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1.
Psychosomatics ; 60(1): 56-65, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver transplant candidates undergo psychosocial assessment as a component of their pretransplant evaluation. Global psychosocial assessment scales, including the Psychosocial Assessment of Candidates for Transplantation (PACT), capture and quantify these psychiatric and social variables. OBJECTIVE: Our primary aim was to assess for an association between global PACT score and survival in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined records of all liver recipients at one U.S. Transplant Center from 2000 to 2012 with outcomes monitoring until 07/01/2016. We investigated for associations between the following variables and mortality: PACT score, age, gender, marital status, race, alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and body mass index (BMI). Statistical methods included Student's t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, chi-square, Fisher's exact test, Kaplan-Meier curve, and Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Of 1040 liver recipients, 538 had a documented PACT score. Among these, PACT score was not associated with mortality. In women, a lower PACT score was associated with mortality (p = 0.003) even after adjustments for age, marital status, and BMI. Women with ALD had a 2-fold increased hazard of death (p = 0.012). Increasing age was associated with increased risk of death for the cohort as a whole (p = 0.019) and for men (p = 0.014). In men, being married and BMI were marginally protective (p = 0.10 and p = 0.13, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Transplant psychosocial screening scales, specifically the PACT, identify psychosocial burden and may predict post-transplant outcomes in certain populations. In female liver recipients, lower PACT scores and ALD were associated with a greater risk of post-transplant mortality.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado , Saúde Mental , Mortalidade , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Estilo de Vida , Cirrose Hepática/cirurgia , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
2.
Psychosomatics ; 60(1): 47-55, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychosocial assessment is an essential component of the pretransplant evaluation. Many individuals have significant psychosocial problems, and they are either denied for transplantation or deferred from listing and transplant until the psychosocial issues are addressed. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients who initially had significant psychosocial problems, but who addressed them and received a heart transplant. METHODS: This retrospective study included heart transplant recipients from 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2012. Those with initial Psychosocial Assessment of Candidates for Transplantation (PACT) scale score <2 were compared with those whose initial score was ≥2 for the variables new onset depression and anxiety, length of stay, rejection, and survival using logistic and linear regression and Cox proportional hazards modeling. RESULTS: Of 164 heart recipients with pretransplant PACT scores, 46 (28%) were female, 154 (94%) were white, and the mean age was 52.7 years. Only 11 (7%) received an initial PACT score <2; these candidates underwent heart transplantation after their scores increased to ≥2. Initial PACT <2 increased the odds of new depression by 11-fold (p = 0.002), but was not associated with differences in survival, posttransplant length of stay, the occurrence of treated episodes of rejection or new anxiety (p ≥ 0.20 for all). CONCLUSION: Among heart recipients, initially high pretransplant psychosocial risk, as assessed by PACT, was associated with posttransplant new episode depression. However, after addressing the primary psychosocial issues before transplant, posttransplant length of stay, organ rejection, and survival were the same as those without prior psychosocial concerns.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Transplante de Coração , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Transplante de Coração/psicologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
3.
J Psychosom Res ; 111: 27-35, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the impact of psychiatric comorbidities in liver transplant (LT) recipients aged ≥65 years (elderly) on length of hospital-stay (LOS), death, and a composite outcome of graft loss or death. METHODS: This retrospective study assessed impact of psychiatric comorbidities in 122 elderly LT recipients and a matched group of 122 LT recipients aged <65 years (younger). Associations were assessed using adjusted multivariable regression models. RESULTS: Among elderly, median age at LT was 68 years, most were males (62%), white (85%) and 61.7% had a history of any psychiatric diagnosis. Among younger, median age was 55, most were males (67.2%), white (77.5%) and 61.5% had any psychiatric diagnosis. Median LOS was 8 days for both groups. Among elderly, after a median follow-up of 5 years, 25.4% died and 29.5% experienced graft loss or death. History of adjustment disorder, history of depression, past psychiatric medication use, and pain prior to LT were associated with an increased risk of death or the composite graft loss or death. Perioperative use of SSRIs and lack of sleeping medication use were associated with longer LOS. Among aged <65, after median follow-up of 4.7 years, 21 patients (17%) died and 25 (20%) experienced graft loss or death; history of depression, perioperative SSRIs or sleeping medications use was associated with increased mortality and graft-loss or death. CONCLUSION: Six out of 10 patients among both elderly and younger cohorts had pre-LT psychiatric comorbidities, some of which adversely affected outcomes after LT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado/psicologia , Transplante de Fígado/tendências , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transplantados/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Psychosomatics ; 57(5): 489-97, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27494985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The United Network for Organ Sharing mandates a psychosocial assessment of transplant candidates before listing. A quantified measure for determining transplant candidacy is the Psychosocial Assessment of Candidates for Transplant (PACT) scale. This instrument's predictive value for survival has not been rigorously evaluated among lung transplantation recipients. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of all patients who underwent lung transplantation at Mayo Clinic, Rochester from 2000-2012. A transplant psychiatrist had assessed lung transplant candidates for psychosocial risk with the PACT scale. Recipients were divided into high- and low psychosocial risk cohorts using a PACT score cutoff of 2. The main outcome variable was posttransplant survival. Mortality was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: This study included 110 lung recipients: 57 (51.8%) were females, 101 (91.8%) Whites, mean age: 56.4 years. Further, 7 (6.4%) recipients received an initial PACT score <2 (poor or borderline candidates) and later achieved a higher score, allowing transplant listing; 103 (93.6%) received initial scores ≥2 (acceptable, good or great candidates). An initial PACT score < 2 was modestly associated with higher mortality (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.73, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Lung transplant recipients who initially received a low score on the PACT scale, reflecting poor or borderline psychosocial candidacy, experienced greater likelihood of mortality. This primary finding suggests that the psychosocial assessment, as measured by the PACT scale, may provide additional mortality risk stratification for lung transplant candidates.


