. Objective: To assess associations of aortic stiffness and pressure pulsatility with global amyloid-ß plaques and regional tau burden in the brain of middle-aged and older adults without dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: The sample for this cross-sectional study was drawn from the Framingham Heart Study Third Generation Cohort at examination 3 (N = 3171; 2016-2019), of whom 3092 successfully underwent comprehensive hemodynamic evaluations. In a supplemental visit (2015-2021), a subset of 270 participants without dementia who represented the spectrum of vascular risk also underwent positron emission tomography. Thirteen participants were excluded for missing covariate data. The final sample size was 257 participants. Exposures: Three measures of aortic stiffness and pressure pulsatility (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, central pulse pressure [CPP], and forward wave amplitude [FWA]) were evaluated using arterial tonometry. Main Outcomes and Measures: Global amyloid-ß plaques and regional tau were assessed using 11C-Pittsburgh compound B and 18F-flortaucipir positron emission tomography tracers, respectively. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 257 participants was 54 (8) years, and 126 were women (49%). All participants were White Western European race. In multivariable models, higher CPP (ß per SD = 0.17; 95% CI, 0.00-0.35; P = .045) and FWA (ß per SD = 0.16; 95% CI, 0.00-0.31; P = .04) were associated with greater entorhinal tau burden. In similar models, higher CPP (ß per SD = 0.19; 95% CI, 0.02-0.36; P = .03) and FWA (ß per SD = 0.17; 95% CI, 0.01-0.32; P = .03) were associated with greater rhinal tau burden. Aortic stiffness and pressure pulsatility measures were not associated with amygdala, inferior temporal, precuneus tau burden, or global amyloid-ß plaques. Associations for entorhinal and rhinal tau outcomes were more prominent in older participants (≥60 years). For example, higher levels of all aortic stiffness and pressure pulsatility measures (ß per SD = 0.40-0.92; P = .001-.02) were associated with higher entorhinal tau burden among older but not younger participants in stratified analyses. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, abnormal central vascular hemodynamics were associated with higher tau burden in specific brain regions. Findings suggest that aortic stiffness, which is potentially modifiable, may be a probable independent target for prevention of tau-related pathologies.

4.
Circ Res ; : 101161CIRCRESAHA122320991, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35658476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic dysregulation has been proposed as a key mechanism for arsenic-related cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated differentially methylated positions (DMPs) as potential mediators on the association between arsenic and CVD. METHODS: Blood DNA methylation was measured in 2321 participants (mean age 56.2, 58.6% women) of the Strong Heart Study, a prospective cohort of American Indians. Urinary arsenic species were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We identified DMPs that are potential mediators between arsenic and CVD. In a cross-species analysis, we compared those DMPs with differential liver DNA methylation following early-life arsenic exposure in the apoE knockout (apoE-/-) mouse model of atherosclerosis. RESULTS: A total of 20 and 13 DMPs were potential mediators for CVD incidence and mortality, respectively, several of them annotated to genes related to diabetes. Eleven of these DMPs were similarly associated with incident CVD in 3 diverse prospective cohorts (Framingham Heart Study, Women's Health Initiative, and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). In the mouse model, differentially methylated regions in 20 of those genes and DMPs in 10 genes were associated with arsenic. CONCLUSIONS: Differential DNA methylation might be part of the biological link between arsenic and CVD. The gene functions suggest that diabetes might represent a relevant mechanism for arsenic-related cardiovascular risk in populations with a high burden of diabetes.

