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2.
Panminerva Med ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606187

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has changed bronchoscopy practices worldwide. Bronchoscopy is a high-risk aerosol-generating procedure with a potential for direct SARS-CoV-2 exposure and hospital-acquired infection. Current guidelines about personal protective equipment and environment considerations represent key competencies to minimize droplets dispersion and reduce the risk of transmission. Different measures should be put in field based on setting, patient's clinical characteristics, urgency and indications of bronchoscopy. The use of this technique in SARS-CoV-2 patients is reported primarily for removal of airway plugs and for obtaining microbiological culture samples. In mechanically ventilated patients with SARS-CoV-2, bronchoscopy is commonly used to manage complications such as hemoptysis, atelectasis or lung collapse when prone positioning, physiotherapy or recruitment maneuvers have failed. Further indications are represented by assistance during percutaneous tracheostomy. Continuous positive airway pressure, non-invasive ventilation support and high flow nasal cannula oxygen are frequently used in patient affected by Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19): management of patients' airways and ventilation strategies differs from bronchoscopy indications, patient's clinical status and in course or required ventilatory support. Sedation is usually administered by the pulmonologist (performing the bronchoscopy) or by the anesthetist depending on the complexity of the procedure and the level of sedation required. Finally, elective bronchoscopy for diagnostic indications during COVID-19 pandemic should be carried on respecting rigid standards which allow to minimize potential viral transmission, independently from patient's COVID-19 status. This narrative review aims to evaluate the indications, procedural measures and ventilatory strategies of bronchoscopy performed in different settings during COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 268, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive respiratory support (NIRS) has been diffusely employed outside the intensive care unit (ICU) to face the high request of ventilatory support due to the massive influx of patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) caused by coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19). We sought to summarize the evidence on clinically relevant outcomes in COVID-19 patients supported by NIV outside the ICU. METHODS: We searched PUBMED®, EMBASE®, and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical trials register, along with medRxiv and bioRxiv repositories for pre-prints, for observational studies and randomized controlled trials, from inception to the end of February 2021. Two authors independently selected the investigations according to the following criteria: (1) observational study or randomized clinical trials enrolling ≥ 50 hospitalized patients undergoing NIRS outside the ICU, (2) laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, and (3) at least the intra-hospital mortality reported. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines were followed. Data extraction was independently performed by two authors to assess: investigation features, demographics and clinical characteristics, treatments employed, NIRS regulations, and clinical outcomes. Methodological index for nonrandomized studies tool was applied to determine the quality of the enrolled studies. The primary outcome was to assess the overall intra-hospital mortality of patients under NIRS outside the ICU. The secondary outcomes included the proportions intra-hospital mortalities of patients who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation following NIRS failure and of those with 'do-not-intubate' (DNI) orders. RESULTS: Seventeen investigations (14 peer-reviewed and 3 pre-prints) were included with a low risk of bias and a high heterogeneity, for a total of 3377 patients. The overall intra-hospital mortality of patients receiving NIRS outside the ICU was 36% [30-41%]. 26% [21-30%] of the patients failed NIRS and required intubation, with an intra-hospital mortality rising to 45% [36-54%]. 23% [15-32%] of the patients received DNI orders with an intra-hospital mortality of 72% [65-78%]. Oxygenation on admission was the main source of between-study heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19 outbreak, delivering NIRS outside the ICU revealed as a feasible strategy to cope with the massive demand of ventilatory assistance. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ , CRD42020224788, December 11, 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Ventilação não Invasiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia
5.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 189, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Usefulness of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in weaning patients with non-hypercapnic hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (hARF) is unclear. The study aims to assess in patients with non-hypercapnic hARF, the efficacy of NIV after early extubation, compared to standard weaning. METHODS: In this individual patient data meta-analysis, we searched EMBASE, Medline and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify potentially eligible randomized controlled trials published from database inception to October 2020. To be eligible, studies had to include patients treated with NIV after early extubation and compared to conventional weaning in adult non-hypercapnic hARF patients. Anonymized individual patient data from eligible studies were provided by study investigators. Using one-step and two-step meta-analysis models we tested the difference in total days spent on invasive ventilation. RESULTS: We screened 1605 records. Six studies were included in quantitative synthesis. Overall, 459 participants (mean [SD] age, 62 [15] years; 269 [59%] males) recovering from hARF were included in the analysis (233 in the intervention group and 226 controls). Participants receiving NIV had a shorter duration of invasive mechanical ventilation compared to control group (mean difference, - 3.43; 95% CI - 5.17 to - 1.69 days, p < 0.001), a shorter duration of total days spent on mechanical ventilation (mean difference, - 2.04; 95% CI - 3.82 to - 0.27 days, p = 0.024), a reduced risk of ventilatory associated pneumonia (odds ratio, 0.24; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.71, p = 0.014), a reduction of time spent in ICU (time ratio, 0.81; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.96, p = 0.015) and in-hospital (time ratio, 0.81; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.95, p = 0.010), with no difference in ICU mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Although primary studies are limited, using an individual patient data metanalysis approach, NIV after early extubation appears useful in reducing total days spent on invasive mechanical ventilation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol was registered to PROSPERO database on 12/06/2019 and available at PROSPERO website inserting the study code i.e., CRD42019133837.


