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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19970, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620951

RESUMO

Particulate respirators such as N95s are an essential component of personal protective equipment (PPE) for front-line workers. This study describes a rapid and effective UVC irradiation system that would facilitate the safe re-use of N95 respirators and provides supporting information for deploying UVC for decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic. To assess the inactivation potential of the proposed UVC germicidal device as a function of time by using 3 M 8211-N95 particulate respirators inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. A germicidal UVC device to deliver tailored UVC dose was developed and test coupons (2.5 cm2) of the 3 M-N95 respirator were inoculated with 106 plaque-forming units (PFU) of SARS-CoV-2 and were UV irradiated. Different exposure times were tested (0-164 s) by fixing the distance between the lamp and the test coupon to 15.2 cm while providing an exposure of at least 5.43 mWcm-2. Primary measure of outcome was titration of infectious virus recovered from virus-inoculated respirator test coupons after UVC exposure. Other measures included the method validation of the irradiation protocol, using lentiviruses (biosafety level-2 agent) and establishment of the germicidal UVC exposure protocol. An average of 4.38 × 103 PFU ml-1 (SD 772.68) was recovered from untreated test coupons while 4.44 × 102 PFU ml-1 (SD 203.67), 4.00 × 102 PFU ml-1 (SD 115.47), 1.56 × 102 PFU ml-1 (SD 76.98) and 4.44 × 101 PFU ml-1 (SD 76.98) was recovered in exposures 2, 6, 18 and 54 s per side respectively. The germicidal device output and positioning was monitored and a minimum output of 5.43 mW cm-2 was maintained. Infectious SARS-CoV-2 was not detected by plaque assays (minimal level of detection is 67 PFU ml-1) on N95 respirator test coupons when irradiated for 120 s per side or longer suggesting 3.5 log reduction in 240 s of irradiation, 1.3 J cm-2. A scalable germicidal UVC device to deliver tailored UVC dose for rapid decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 was developed. UVC germicidal irradiation of N95 test coupons inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 for 120 s per side resulted in 3.5 log reduction of virus. These data support the reuse of N95 particle-filtrate apparatus upon irradiation with UVC and supports use of UVC-based decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493495

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: People with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have an increased rate of hospitalization and mortality related to COVID-19. To identify ahead of time those who are at risk of developing severe diseases and potentially in need of intensive care, we investigated the independent associations between longitudinal glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), the impact of common medications (metformin, insulin, ACE inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and corticosteroids) and COVID-19 severity in people with T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study was conducted using deidentified claims and electronic health record data from the OptumLabs Data Warehouse across the USA between January 2017 and November 2020, including 16 504 individuals with T2D and COVID-19. A univariate model and a multivariate model were applied to evaluate the association between 2 and 3-year HbA1c average, medication use between COVID-19 diagnosis and intensive care unit admission (if applicable), and risk of intensive care related to COVID-19. RESULTS: With covariates adjusted, the HR of longitudinal HbA1c for risk of intensive care was 1.12 (per 1% increase, p<0.001) and 1.48 (comparing group with poor (HbA1c ≥9%) and adequate glycemic control (HbA1c 6%-9%), p<0.001). The use of corticosteroids and the combined use of insulin and metformin were associated with significant reduction of intensive care risk, while ACEIs and ARBs were not associated with reduced risk of intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: Two to three-year longitudinal glycemic level is independently associated with COVID-19-related severity in people with T2D. Here, we present a potential method to use HbA1c history, which presented a stronger association with COVID-19 severity than single-point HbA1c, to identify in advance those more at risk of intensive care due to COVID-19 in the T2D population. The combined use of metformin and insulin and the use of corticosteroids might be significant to prevent patients with T2D from becoming critically ill from COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Teste para COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 124: 104809, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517171