5.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; : 101161CIRCGEN121003563, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)-a severe Mendelian disease-can yield insight into the mechanisms underlying the complex trait of cardiac hypertrophy. To date, most genetic variants associated with HCM have been found in sarcomeric genes. Here, we describe a novel HCM-associated variant in the noncanonical Wnt signaling interactor WTIP (Wilms tumor interacting protein) and provide evidence of a role for WTIP in complex disease. METHODS: In a family affected by HCM, we used exome sequencing and identity-by-descent analysis to identify a novel variant in WTIP (p.Y233F). We knocked down WTIP in isolated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes with lentivirally delivered shRNAs and in Danio rerio via morpholino injection. We performed weighted gene coexpression network analysis for WTIP in human cardiac tissue, as well as association analysis for WTIP variation and left ventricular hypertrophy. Finally, we generated induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes from patient tissue, characterized size and calcium cycling, and determined the effect of verapamil treatment on calcium dynamics. RESULTS: WTIP knockdown caused hypertrophy in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and increased cardiac hypertrophy, peak calcium, and resting calcium in D rerio. Network analysis of human cardiac tissue indicated WTIP as a central coordinator of prohypertrophic networks, while common variation at the WTIP locus was associated with human left ventricular hypertrophy. Patient-derived WTIP p.Y233F-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes recapitulated cellular hypertrophy and increased resting calcium, which was ameliorated by verapamil. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that a novel genetic variant found in a family with HCM disrupts binding to a known Wnt signaling protein, misregulating cardiomyocyte calcium dynamics. Further, in orthogonal model systems, we show that expression of the gene WTIP is important in complex cardiac hypertrophy phenotypes. These findings, derived from the observation of a rare Mendelian disease variant, uncover a novel disease mechanism with implications across diverse forms of cardiac hypertrophy.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent systemic thromboxane generation, predominantly from nonplatelet sources, in aspirin (ASA) users with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a mortality risk factor. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the mortality risk associated with systemic thromboxane generation in an unselected population irrespective of ASA use. METHODS: Stable thromboxane B2 metabolites (TXB2-M) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in banked urine from 3,044 participants (mean age 66 ± 9 years, 53.8% women) in the Framingham Heart Study. The association of TXB2-M to survival over a median observation period of 11.9 years (IQR: 10.6-12.7 years) was determined by multivariable modeling. RESULTS: In 1,363 (44.8%) participants taking ASA at the index examination, median TXB2-M were lower than in ASA nonusers (1,147 pg/mg creatinine vs 4,179 pg/mg creatinine; P < 0.0001). TXB2-M were significantly associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality irrespective of ASA use (HR: 1.96 and 2.41, respectively; P < 0.0001 for both) for TXB2-M in the highest quartile based on ASA use compared with lower quartiles, and remained significant after adjustment for mortality risk factors for similarly aged individuals (HR: 1.49 and 1.82, respectively; P ≤ 0.005 for both). In 2,353 participants without CVD, TXB2-M were associated with cardiovascular mortality in ASA nonusers (adjusted HR: 3.04; 95% CI: 1.29-7.16) but not in ASA users, while ASA use was associated with all-cause mortality in those with low (adjusted HR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.14-1.87) but not elevated TXB2-M. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic thromboxane generation is an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality irrespective of ASA use, and its measurement may be useful for therapy modification, particularly in those without CVD.

7.
Cells ; 11(9)2022 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563811

RESUMO

Blood biomarkers for dementia have the potential to identify preclinical disease and improve participant selection for clinical trials. Machine learning is an efficient analytical strategy to simultaneously identify multiple candidate biomarkers for dementia. We aimed to identify important candidate blood biomarkers for dementia using three machine learning models. We included 1642 (mean 69 ± 6 yr, 53% women) dementia-free Framingham Offspring Cohort participants attending examination, 7 who had available blood biomarker data. We developed three machine learning models, support vector machine (SVM), eXtreme gradient boosting of decision trees (XGB), and artificial neural network (ANN), to identify candidate biomarkers for incident dementia. Over a mean 12 ± 5 yr follow-up, 243 (14.8%) participants developed dementia. In multivariable models including all 38 available biomarkers, the XGB model demonstrated the strongest predictive accuracy for incident dementia (AUC 0.74 ± 0.01), followed by ANN (AUC 0.72 ± 0.01), and SVM (AUC 0.69 ± 0.01). Stepwise feature elimination by random sampling identified a subset of the nine most highly informative biomarkers. Machine learning models confined to these nine biomarkers showed improved model predictive accuracy for dementia (XGB, AUC 0.76 ± 0.01; ANN, AUC 0.75 ± 0.004; SVM, AUC 0.73 ± 0.01). A parsimonious panel of nine candidate biomarkers were identified which showed moderately good predictive accuracy for incident dementia, although our results require external validation.