Assuntos
Extubação/métodos , Hipóxia/terapia , Ventilação não Invasiva/normas , Fatores de Tempo , Humanos , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Desmame do Respirador/métodos
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13418, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183764

RESUMO

In patients intubated for hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (ARF) related to novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), we retrospectively compared two weaning strategies, early extubation with immediate non-invasive ventilation (NIV) versus standard weaning encompassing spontaneous breathing trial (SBT), with respect to IMV duration (primary endpoint), extubation failures and reintubations, rate of tracheostomy, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay and mortality (additional endpoints). All COVID-19 adult patients, intubated for hypoxemic ARF and subsequently extubated, were enrolled. Patients were included in two groups, early extubation followed by immediate NIV application, and conventionally weaning after passing SBT. 121 patients were enrolled and analyzed, 66 early extubated and 55 conventionally weaned after passing an SBT. IMV duration was 9 [6-11] days in early extubated patients versus 11 [6-15] days in standard weaning group (p = 0.034). Extubation failures [12 (18.2%) vs. 25 (45.5%), p = 0.002] and reintubations [12 (18.2%) vs. 22 (40.0%) p = 0.009] were fewer in early extubation compared to the standard weaning groups, respectively. Rate of tracheostomy, ICU mortality, and ICU length of stay were no different between groups. Compared to standard weaning, early extubation followed by immediate NIV shortened IMV duration and reduced the rate of extubation failure and reintubation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Desmame do Respirador/métodos , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo , Traqueostomia
7.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 186, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), extravascular lung water index (EVLWi) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) measured by transpulmonary thermodilution reflect the degree of lung injury. Whether EVLWi and PVPI are different between non-COVID-19 ARDS and the ARDS due to COVID-19 has never been reported. We aimed at comparing EVLWi, PVPI, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics in patients with COVID-19 ARDS vs. ARDS of other origin. METHODS: Between March and October 2020, in an observational study conducted in intensive care units from three university hospitals, 60 patients with COVID-19-related ARDS monitored by transpulmonary thermodilution were compared to the 60 consecutive non-COVID-19 ARDS admitted immediately before the COVID-19 outbreak between December 2018 and February 2020. RESULTS: Driving pressure was similar between patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS, at baseline as well as during the study period. Compared to patients without COVID-19, those with COVID-19 exhibited higher EVLWi, both at the baseline (17 (14-21) vs. 15 (11-19) mL/kg, respectively, p = 0.03) and at the time of its maximal value (24 (18-27) vs. 21 (15-24) mL/kg, respectively, p = 0.01). Similar results were observed for PVPI. In COVID-19 patients, the worst ratio between arterial oxygen partial pressure over oxygen inspired fraction was lower (81 (70-109) vs. 100 (80-124) mmHg, respectively, p = 0.02) and prone positioning and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) were more frequently used than in patients without COVID-19. COVID-19 patients had lower maximal lactate level and maximal norepinephrine dose than patients without COVID-19. Day-60 mortality was similar between groups (57% vs. 65%, respectively, p = 0.45). The maximal value of EVLWi and PVPI remained independently associated with outcome in the whole cohort. CONCLUSION: Compared to ARDS patients without COVID-19, patients with COVID-19 had similar lung mechanics, but higher EVLWi and PVPI values from the beginning of the disease. This was associated with worse oxygenation and with more requirement of prone positioning and ECMO. This is compatible with the specific lung inflammation and severe diffuse alveolar damage related to COVID-19. By contrast, patients with COVID-19 had fewer hemodynamic derangement. Eventually, mortality was similar between groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER AND DATE OF REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04337983). Registered 30 March 2020-Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04337983 .