RESUMO

Distal phalanges in bat wings have been hypothesized to be cartilaginous to allow for flight. We provide new evidence on how bat wing development might facilitate flight though protein-based regulation of bone mineralization and lead to more deflection at phalanx than humerus. Between Pteropus poliocephalus and Pteropus hypomelanus, two large bat species, we detected 112 proteins including 11 associated with mineralization and analyzed their distribution between the wing bones. Here, in contrast to previous reports, we found no cartilage-specific proteins and demonstrate that distal phalanges in bat wings are in fact low density bone that contain collagen I (the main constituent of bone's organic matrix) and proteins associated with mineralization in bone such as osteomodulin, bone-specific protein osteocalcin. The functional relevance of these changes was explored by measuring changes in mineral (crystal sizes, packing and density), material (Young's modulus and hardness) and structural characteristics. Consistent with changes in proteins associated with mineralization, mineral crystal thickness and alignment decreased from humerus to phalanges, and the mineral platelets were less densely packed along the wing length. Crystal thickness was negatively correlated with proteins associated with inhibition of mineralization as well as with two types of small leucine-rich proteoglycans, indicating the mineral growth and maturity is down regulated by these proteins independent of mineral quantity. The Young's modulus decreased across the wing and was significantly correlated with bone mineral density. Thus, the results from two bat species, studied here, demonstrate progressive alterations in bone mineralization occur in concert with the changes in secretion of bone regulatory proteins along the wing length. This altered mineralization together with structural changes serve to lighten the limb bone and optimize biomechanical properties conducive to flight.

4.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21786, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411349

RESUMO

Biological functions, including glycemic control and bone metabolism, are highly influenced by the body's internal clock. Circadian rhythms are biological rhythms that run with a period close to 24 hours and receive input from environmental stimuli, such as the light/dark cycle. We investigated the effects of circadian rhythm disruption (CRD), through alteration of the light/dark schedule, on glycemic control and bone quality of mice. Ten-week-old male mice (C57/BL6, n = 48) were given a low-fat diet (LFD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) and kept on a dayshift or altered schedule (RSS3) for 22 weeks. Mice were divided into four experimental groups (n = 12/group): Dayshift/LFD, Dayshift/HFD, RSS3/LFD, and RSS3/HFD. CRD in growing mice fed a HFD resulted in a diabetic state, with a 36.2% increase in fasting glucose levels compared to the Dayshift/LFD group. Micro-CT scans of femora revealed a reduction in inner and outer surface expansion for mice on a HFD and altered light schedule. Cancellous bone demonstrated deterioration of bone quality as trabecular number and thickness decreased while trabecular separation increased. While HFD increased cortical bone mineral density, its combination with CRD reduced this phenomenon. The growth of mineral crystals, determined by small angle X-ray scattering, showed HFD led to smaller crystals. Considering modifications of the organic matrix, regardless of diet, CRD exacerbated the accumulation of fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (fAGEs) in collagen. Strength testing of tibiae showed that CRD mitigated the higher strength in the HFD group and increased brittleness indicated by lower post-yield deflection and work-to-fracture. Consistent with accumulation of fAGEs, various measures of toughness were lowered with CRD, but combination of CRD with HFD protected against this decrease. Differences between strength and toughness results represent different contributions of structural and material properties of bone to energy dissipation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that combination of CRD with HFD impairs glycemic control and have complex effects on bone quality.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Esponjoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Esponjoso/fisiologia , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Fêmur/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos
5.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808184

RESUMO

Engineering biomaterials that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) of bone is of significant importance since most of the outstanding properties of the bone are due to matrix constitution. Bone ECM is composed of a mineral part comprising hydroxyapatite and of an organic part of primarily collagen with the rest consisting on non-collagenous proteins. Collagen has already been described as critical for bone tissue regeneration; however, little is known about the potential effect of non-collagenous proteins on osteogenic differentiation, even though these proteins were identified some decades ago. Aiming to engineer new bone tissue, peptide-incorporated biomimetic materials have been developed, presenting improved biomaterial performance. These promising results led to ongoing research focused on incorporating non-collagenous proteins from bone matrix to enhance the properties of the scaffolds namely in what concerns cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation, with the ultimate goal of designing novel strategies that mimic the native bone ECM for bone tissue engineering applications. Overall, this review will provide an overview of the several non-collagenous proteins present in bone ECM, their functionality and their recent applications in the bone tissue (including dental) engineering field.