Assuntos
Demência , Aprendizado de Máquina , Biomarcadores , Demência/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Redes Neurais de Computação
9.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267267, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511823

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Cardiovascular Health (CVH) scores are inversely associated with prevalent subclinical (SubDz) and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the majority of people who develop CVD have intermediate or ideal CVH scores, while many with poor CVH profiles escape CVD development. OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of paradoxical relations among CVH, SubDz, and CVD. DESIGN: Cohort study, Framingham Study data collected prospectively (1995-2016). SETTING: Population-based. PARTICIPANTS: 7,627 participants (mean age 49 years, 53% women) attending Offspring examinations 6/7 and Third Generation examinations 1/2. EXPOSURES: CVH score (range 0-14) constructed from poor, intermediate, or ideal status for each metric (smoking, diet, physical activity, blood pressure, body mass index, fasting glucose, total cholesterol); and prevalent SubDz (≥1 of: increased carotid intimal media thickness, CIMT; left ventricular hypertrophy, LVH; microalbuminuria, MA; elevated ankle brachial index, ABI; coronary artery calcium score ≥100,CAC). MAIN OUTCOME(S) AND MEASURE(S): Ideal CVH (scores 12-14), intermediate CVH (scores 8-11), and poor CVH (0-7). We described three distinct paradoxical phenomena, involving combinations of CVH, SubDz, and CVD, and generated CVD incidence rates and predicted CVD probabilities for all combinations. RESULTS: We observed 842 CVD events (median follow-up 13.7 years); 1,663 participants had SubDz. Most individuals with poor CVH (78%) or SubDz (57% for CIMT to 77% for LVH) did not develop CVD on follow-up. Among participants with incident CVD, the majority had intermediate or ideal CVH (68%) or absent SubDz (46% for CAC to 96% for ABI) at baseline. We observed similar paradoxical results in relations between CVH and prevalent SubDz. Poor CVH and prevalent SubDz were each associated with higher CVD incidence rates compared to intermediate or ideal CVH and absent SubDz, respectively. The predicted CVD probability was nearly three-times greater among participants with poor (22%) versus intermediate or ideal CVH (8%). Mean CVD predicted probabilities were nearly three (26% vs. 10% for MA) to six-times (29% vs. 5% for CAC) greater among participants with SubDz versus without SubDz. Findings were consistent within age and sex strata. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Although poor CVH and SubDz presence are associated with CVD incidence, paradoxical phenomena involving CVH, SubDz, and CVD are frequently prevalent in the community. Further studies to elucidate biological mechanisms underlying these phenomena are warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
10.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268576, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a multi-system disease, with non-cardiac systems playing a key role in disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: Investigate whether longitudinal multi-system trajectories incrementally predict heart failure risk compared to single-occasion traits. METHODS: We evaluated 3,412 participants from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort, free of heart failure, who attended examination cycle 5 and at least one examination between 1995-2008 (mean age 67 years, 54% women). We related trajectories for the following organ systems and metabolic functions to heart failure risk using Cox regression: kidney (estimated glomerular filtration rate), lung (forced vital capacity and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity), neuromotor (gait time), muscular (grip strength), cardiac (left ventricular mass index and heart rate), vascular function (pulse pressure), cholesterol (ratio of total/high-density lipoprotein), adiposity (body mass index), inflammation (C-reactive protein) and glucose homeostasis (hemoglobin A1c). Using traits selected via forward selection, we derived a trajectory risk score and related it to heart failure risk. RESULTS: We observed 276 heart failure events during a median follow up of 10 years. Participants with the 'worst' multi-system trajectory profile had the highest heart failure risk. A one-unit increase in the trajectory risk score was associated with a 2.72-fold increase in heart failure risk (95% CI 2.21-3.34; p<0.001). The mean c-statistics for models including the trajectory risk score and single-occasion traits were 0.87 (95% CI 0.83-0.91) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.80-0.86), respectively. CONCLUSION: Incorporating multi-system trajectories reflective of the aging process may add incremental information to heart failure risk assessment when compared to using single-occasion traits.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
11.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1053, 2022 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35619100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-genetic factors contribute to differences in diabetes risk across race/ethnic and socioeconomic groups, which raises the question of whether effects of predictors of diabetes are similar across populations. We studied diabetes incidence in the primarily non-Hispanic White Framingham Heart Study (FHS, N = 4066) and the urban, largely immigrant Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL, N = 6891) Please check if the affiliations are captured and presented correctly. METHODS: Clinical, behavioral, and socioeconomic characteristics were collected at in-person examinations followed by seven-day accelerometry. Among individuals without diabetes, Cox proportional hazards regression models (both age- and sex-adjusted, and then multivariable-adjusted for all candidate predictors) identified predictors of incident diabetes over a decade of follow-up, defined using clinical history or laboratory assessments. RESULTS: Four independent predictors were shared between FHS and HCHS/SOL. In each cohort, the multivariable-adjusted hazard of diabetes increased by approximately 50% for every ten-year increment of age and every five-unit increment of body mass index (BMI), and was 50-70% higher among hypertensive than among non-hypertensive individuals (all P < 0.01). Compared with full-time employment status, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for part-time employment was 0.61 (0.37,1.00) in FHS and 0.62 (0.41,0.95) in HCHS/SOL. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was an additional predictor in common observed in age- and sex-adjusted models, which did not persist after adjustment for other covariates (compared with MVPA ≤ 5 min/day, HR for MVPA level ≥ 30 min/day was 0.48 [0.31,0.74] in FHS and 0.74 [0.56,0.97] in HCHS/SOL). Additional predictors found in sex- and age-adjusted analyses among the FHS participants included male gender and lower education, but these predictors were not found to be independent of others in multivariable adjusted models, nor were they associated with diabetes risk among HCHS/SOL adults. CONCLUSIONS: The same four independent predictors - age, body mass index, hypertension and employment status - were associated with diabetes risk across two disparate US populations. While the reason for elevated diabetes risk in full-time workers is unclear, the findings suggest that diabetes may be part of the work-related burden of disease. Our findings also support prior evidence that differences by gender and socioeconomic position in diabetes risk are not universally present across populations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Pública
12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 863893, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35592775