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Permeabilidade Capilar , Água Extravascular Pulmonar/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , COVID-19/complicações , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Prognóstico , Edema Pulmonar/metabolismo , Termodiluição
8.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 184, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-operative pulmonary complications (PPC) can develop in up to 13% of patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures and may adversely affect clinical outcome. The use of intraoperative lung protective ventilation (LPV) strategies, usually including the use of a low Vt, low PEEP and low plateau pressure, seem to reduce the risk of PPC and are strongly recommended in almost all surgical procedures. Nonetheless, feasibility of LPV strategies in neurosurgical patients are still debated because the use of low Vt during LPV might result in hypercapnia with detrimental effects on cerebrovascular physiology. Aim of our study was to determine whether LPV strategies would be feasible compared with a control group in adult patients undergoing cranial or spinal surgery. METHODS: This single-centre, pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted at the University Hospital "Maggiore della Carità" (Novara, Italy). Adult patients undergoing major cerebral or spinal neurosurgical interventions with risk index for pulmonary post-operative complications > 2 and not expected to need post-operative intensive care unit (ICU) admission were considered eligible. Patients were randomly assigned to either LPV (Vt = 6 ml/kg of ideal body weight (IBW), respiratory rate initially set at 16 breaths/min, PEEP at 5 cmH2O and application of a recruitment manoeuvre (RM) immediately after intubation and at every disconnection from the ventilator) or control treatment (Vt = 10 ml/kg of IBW, respiratory rate initially set at 6-8 breaths/min, no PEEP and no RM). Primary outcomes of the study were intraoperative adverse events, the level of cerebral tension at dura opening and the intraoperative control of PaCO2. Secondary outcomes were the rate of pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications, the number of unplanned ICU admissions, ICU and hospital lengths of stay and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients, 30 for each group, were randomized. During brain surgery, the number of episodes of intraoperative hypercapnia and grade of cerebral tension were similar between patients randomized to receive control or LPV strategies. No difference in the rate of intraoperative adverse events was found between groups. The rate of postoperative pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications and major clinical outcomes were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: LPV strategies in patients undergoing major neurosurgical intervention are feasible. Larger clinical trials are needed to assess their role in postoperative clinical outcome improvements. TRIAL REGISTRATION: registered on the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ( www.anzctr.org.au ), registration number ACTRN12615000707561.

9.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 65(9): 1195-1204, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) often display respiratory muscle weakness which increases the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after general anaesthesia. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) associated with mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) can reduce the incidence and severity of PPCs. The aim of this study was to report our experience with a shared perioperative protocol that consists in using NIV combined with MI-E to improve the postoperative outcome of NMD children (IT-NEUMA-Ped). METHOD: We conducted a multicentre, observational study on 167 consecutive paediatric patients with NMDs undergoing anaesthesia from December 2015 to December 2018 in a network of 13 Italian hospitals. RESULTS: We found that 89% of the 167 children (mean age 8 years old) were at high risk of PPCs, due to the presence of at least one respiratory risk factor. In particular, 51% of them had preoperative ventilatory support dependence. Only 14 (8%) patients developed PPCs, and only two patients needed tracheostomy. Average hospital length of stay (LOS) was 6 (2-14) days. The study population was stratified according to preoperative respiratory devices dependency and invasiveness of the procedure. Patients with preoperative ventilatory support dependence showed significantly higher intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate and longer hospital LOS. CONCLUSION: Disease severity seems to be more related to the outcome of this population than invasiveness of procedures. NIV combined with MI-E can help in preventing and resolve PPCs.