6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(5): e2271-e2289, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475711

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Increased bone fragility and reduced energy absorption to fracture associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) cannot be explained by bone mineral density alone. This study, for the first time, reports on alterations in bone tissue's material properties obtained from individuals with diabetes and known fragility fracture status. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of T2D in altering biomechanical, microstructural, and compositional properties of bone in individuals with fragility fracture. METHODS: Femoral head bone tissue specimens were collected from patients who underwent replacement surgery for fragility hip fracture. Trabecular bone quality parameters were compared in samples of 2 groups, nondiabetic (n = 40) and diabetic (n = 30), with a mean duration of disease 7.5 ± 2.8 years. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in aBMD between the groups. Bone volume fraction (BV/TV) was lower in the diabetic group due to fewer and thinner trabeculae. The apparent-level toughness and postyield energy were lower in those with diabetes. Tissue-level (nanoindentation) modulus and hardness were lower in this group. Compositional differences in the diabetic group included lower mineral:matrix, wider mineral crystals, and bone collagen modifications-higher total fluorescent advanced glycation end-products (fAGEs), higher nonenzymatic cross-link ratio (NE-xLR), and altered secondary structure (amide bands). There was a strong inverse correlation between NE-xLR and postyield strain, fAGEs and postyield energy, and fAGEs and toughness. CONCLUSION: The current study is novel in examining bone tissue in T2D following first hip fragility fracture. Our findings provide evidence of hyperglycemia's detrimental effects on trabecular bone quality at multiple scales leading to lower energy absorption and toughness indicative of increased propensity to bone fragility.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Flexão/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Osso e Ossos/química , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Osso e Ossos/ultraestrutura , Osso Esponjoso/fisiologia , Osso Esponjoso/ultraestrutura , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colágeno/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Fraturas do Quadril/complicações , Fraturas do Quadril/metabolismo , Fraturas do Quadril/patologia , Fraturas do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/análise
7.
Elife ; 92020 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295868

RESUMO

Protein phosphorylation, critical for cellular regulatory mechanisms, is implicated in various diseases. However, it remains unknown whether heterogeneity in phosphorylation of key structural proteins alters tissue integrity and organ function. Here, osteopontin phosphorylation level declined in hypo- and hyper- phosphatemia mouse models exhibiting skeletal deformities. Phosphorylation increased cohesion between osteopontin polymers, and adhesion of osteopontin to hydroxyapatite, enhancing energy dissipation. Fracture toughness, a measure of bone's mechanical competence, increased with ex-vivo phosphorylation of wildtype mouse bones and declined with ex-vivo dephosphorylation. In osteopontin-deficient mice, global matrix phosphorylation level was not associated with toughness. Our findings suggest that phosphorylated osteopontin promotes fracture toughness in a dose-dependent manner through increased interfacial bond formation. In the absence of osteopontin, phosphorylation increases electrostatic repulsion, and likely protein alignment and interfilament distance leading to decreased fracture resistance. These mechanisms may be of importance in other connective tissues, and the key to unraveling cell-matrix interactions in diseases.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Matriz Extracelular/fisiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Animais , Fraturas Ósseas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fosforilação , Estresse Mecânico
8.
medRxiv ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052360