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) aggregate the effects of genetic variants across the genome and are used to predict risk of complex diseases, such as obesity. Current PRSs only include common variants (minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥1%), whereas the contribution of rare variants in PRSs to predict disease remains unknown. Here, we examine whether augmenting the standard common variant PRS (PRScommon) with a rare variant PRS (PRSrare) improves prediction of obesity. We used genome-wide genotyped and imputed data on 451,145 European-ancestry participants of the UK Biobank, as well as whole exome sequencing (WES) data on 184,385 participants. We performed single variant analyses (for both common and rare variants) and gene-based analyses (for rare variants) for association with BMI (kg/m2), obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), and extreme obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2). We built PRSscommon and PRSsrare using a range of methods (Clumping+Thresholding [C+T], PRS-CS, lassosum, gene-burden test). We selected the best-performing PRSs and assessed their performance in 36,757 European-ancestry unrelated participants with whole genome sequencing (WGS) data from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. The best-performing PRScommon explained 10.1% of variation in BMI, and 18.3% and 22.5% of the susceptibility to obesity and extreme obesity, respectively, whereas the best-performing PRSrare explained 1.49%, and 2.97% and 3.68%, respectively. The PRSrare was associated with an increased risk of obesity and extreme obesity (ORobesity = 1.37 per SDPRS, P obesity = 1.7x10-85; ORextremeobesity = 1.55 per SDPRS, P extremeobesity = 3.8x10-40), which was attenuated, after adjusting for PRScommon (ORobesity = 1.08 per SDPRS, P obesity = 9.8x10-6; ORextremeobesity= 1.09 per SDPRS, P extremeobesity = 0.02). When PRSrare and PRScommon are combined, the increase in explained variance attributed to PRSrare was small (incremental Nagelkerke R2 = 0.24% for obesity and 0.51% for extreme obesity). Consistently, combining PRSrare to PRScommon provided little improvement to the prediction of obesity (PRSrare AUC = 0.591; PRScommon AUC = 0.708; PRScombined AUC = 0.710). In summary, while rare variants show convincing association with BMI, obesity and extreme obesity, the PRSrare provides limited improvement over PRScommon in the prediction of obesity risk, based on these large populations.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Obesidade , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35599493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, and further evidence suggests inflammation can be a moderator of this association. However, most research to date has been conducted on older adults. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of serum IGF-1 and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) concentrations with MRI markers of Alzheimer's disease in predominantly middle-aged adults, and further assess moderation by chronic inflammation. METHODS: We included participants from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 1,852, mean age 46±8, 46% men) and the Study of Health in Pomerania (n = 674, mean age 50±13, 42% men) with available serum IGF-1, IFGBP-3, as well as brain MRI. IGF-1 and IFGBP-3 were related to MRI outcomes (i.e., total brain, cortical gray matter, white matter, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and hippocampal volumes) using multivariable regression models adjusting for potential confounders. Subgroup analyses by C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations were also performed. Cohort-specific summary statistics were meta-analyzed using random-effects models and corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Meta-analysis results revealed that higher IGF-1 concentrations were associated with lower WMH (estimate [ß] [95% CI], -0.05 [-0.09, -0.02], p = 0.006) and larger hippocampal volumes (0.07 [0.02, 0.12], p = 0.01), independent of vascular risk factors. These associations occurred predominantly in individuals with CRP concentrations < 75th percentile. We did not observe associations between IGFBP-3 and MRI outcomes. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that IGF-1-related signaling may be implicated in brain health as early as midlife.