Assuntos
Doenças Neuromusculares , Insuficiência Respiratória , Anestesia Geral , Criança , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/complicações , Doenças Neuromusculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
10.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(2)2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041296

RESUMO

In patients with #COVID19-related acute hypoxic respiratory failure requiring noninvasive ventilatory support, EBC collection with adequate precautions may be feasible and future studies will be needed to explore this research field https://bit.ly/39OxufF.

11.
Respir Care ; 66(6): 983-993, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of diaphragmatic kinetics through tissue Doppler imaging (dTDI) was recently proposed as a means to describe diaphragmatic activity in both healthy individuals and intubated patients undergoing weaning from mechanical ventilation. Our primary aim was to investigate whether the diaphragmatic excursion velocity measured with dTDI at the end of a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) was different in subjects successfully extubated versus those who passed the trial but exhibited extubation failure within 48 h after extubation. METHODS: We enrolled 100 adult subjects, all of whom had successfully passed a 30-min SBT conducted in CPAP of 5 cm H2O. In cases of extubation failure within 48 h after liberation from invasive mechanical ventilation, subjects were re-intubated or supported through noninvasive ventilation. dTDI was performed at the end of the SBT to assess excursion, velocity, and acceleration. RESULTS: Extubation was successful in 79 subjects, whereas it failed in 21 subjects. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) inspiratory peak excursion velocity (3.1 [IQR 2.0-4.3] vs 1.8 [1.3-2.6] cm/s, P < .001), mean velocity (1.6 [IQR 1.2-2.4] vs 1.1 [IQR 0.8-1.4] cm/s, P < .001), and acceleration (8.8 [IQR 5.0-17.8] vs 4.2 [IQR 2.4-8.0] cm/s2, P = .002) were all significantly higher in subjects who failed extubation compared with those who were successfully extubated. Similarly, the median expiratory peak relaxation velocity (2.6 [IQR 1.9-4.5] vs 1.8 [IQR 1.2-2.5] cm/s, P < .001), mean velocity (1.1 [IQR 0.7-1.7] vs 0.9 [IQR 0.6-1.0] cm/s, P = .002), and acceleration (11.2 [IQR 9.1-19.0] vs 7.1 [IQR 4.6-12.0] cm/s2, P = .004) were also higher in the subjects who failed extubation. CONCLUSIONS: In our setting, at the end of SBT, subjects who developed extubation failure within 48 h after extubation experienced a greater diaphragmatic activation compared with subjects who were successfully extubated. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT03962322.).