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Particulate respirators such as N95 masks are an essential component of personal protective equipment (PPE) for front-line workers. This study describes a rapid and effective UVC irradiation system that would facilitate the safe re-use of N95 respirators and provides supporting information for deploying UVC for decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To assess the inactivation potential of the proposed UVC germicidal device as a function of time by using 3M 8211 - N95 particulate respirators inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. DESIGN: A germicidal UVC device to deliver tailored UVC dose was developed and snippets (2.5cm2) of the 3M-N95 respirator were inoculated with 106 plaque-forming units (PFU) of SARS-CoV-2 and were UV irradiated. Different exposure times were tested (0-164 seconds) by fixing the distance between the lamp (10 cm) and the mask while providing an exposure of at least 5.43 mWcm-2. SETTING: The current work is broadly applicable for healthcare-settings, particularly during a pandemic such as COVID-19. PARTICIPANTS: Not applicable. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s): Primary measure of outcome was titration of infectious virus recovered from virus-inoculated respirator pieces after UVC exposure. Other measures included the method validation of the irradiation protocol, using lentiviruses (biosafety level-2 agent) and establishment of the germicidal UVC exposure protocol. RESULTS: An average of 4.38x103 PFUml-1(SD 772.68) was recovered from untreated masks while 4.44x102 PFUml-1(SD 203.67), 4.00x102 PFUml-1(SD 115.47), 1.56x102 PFUml-1(SD 76.98) and 4.44x101 PFUml-1(SD 76.98) was recovered in exposures 2s,6s,18s and 54 seconds per side respectively. The germicidal device output and positioning was monitored and a minimum output of 5.43 mWcm-2 was maintained. Infectious SARS-CoV-2 was not detected by plaque assays (minimal level of detection is 67 PFUml-1) on N95 respirator snippets when irradiated for 120s per side or longer suggesting 3.5 log reduction in 240 seconds of irradiation. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: A scalable germicidal UVC device to deliver tailored UVC dose for rapid decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 was developed. UVC germicidal irradiation of N95 snippets inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 for 120s per side resulted in 100% (3.5 log in total) reduction of virus. These data support the reuse of N95 particle-filtrate apparatus upon irradiation with UVC and supports use of UVC-based decontamination of SARS-CoV-2 virus during the COVID19 pandemic.

9.
Bone ; 140: 115556, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730921

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a metabolic disease on the rise, is associated with substantial increase in bone fracture risk. Because individuals with T2DM have normal or high bone mineral density (BMD), osteodensitometric measurements of BMD do not predict fracture risk with T2DM. Here, we aim to identify the underlying mechanism of the diabetes-induced fracture risk using a high-resolution multi-scale analysis of human cortical bone with special emphasis on osseous cellular activity. Specifically, we show increased cortical porosity in a subgroup of T2DM individuals accompanied by changed mineralization patterns and glycoxidative damage to bone protein, caused by non-enzymatic glycation of bone by reducing sugar. Furthermore, the high porosity T2DM subgroup presents with higher regional mineralization heterogeneity and lower mineral maturity, whereas in the T2DM subgroup regional higher mineral-to-matrix ratio was observed. Both T2DM groups show significantly higher carboxymethyl-lysine accumulation. Our results show a dimorphic pattern of cortical bone reorganization in individuals afflicted with T2DM and hence provide new insight into the diabetic bone disease leading to increased fracture risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Fraturas Ósseas , Densidade Óssea , Osso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos
10.
Methods Cell Biol ; 156: 85-106, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222228

RESUMO

Cell-derived extracellular matrices have emerged as promising scaffolds for tissue engineering (TE) strategies due to their ability to create a biomimetic microenvironment providing biochemical and physical cues to cells, without the limitations of availability and potential pathogen transmission associated with tissue-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are important components of ECM with a crucial role in the maintenance of the mechanical properties of the tissue and as signaling regulators of several cellular processes, such as cell adhesion, growth and differentiation. However, despite their relevance to the field of TE, little information is available on the GAG composition of cell-derived ECM, mainly due to the lack of appropriate quantitative tools to determine different GAG and disaccharide subtypes in complex biological samples. In this chapter, we describe a highly sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to characterize decellularized cell-derived ECM generated in vitro in terms of their GAG and disaccharide composition.