14.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 362, 2022 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501457

RESUMO

Deficiency of the immune checkpoint lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG3) protein is significantly associated with both elevated HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and myocardial infarction risk. We determined the association of genetic variants within ±500 kb of LAG3 with plasma LAG3 and defined LAG3-associated plasma proteins with HDL-C and clinical outcomes. Whole genome sequencing and plasma proteomics were obtained from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) cohorts as part of the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine program. In situ Hi-C chromatin capture was performed in EBV-transformed cell lines isolated from four MESA participants. Genetic association analyses were performed in MESA using multivariate regression models, with validation in FHS. A LAG3-associated protein network was tested for association with HDL-C, coronary heart disease, and all-cause mortality. We identify an association between the LAG3 rs3782735 variant and plasma LAG3 protein. Proteomics analysis reveals 183 proteins significantly associated with LAG3 with four proteins associated with HDL-C. Four proteins discovered for association with all-cause mortality in FHS shows nominal associations in MESA. Chromatin capture analysis reveals significant cis interactions between LAG3 and C1S, LRIG3, TNFRSF1A, and trans interactions between LAG3 and B2M. A LAG3-associated protein network has significant associations with HDL-C and mortality.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Medicina de Precisão , HDL-Colesterol , Cromatina , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Proteínas de Membrana
15.
medRxiv ; 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35547845

RESUMO

To create a scientific resource of expression quantitative trail loci (eQTL), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using genotypes obtained from whole genome sequencing (WGS) of DNA and gene expression levels from RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of whole blood in 2622 participants in Framingham Heart Study. We identified 6,778,286 cis -eQTL variant-gene transcript (eGene) pairs at p <5×10 -8 (2,855,111 unique cis -eQTL variants and 15,982 unique eGenes) and 1,469,754 trans -eQTL variant-eGene pairs at p <1e-12 (526,056 unique trans -eQTL variants and 7,233 unique eGenes). In addition, 442,379 cis -eQTL variants were associated with expression of 1518 long non-protein coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Gene Ontology (GO) analyses revealed that the top GO terms for cis- eGenes are enriched for immune functions (FDR <0.05). The cis -eQTL variants are enriched for SNPs reported to be associated with 815 traits in prior GWAS, including cardiovascular disease risk factors. As proof of concept, we used this eQTL resource in conjunction with genetic variants from public GWAS databases in causal inference testing (e.g., COVID-19 severity). After Bonferroni correction, Mendelian randomization analyses identified putative causal associations of 60 eGenes with systolic blood pressure, 13 genes with coronary artery disease, and seven genes with COVID-19 severity. This study created a comprehensive eQTL resource via BioData Catalyst that will be made available to the scientific community. This will advance understanding of the genetic architecture of gene expression underlying a wide range of diseases.