Assuntos
Extubação , Desmame do Respirador , Adulto , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Cinética , Respiração Artificial
12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250404, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physician professionalism, including anaesthesiologists and intensive care doctors, should be continuously assessed during training and subsequent clinical practice. Multi-source feedback (MSF) is an assessment system in which healthcare professionals are assessed on several constructs (e.g., communication, professionalism, etc.) by multiple people (medical colleagues, coworkers, patients, self) in their sphere of influence. MSF has gained widespread acceptance for both formative and summative assessment of professionalism for reflecting on how to improve clinical practice. METHODS: Instrument development and psychometric analysis (feasibility, reliability, construct validity via exploratory factor analysis) for MSF questionnaires in a postgraduate specialty training in Anaesthesiology and intensive care in Italy. Sixty-four residents at the Università del Piemonte Orientale (Italy) Anesthesiology Residency Program. Main outcomes assessed were: development and psychometric testing of 4 questionnaires: self, medical colleague, coworker and patient assessment. RESULTS: Overall 605 medical colleague questionnaires (mean of 9.3 ±1.9) and 543 coworker surveys (mean 8.4 ±1.4) were collected providing high mean ratings for all items (> 4.0 /5.0). The self-assessment item mean score ranged from 3.1 to 4.3. Patient questionnaires (n = 308) were returned from 31 residents (40%; mean 9.9 ± 6.2). Three items had high percentages of "unable to assess" (> 15%) in coworker questionnaires. Factor analyses resulted in a two-factor solution: clinical management with leadership and accountability accounting for at least 75% of the total variance for the medical colleague and coworker's survey with high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α > 0.9). Patient's questionnaires had a low return rate, a limited exploratory analysis was performed. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a feasible and reliable Italian language MSF instrument with evidence of construct validity for the self, coworkers and medical colleague. Patient feedback was difficult to collect in our setting.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas , Competência Clínica , Cuidados Críticos , Pessoal de Saúde , Profissionalismo , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Humanos , Itália , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(5): e14124, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787012

RESUMO

This study independently confirms increased levels of osteopontin in COVID-19 patients but also suggests that osteopontin cannot be used as a biomarker of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as elevated levels of circulating osteopontin are found in inflammatory lung disease regardless of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Mitocôndrias , Monócitos , Osteopontina
14.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 632290, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693030

RESUMO

Knowledge of the host response to the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 remains limited, hindering the understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis and the development of therapeutic strategies. During the course of a viral infection, host cells release exosomes and other extracellular vesicles carrying viral and host components that can modulate the immune response. The present study used a shotgun proteomic approach to map the host circulating exosomes' response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We investigated how SARS-CoV-2 infection modulates exosome content, exosomes' involvement in disease progression, and the potential use of plasma exosomes as biomarkers of disease severity. A proteomic analysis of patient-derived exosomes identified several molecules involved in the immune response, inflammation, and activation of the coagulation and complement pathways, which are the main mechanisms of COVID-19-associated tissue damage and multiple organ dysfunctions. In addition, several potential biomarkers-such as fibrinogen, fibronectin, complement C1r subcomponent and serum amyloid P-component-were shown to have a diagnostic feature presenting an area under the curve (AUC) of almost 1. Proteins correlating with disease severity were also detected. Moreover, for the first time, we identified the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the exosomal cargo, which suggests that the virus might use the endocytosis route to spread infection. Our findings indicate circulating exosomes' significant contribution to several processes-such as inflammation, coagulation, and immunomodulation-during SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study's data are available via ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD021144.

15.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Driving pressure can be readily measured during assisted modes of ventilation such as pressure support ventilation (PSV) and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA). The present prospective randomized crossover study aimed to assess the changes in driving pressure in response to variations in the level of assistance delivered by PSV vs NAVA. METHODS: 16 intubated adult patients, recovering from hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (ARF) and undergoing assisted ventilation, were randomly subjected to six 30-min-lasting trials. At baseline, PSV (PSV100) was set with the same regulation present at patient enrollment. The corresponding level of NAVA (NAVA100) was set to match the same inspiratory peak of airway pressure obtained in PSV100. Therefore, the level of assistance was reduced and increased by 50% in both ventilatory modes (PSV50, NAVA50; PSV150, NAVA150). At the end of each trial, driving pressure obtained in response to four short (2-3 s) end-expiratory and end-inspiratory occlusions was analyzed. RESULTS: Driving pressure at PSV50 (6.6 [6.1-7.8] cmH2O) was lower than that recorded at PSV100 (7.9 [7.2-9.1] cmH2O, P = 0.005) and PSV150 (9.9 [9.1-13.2] cmH2O, P < 0.0001). In NAVA, driving pressure at NAVA50 was reduced compared to NAVA150 (7.7 [5.1-8.1] cmH2O vs 8.3 [6.4-11.4] cmH2O, P = 0.013), whereas there were no changes between baseline and NAVA150 (8.5 [6.3-9.8] cmH2O vs 8.3 [6.4-11.4] cmH2O, P = 0.331, respectively). Driving pressure at PSV150 was higher than that observed in NAVA150 (P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: NAVA delivers better lung-protective ventilation compared to PSV in hypoxemic ARF patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER AND DATE OF REGISTRATION: The present trial was prospectively registered at www.clinicatrials.gov (NCT03719365) on 24 October 2018.