Assuntos
Dissacarídeos/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Glicosaminoglicanos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Matriz Extracelular/ultraestrutura , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/ultraestrutura
11.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(10): 7496-7515, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162324

RESUMO

Noncollagenous proteins in the bone extracellular matrix, such as osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN), inherent to evolution of bone as a skeletal tissue, are known to regulate bone formation and mineralization. However, the fundamental basis of this regulatory role remains unknown. Here, for the first time, we use mouse mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) lacking both OC and OPN to investigate the mechanistic roles of OC and OPN on the proliferation capacity and differentiation ability of MSC. We found that the loss of OC and OPN reduces stem cells self-renewal potential and multipotency, affects their differentiation into an osteogenic lineage, and impairs their angiogenic potential while maintaining chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages. Moreover, loss of OC and OPN compromises the extracellular matrix integrity and maturation, observed by an unexpected enhancement of glycosaminoglycans content that are associated with a more primitive skeletal connective tissue, and by a delay on the maturation of mineral species produced. Interestingly, exogenously supplemented OC and OPN were able to rescue MSC proliferative and osteogenic potential along with matrix integrity and mineral quality. Taken together, these results highlight the key contributions of OC and OPN in enhancing osteogenesis and angiogenesis over primitive connective tissue, and support a potential therapeutic approach based on their exogenous supplementation.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/fisiologia , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Animais , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Tecido Conjuntivo/fisiologia , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Morfogênese/fisiologia
12.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 108(5): 2153-2166, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916699

RESUMO

The clinical demand for tissue-engineered bone is growing due to the increase of non-union fractures and delayed healing in an aging population. Herein, we present a method combining additive manufacturing (AM) techniques with cell-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) to generate structurally well-defined bioactive scaffolds for bone tissue engineering (BTE). In this work, highly porous three-dimensional polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with desired size and architecture were fabricated by fused deposition modeling and subsequently decorated with human mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC)-derived ECM produced in situ. The successful deposition of MSC-derived ECM onto PCL scaffolds (PCL-MSC ECM) was confirmed after decellularization using scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and immunofluorescence. The presence of cell-derived ECM within the PCL scaffolds significantly enhanced MSC attachment and proliferation, with and without osteogenic supplementation. Additionally, under osteogenic induction, PCL-MSC ECM scaffolds promoted significantly higher calcium deposition and elevated relative expression of bone-specific genes, particularly the gene encoding osteopontin, when compared to pristine scaffolds. Overall, our results demonstrated the favorable effects of combining MSC-derived ECM and AM-based scaffolds on the osteogenic differentiation of MSC, resulting from a closer mimicry of the native bone niche. This strategy is highly promising for the development of novel personalized BTE approaches enabling the fabrication of patient defect-tailored scaffolds with enhanced biological performance and osteoinductive properties.

13.
Bone ; 138: 115159, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759204

RESUMO

Metastatic bone disease is incurable with an associated increase in skeletal-related events, particularly a 17-50% risk of pathologic fractures. Current surgical and oncological treatments are palliative, do not reduce overall mortality, and therefore optimal management of adults at risk of pathologic fractures presents an unmet medical need. Plain radiography lacks specificity and may result in unnecessary prophylactic fixation. Radionuclide imaging techniques primarily supply information on the metabolic activity of the tumor or the bone itself. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography provide excellent anatomical and structural information but do not quantitatively assess bone matrix. Research has now shifted to developing unbiased data-driven tools that can predict risk of impending fractures and guide individualized treatment decisions. This review discusses the state-of-the-art in clinical and experimental approaches for prediction of pathologic fractures with bone metastases. Alterations in bone matrix quality are associated with an age-related increase in skeletal fragility but the impact of metastases on the intrinsic material properties of bone is unclear. Engineering-based analyses are non-invasive with the capability to evaluate oncological treatments and predict failure due to the progression of metastasis. The combination of these approaches may improve our understanding of the underlying deterioration in mechanical performance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas , Fraturas Ósseas , Fraturas Espontâneas , Adulto , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Espontâneas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Cintilografia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 13(9): 1544-1558, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151132