16.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267057, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452474

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) and hypertension (OHT) are aberrant blood pressure (BP) regulation conditions associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk. The relations of OH and OHT with heart failure (HF) risk in the community are unclear and there remains a paucity of data on the relations with HF subtypes [HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)]. OBJECTIVE: Relate OH and OHT with HF risk and its subtypes. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort. SETTING: Community-based individuals in the Framingham Heart Study Original Cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 1,914 participants (mean age 72 years; 1159 women) attending examination cycle 17 (1981-1984) followed until December 31, 2017 for incident HF or death. EXPOSURES: OH or OHT, defined as a decrease or increase, respectively, of ≥20/10 mmHg in systolic/diastolic BP upon standing from supine position. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: At baseline, 1,241 participants had a normal BP response (749 women), 274 had OH (181 women), and 399 had OHT (229 women). Using Cox proportional hazards regression models, we related OH and OHT to risk of HF, HFrEF, and HFpEF compared to the absence of OH and OHT (reference), adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, systolic and diastolic BP, hypertension treatment, smoking, diabetes, and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein. RESULTS: On follow-up (median 13 years) we observed 492 HF events (292 in women; 134 HFrEF, 116 HFpEF, 242 HF indeterminate EF). Compared to the referent, participants with OH [n = 84/274 (31%) HF events] had a higher HF risk (Hazards Ratio [HR] 1.47, 95% CI 1.13-1.91). Moreover, OH was associated with a higher HFrEF risk (HR 2.21, 95% CI 1.34-3.67). OHT was not associated with HF risk. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Orthostatic BP response may serve as an early marker of HF risk. Findings suggest shared pathophysiology of BP regulation and HF, including HFrEF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipertensão , Hipotensão Ortostática , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipotensão Ortostática/complicações , Hipotensão Ortostática/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico
17.
Circulation ; 145(17): 1324-1338, 2022 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The remaining lifetime risk (RLR) is the probability of developing an outcome over the remainder of one's lifespan at any given age. The RLR for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in three 20-year periods were assessed using data from a single community-based cohort study of predominantly White participants. METHODS: Longitudinal data from the Framingham study in 3 epochs (epoch 1, 1960-1979; epoch 2, 1980-1999; epoch 3, 2000-2018) were evaluated. The RLR of a first ASCVD event (myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death, or stroke) from 45 years of age (adjusting for competing risk of death) in the 3 epochs were compared overall, and according to the following strata: sex, body mass index, blood pressure and cholesterol categories, diabetes, smoking, and Framingham risk score groups. RESULTS: There were 317 849 person-years of observations during the 3 epochs (56% women; 94% White) and 4855 deaths occurred. Life expectancy rose by 10.1 years (men) to 11.9 years (women) across the 3 epochs. There were 1085 ASCVD events over the course of 91 330 person-years in epoch 1, 1330 ASCVD events over the course of 107 450 person-years in epoch 2, and 775 ASCVD events over the course of 119 069 person-years in epoch 3. The mean age at onset of first ASCVD event was greater in the third epoch by 8.1 years (men) to 10.3 years (women) compared with the first epoch. The RLR of ASCVD from 45 years of age declined from 43.7% in epoch 1 to 28.1% in epoch 3 (P<0.0001), a finding that was consistent in both sexes (RLR [epoch 1 versus epoch 3], 36.3% versus 26.5% [women]; 52.5% versus 30.1% [men]; P<0.001 for both). The lower RLR of ASCVD in the last 2 epochs was observed consistently across body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, and Framingham risk score strata (P<0.001 for all). The RLR of coronary heart disease events and stroke declined in both sexes (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Over the past 6 decades, mean life expectancy increased and the RLR of ASCVD decreased in the community-based, predominantly White Framingham study. The residual burden of ASCVD underscores the importance of continued and effective primary prevention efforts with better screening for risk factors and their effective treatment.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Colesterol , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(5): 857-870, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385699