16.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(1)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527074

RESUMO

Aim: We aimed to characterise a large population of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with moderate-to-severe hypoxaemic acute respiratory failure (ARF) receiving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) outside the intensive care unit (ICU), and to ascertain whether the duration of CPAP application increased the risk of mortality for patients requiring intubation. Methods: In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included adult COVID-19 patients, treated with CPAP outside ICU for hypoxaemic ARF from 1 March to 15 April, 2020. We collected demographic and clinical data, including CPAP therapeutic goal, hospital length of stay and 60-day in-hospital mortality. Results: The study included 537 patients with a median (interquartile range (IQR) age of 69 (60-76) years. 391 (73%) were male. According to the pre-defined CPAP therapeutic goal, 397 (74%) patients were included in the full treatment subgroup, and 140 (26%) in the do not intubate (DNI) subgroup. Median (IQR) CPAP duration was 4 (1-8) days, while hospital length of stay was 16 (9-27) days. 60-day in-hospital mortality was 34% (95% CI 0.304-0.384%) overall, and 21% (95% CI 0.169-0.249%) and 73% (95% CI 0.648-0.787%) for full treatment and DNI subgroups, respectively. In the full treatment subgroup, in-hospital mortality was 42% (95% CI 0.345-0.488%) for 180 (45%) CPAP failures requiring intubation, and 2% (95% CI 0.008-0.035%) for the remaining 217 (55%) patients who succeeded. Delaying intubation was associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio 1.093, 95% CI 1.010-1.184). Conclusions: We described a large population of COVID-19 patients treated with CPAP outside ICU. Intubation delay represents a risk factor for mortality. Further investigation is needed for early identification of CPAP failures.

17.
Cells ; 10(1)2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430260

RESUMO

Sars-Cov-2 infection causes fever and cough that may rapidly lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Few biomarkers have been identified but, unfortunately, these are individually poorly specific, and novel biomarkers are needed to better predict patient outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of circulating platelets (PLT)-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) as biomarkers for Sars-Cov-2 infection, by setting a rapid and reliable test on unmanipulated blood samples. PLT-EVs were quantified by flow cytometry on two independent cohorts of Sars-CoV-2+ (n = 69), Sars-Cov-2- (n = 62) hospitalized patients, and healthy controls. Diagnostic performance of PLT-EVs was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. PLT-EVs count were higher in Sars-Cov-2+ compared to Sars-Cov-2- patients or HC. ROC analysis of the combined cohorts showed an AUC = 0.79 and an optimal cut-off value of 1472 EVs/µL, with 75% sensitivity and 74% specificity. These data suggest that PLT-EVs might be an interesting biomarker deserving further investigations to test their predictive power.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , COVID-19/sangue , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Plaquetas/patologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
18.
J Crit Care ; 61: 125-132, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157308

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Optimal esophageal balloon filling volume (Vbest) depends on the intrathoracic pressure. During Sigh breath delivered by the ventilator machine, esophageal balloon is surrounded by elevated intrathoracic pressure that might require higher filling volume for accurate measure of tidal changes in esophageal pressure (Pes). The primary aim of our investigation was to evaluate and compare Vbest during volume controlled and pressure support breaths vs. Sigh breath. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty adult patients requiring invasive volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) for hypoxemic acute respiratory failure were enrolled. After the insertion of a naso-gastric catheter equipped with 10 ml esophageal balloon, each patient underwent three 30-min trials as follows: VCV, pressure support ventilation (PSV), and PSV + Sigh. Sigh was added to PSV as 35 cmH2O pressure-controlled breath over 4 s, once per minute. PSV and PSV + Sigh were randomly applied and, at the end of each step, esophageal balloon calibration was performed. RESULTS: Vbest was higher for Sigh breath (4.5 [3.0-6.8] ml) compared to VCV (1.5 [1.0-2.9] ml, P = 0.0004) and PSV tidal breath (1.0 [0.5-2.4] ml, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: During Sigh breath, applying a calibrated approach for Pes assessment, a higher Vbest was required compared to VCV and PSV tidal breath.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Mecânica Respiratória , Adulto , Calibragem , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Respiração Artificial , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
19.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 35(3): 627-636, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388653