RESUMO

Cell-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of a complex assembly of fibrillary proteins, matrix macromolecules, and associated growth factors that mimic the composition and organization of native ECM micro-environment. Therefore, cultured cell-derived ECM has been used as a scaffold for tissue engineering settings to create a biomimetic micro-environment, providing physical, chemical, and mechanical cues to cells, and support cell adhesion, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Here, we present a new strategy to produce different combinations of decellularized cultured cell-derived ECM (dECM) obtained from different cultured cell types, namely, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), as well as the coculture of MSC:HUVEC and investigate the effects of its various compositions on cell metabolic activity, osteogenic differentiation, and angiogenic properties of human bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs, vital features for adult bone tissue regeneration and repair. Our findings demonstrate that dECM presented higher cell metabolic activity compared with tissue culture polystyrene. More importantly, we show that MSC:HUVEC ECM enhanced the osteogenic and angiogenic potential of BM MSCs, as assessed by in vitro assays. Interestingly, MSC:HUVEC (1:3) ECM demonstrated the best angiogenic response of MSCs in the conditions tested. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates that dECM derived from a coculture of MSC:HUVEC impacts the osteogenic and angiogenic capabilities of BM MSCs, suggesting the potential use of MSC:HUVEC ECM as a therapeutic product to improve clinical outcomes in bone regeneration.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Osteogênese , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/ultraestrutura , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/ultraestrutura , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Bone ; 127: 146-154, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207357

RESUMO

The genetic components of microbial species that inhabit the body are known collectively as the microbiome. Modifications to the microbiome have been implicated in disease processes throughout the body and have recently been shown to influence bone. Prior work has associated changes in the microbial taxonomy (phyla, class, species, etc.) in the gut with bone phenotypes but has provided limited information regarding mechanisms. With the goal of achieving a more mechanistic understanding of the effects of the microbiome on bone, we perform a metagenomic analysis of the gut microbiome that provides information on the functional capacity of the microbes (all microbial genes present) rather than only characterizing the microbial taxa. Male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to disruption of the gut microbiota (ΔMicrobiome) using oral antibiotics (from 4 to 16 weeks of age) or remained untreated (n = 6-7/group). Disruption of the gut microbiome in this manner has been shown to lead to reductions in tissue mechanical properties and whole bone strength in adulthood with only minor changes in bone geometry and density. ΔMicrobiome led to modifications in the abundance of microbial genes responsible for the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall and capsule; bacterially synthesized carbohydrates; and bacterially synthesized vitamins (B and K) (p < 0.01). Follow up analysis focused on vitamin K, a factor that has previously been associated with bone health. The vitamin K content of the cecum, liver and kidneys was primarily microbe-derived forms of vitamin K (menaquinones) and was decreased by 32-66% in ∆Microbiome mice compared to untreated animals (p < 0.01). Bone mineral crystallinity determined using Raman spectroscopy was decreased in ∆Microbiome mice (p = 0.01). This study illustrates the use of metagenomic analysis to link the microbiome to bone phenotypes and provides preliminary findings implicating microbially synthesized vitamin-K as a regulator of bone matrix quality.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/microbiologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Metagenoma , Microbiota/genética , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise Espectral Raman , Vitamina K/metabolismo
16.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(7): 1191-1206, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866111