RESUMO

While polygenic risk scores (PRSs) enable early identification of genetic risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), predictive performance is limited when the discovery and target populations are not well matched. Hypothesizing that the biological mechanisms of disease are shared across ancestry groups, we introduce a PrediXcan-derived polygenic transcriptome risk score (PTRS) to improve cross-ethnic portability of risk prediction. We constructed the PTRS using summary statistics from application of PrediXcan on large-scale GWASs of lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] and its ratio to forced vital capacity [FEV1/FVC]) in the UK Biobank. We examined prediction performance and cross-ethnic portability of PTRS through smoking-stratified analyses both on 29,381 multi-ethnic participants from TOPMed population/family-based cohorts and on 11,771 multi-ethnic participants from TOPMed COPD-enriched studies. Analyses were carried out for two dichotomous COPD traits (moderate-to-severe and severe COPD) and two quantitative lung function traits (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC). While the proposed PTRS showed weaker associations with disease than PRS for European ancestry, the PTRS showed stronger association with COPD than PRS for African Americans (e.g., odds ratio [OR] = 1.24 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.43] for PTRS versus 1.10 [0.96-1.26] for PRS among heavy smokers with ≥ 40 pack-years of smoking) for moderate-to-severe COPD. Cross-ethnic portability of the PTRS was significantly higher than the PRS (paired t test p < 2.2 × 10-16 with portability gains ranging from 5% to 28%) for both dichotomous COPD traits and across all smoking strata. Our study demonstrates the value of PTRS for improved cross-ethnic portability compared to PRS in predicting COPD risk.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Pulmão , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361620

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Peptide markers of inflammation have been associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The role of upstream, lipid-derived mediators of inflammation such as eicosanoids, remains less clear. The aim of this study was to examine whether eicosanoids are associated with incident type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODS: In the FINRISK (Finnish Cardiovascular Risk Study) 2002 study, a population-based sample of Finnish men and women aged 25-74 years, we used directed, non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify 545 eicosanoids and related oxylipins in the participants' plasma samples (n=8292). We used multivariable-adjusted Cox regression to examine associations between eicosanoids and incident type 2 diabetes. The significant independent findings were replicated in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS, n=2886) and DIetary, Lifestyle and Genetic determinants of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome (DILGOM) 2007 (n=3905). Together, these three cohorts had 1070 cases of incident type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: In the FINRISK 2002 cohort, 76 eicosanoids were associated individually with incident type 2 diabetes. We identified three eicosanoids independently associated with incident type 2 diabetes using stepwise Cox regression with forward selection and a Bonferroni-corrected inclusion threshold. A three-eicosanoid risk score produced an HR of 1.56 (95% CI 1.41 to 1.72) per 1 SD increment for risk of incident diabetes. The HR for comparing the top quartile with the lowest was 2.80 (95% CI 2.53 to 3.07). In the replication analyses, the three-eicosanoid risk score was significant in FHS (HR 1.24 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.39, p<0.001)) and directionally consistent in DILGOM (HR 1.12 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.27, p=0.07)). Meta-analysis of the three cohorts yielded a pooled HR of 1.31 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.56). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma eicosanoid profiles predict incident type 2 diabetes and the clearest signals replicate in three independent cohorts. Our findings give new information on the biology underlying type 2 diabetes and suggest opportunities for early identification of people at risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Eicosanoides , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366625

RESUMO

Red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid (FA) patterns are becoming recognized as long-term biomarkers of tissue FA composition, but different analytical methods have complicated inter-study and international comparisons. Here we report RBC FA data, with a focus on the Omega-3 Index (EPA + DHA in% of total FAs in RBC), from samples of seven countries (USA, Canada, Italy, Spain, Germany, South Korea, and Japan) including 167,347 individuals (93% of all samples were from the US). FA data were generated by a uniform methodology from a variety of interventional and observational studies and from clinical laboratories. The cohorts differed in size, demographics, health status, and year of collection. Only the Canadian cohort was a formal, representative population-based survey. The mean Omega-3 Index of each country was categorized as desirable (>8%), moderate (>6% to 8%), low (>4% to 6%), or very low (≤4%). Only cohorts from Alaska (treated separately from the US), South Korea and Japan showed a desirable Omega-3 Index. The Spanish cohort had a moderate Omega-3 Index, while cohorts from the US, Canada, Italy, and Germany were all classified as low. This study is limited by the use of cohorts of convenience and small sample sizes in some countries. Countries undertaking national health status studies should utilize a uniform method to measure Omega-3 FA levels.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Canadá , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico , Eritrócitos , Ácidos Graxos , Humanos
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