RESUMO

Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) has never been applied in patients recovering from acute brain injury (ABI) because neural respiratory drive could be affected by intracranial disease with detrimental effects on cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity. Our primary aim was to assess the impact of NAVA and pressure support ventilation (PSV) on CBF velocity. In fifteen adult patients recovering from ABI and undergoing invasive assisted ventilation, PSV and NAVA were applied over 30-min-lasting trials, in the following sequence: PSV1, NAVA, and PSV2. While PSV was set to deliver a tidal volume ranging between 6 and 8 ml kg-1 of predicted body weight, in NAVA the level of assistance was chosen to achieve the same inspiratory peak airway pressure as PSV. At the end of each trial, a sonographic evaluation of CBF mean velocity was bilaterally obtained on the middle cerebral artery and an arterial blood gas sample was taken for analysis. CBF mean velocity was 51.8 [41.9,75.2] cm  s-1 at baseline, 51.9 [43.4,71.0] cm s-1 in PSV1, 53.6 [40.7,67.7] cm s-1 in NAVA, and 49.5 [42.1,70.8] cm s-1 in PSV2 (p = 0.0514) on the left and 50.2 [38.0,77.7] cm s-1 at baseline, 47.8 [41.7,68.2] cm s-1 in PSV1, 53.9 [40.1,78.5] cm s-1 in NAVA, and 55.6 [35.9,74.1] cm s-1 in PSV2 (p = 0.8240) on the right side. No differences were detected for pH (p = 0.0551), arterial carbon dioxide tension (p = 0.8142), and oxygenation (p = 0.0928) over the entire study duration. NAVA and PSV preserved CBF velocity in patients recovering from ABI.Trial registration: The present trial was prospectively registered at www.clinicatrials.gov (NCT03721354) on October 18th, 2018.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(22)2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207699

RESUMO

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread to nearly every continent, registering over 1,250,000 deaths worldwide. The effects of SARS-CoV-2 on host targets remains largely limited, hampering our understanding of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis and the development of therapeutic strategies. The present study used a comprehensive untargeted metabolomic and lipidomic approach to capture the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that several circulating lipids acted as potential biomarkers, such as phosphatidylcholine 14:0_22:6 (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.96), phosphatidylcholine 16:1_22:6 (AUC = 0.97), and phosphatidylethanolamine 18:1_20:4 (AUC = 0.94). Furthermore, triglycerides and free fatty acids, especially arachidonic acid (AUC = 0.99) and oleic acid (AUC = 0.98), were well correlated to the severity of the disease. An untargeted analysis of non-critical COVID-19 patients identified a strong alteration of lipids and a perturbation of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, aminoacyl-tRNA degradation, arachidonic acid metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The severity of the disease was characterized by the activation of gluconeogenesis and the metabolism of porphyrins, which play a crucial role in the progress of the infection. In addition, our study provided further evidence for considering phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity as a potential key factor in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and a possible therapeutic target. To date, the present study provides the largest untargeted metabolomics and lipidomics analysis of plasma from COVID-19 patients and control groups, identifying new mechanisms associated with the host response to COVID-19, potential plasma biomarkers, and therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aminoácidos/sangue , Ácido Araquidônico/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19 , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Gluconeogênese , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Oleico/sangue , Pandemias , Fosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/sangue , Fosfolipases A2/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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