RESUMO

People with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have normal-to-high BMDs, but, counterintuitively, have greater fracture risks than people without T2DM, even after accounting for potential confounders like BMI and falls. Therefore, T2DM may alter aspects of bone quality, including material properties or microarchitecture, that increase fragility independently of bone mass. Our objective was to elucidate the factors that influence fragility in T2DM by comparing the material properties, microarchitecture, and mechanical performance of cancellous bone in a clinical population of men with and without T2DM. Cancellous specimens from the femoral neck were collected during total hip arthroplasty (T2DM: n = 31, age = 65 ± 8 years, HbA1c = 7.1 ± 0.9%; non-DM: n = 34, age = 62 ± 9 years, HbA1c = 5.5 ± 0.4%). The T2DM specimens had greater concentrations of the advanced glycation endproduct pentosidine (+ 36%, P < 0.05) and sugars bound to the collagen matrix (+ 42%, P < 0.05) than the non-DM specimens. The T2DM specimens trended toward a greater bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (+ 24%, NS, P = 0.13) and had greater mineral content (+ 7%, P < 0.05) than the non-DM specimens. Regression modeling of the mechanical outcomes revealed competing effects of T2DM on bone mechanical behavior. The trend of higher BV/TV values and the greater mineral content observed in the T2DM specimens increased strength, whereas the greater values of pentosidine in the T2DM group decreased postyield strain and toughness. The long-term medical management and presence of osteoarthritis in these patients may influence these outcomes. Nevertheless, our data indicate a beneficial effect of T2DM on cancellous microarchitecture, but a deleterious effect of T2DM on the collagen matrix. These data suggest that high concentrations of advanced glycation endproducts can increase fragility by reducing the ability of bone to absorb energy before failure, especially for the subset of T2DM patients with low BV/TV. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Osso Esponjoso/patologia , Osso Esponjoso/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Densidade Óssea , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico por imagem , Módulo de Elasticidade , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Microtomografia por Raio-X
17.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 99: 479-490, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889723

RESUMO

Cell-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) has been employed as scaffolds for tissue engineering, creating a biomimetic microenvironment that provides physical, chemical and mechanical cues for cells and supports cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and differentiation by mimicking their in vivo microenvironment. Despite the enhanced bioactivity of cell-derived ECM, its application as a scaffold to regenerate hard tissues such as bone is still hampered by its insufficient mechanical properties. The combination of cell-derived ECM with synthetic biomaterials might result in an effective strategy to enhance scaffold mechanical properties and structural support. Electrospinning has been used in bone tissue engineering to fabricate fibrous and porous scaffolds, mimicking the hierarchical organized fibrillar structure and architecture found in the ECM. Although the structure of the scaffold might be similar to ECM architecture, most of these electrospun scaffolds have failed to achieve functionality due to a lack of bioactivity and osteoinductive factors. In this study, we developed bioactive cell-derived ECM electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds produced from ECM derived from human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and their combination based on the hypothesis that the cell-derived ECM incorporated into the PCL fibers would enhance the biofunctionality of the scaffold. The aims of this study were to fabricate and characterize cell-derived ECM electrospun PCL scaffolds and assess their ability to enhance osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, envisaging bone tissue engineering applications. Our findings demonstrate that all cell-derived ECM electrospun scaffolds promoted significant cell proliferation compared to PCL alone, while presenting similar physical/mechanical properties. Additionally, MSC:HUVEC-ECM electrospun scaffolds significantly enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs as verified by increased ALP activity and osteogenic gene expression levels. To our knowledge, these results describe the first study suggesting that MSC:HUVEC-ECM might be developed as a biomimetic electrospun scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Poliésteres/farmacologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Liofilização , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/genética , Resistência à Tração
18.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 316(5): E749-E772, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645175

RESUMO

A goal of osteoporosis therapy is to restore lost bone with structurally sound tissue. Mice lacking the transcription factor nuclear matrix protein 4 (Nmp4, Zfp384, Ciz, ZNF384) respond to several classes of osteoporosis drugs with enhanced bone formation compared with wild-type (WT) animals. Nmp4-/- mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) exhibit an accelerated and enhanced mineralization during osteoblast differentiation. To address the mechanisms underlying this hyperanabolic phenotype, we carried out RNA-sequencing and molecular and cellular analyses of WT and Nmp4-/- MSPCs during osteogenesis to define pathways and mechanisms associated with elevated matrix production. We determined that Nmp4 has a broad impact on the transcriptome during osteogenic differentiation, contributing to the expression of over 5,000 genes. Phenotypic anchoring of transcriptional data was performed for the hypothesis-testing arm through analysis of cell metabolism, protein synthesis and secretion, and bone material properties. Mechanistic studies confirmed that Nmp4-/- MSPCs exhibited an enhanced capacity for glycolytic conversion: a key step in bone anabolism. Nmp4-/- cells showed elevated collagen translation and secretion. The expression of matrix genes that contribute to bone material-level mechanical properties was elevated in Nmp4-/- cells, an observation that was supported by biomechanical testing of bone samples from Nmp4-/- and WT mice. We conclude that loss of Nmp4 increases the magnitude of glycolysis upon the metabolic switch, which fuels the conversion of the osteoblast into a super-secretor of matrix resulting in more bone with improvements in intrinsic quality.


Assuntos
Matriz Óssea/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas à Matriz Nuclear/genética , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Calcificação Fisiológica/genética , Colágeno/genética , Colágeno/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicólise/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoporose/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
19.
J Cell Biochem ; 120(4): 6555-6569, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362184

RESUMO

A high demand for functional bone grafts is being observed worldwide, especially due to the increased life expectancy. Osteoinductive components should be incorporated into functional bone grafts, accelerating cell recruitment, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and new bone formation at a defect site. Noncollagenous bone matrix proteins, especially osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OC), have been reported to regulate some physiological process, such as cell migration and bone mineralization. However, the effects of OPN and OC on cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, mineralization, and angiogenesis are still undefined. Therefore, we assessed the exogenous effect of OPN and OC supplementation on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hBM MSC) proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. OPN dose-dependently increased the proliferation of hBM MSC, as well as improved the angiogenic properties of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) by increasing the capillary-like tube formation in vitro. On the other hand, OC enhanced the differentiation of hBM MSC into osteoblasts and demonstrated an increase in extracellular calcium levels and alkaline phosphatase activity, as well as higher messenger RNA levels of mature osteogenic markers osteopontin and osteocalcin. In vivo assessment of OC/OPN-enhanced scaffolds in a critical-sized defect rabbit long-bone model revealed no infection, while new bone was being formed. Taken together, these results suggest that OC and OPN stimulate bone regeneration by inducing stem cell proliferation, osteogenesis and by enhancing angiogenic properties. The synergistic effect of OC and OPN observed in this study can be applied as an attractive strategy for bone regeneration therapeutics by targeting different vital cellular processes.


Assuntos
Calcificação Fisiológica , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteocalcina/administração & dosagem , Osteopontina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Regeneração Óssea , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/metabolismo , Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Coelhos
20.
Appl Phys Rev ; 5(1)2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397419

RESUMO

We review the concept of stochasticity-i.e., unpredictable or uncontrolled fluctuations in structure, chemistry, or kinetic processes-in materials. We first define six broad classes of stochasticity: equilibrium (thermodynamic) fluctuations; structural/compositional fluctuations; kinetic fluctuations; frustration and degeneracy; imprecision in measurements; and stochasticity in modeling and simulation. In this review, we focus on the first four classes that are inherent to materials phenomena. We next develop a mathematical framework for describing materials stochasticity and then show how it can be broadly applied to these four materials-related stochastic classes. In subsequent sections, we describe structural and compositional fluctuations at small length scales that modify material properties and behavior at larger length scales; systems with engineered fluctuations, concentrating primarily on composite materials; systems in which stochasticity is developed through nucleation and kinetic phenomena; and configurations in which constraints in a given system prevent it from attaining its ground state and cause it to attain several, equally likely (degenerate) states. We next describe how stochasticity in these processes results in variations in physical properties and how these variations are then accentuated by-or amplify-stochasticity in processing and manufacturing procedures. In summary, the origins of materials stochasticity, the degree to which it can be predicted and/or controlled, and the possibility of using stochastic descriptions of materials structure, properties, and processing as a new degree of freedom in materials design are described.

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