Assuntos
Transplante de Pulmão/mortalidade , Transplante de Pulmão/psicologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Psicologia , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Colaboração Intersetorial , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
Prog Transplant ; 22(1): 49-55, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22489443

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Posttransplant quality of life can be significantly affected by personality characteristics identified before transplant. OBJECTIVE: Although overall quality of life in heart transplant patients improves after transplant, many studies reveal poorer mental health outcomes after transplant. We aimed to determine whether transplant recipients with an optimistic explanatory style had improved quality of life, fewer depressive symptoms, and increased survival. DESIGN: We reviewed 68 patients who had completed a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory a mean of 2 years before transplant and examined associations between scores on the Optimism-Pessimism scale, survival rates, and results from the Health Status Questionnaire nearly 4 years after transplant. RESULTS: Optimism was significantly associated with higher quality of life even after age (at the time of transplant), sex, depression score before transplant, time from the personality inventory to transplant, and time from transplant to the Health Status Questionnaire were controlled for. Furthermore, a pessimistic explanatory style was significantly associated with self-reported depressive symptoms, even after depression before transplant was adjusted for. Neither optimism nor pessimism was associated with length of survival. CONCLUSIONS: Pretransplant patients with a pessimistic explanatory style reported depressive symptoms nearly 5 years later. Furthermore, over the same time span, patients with an optimistic explanatory style described a significantly higher quality of life than the pessimists described.


Assuntos
Afeto , Cardiopatias/psicologia , Transplante de Coração/psicologia , Negativismo , Qualidade de Vida , Temperamento , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychosomatics ; 53(2): 116-22, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22424159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychopathology has been commonly observed in liver transplant candidates, and up to 40% have comorbid psychiatric disorders. This illness burden may negatively impact quality of life and transplant outcome. Liver transplantation for cholangiocarcinoma remains uncommon due to the complex treatment protocol. We assessed for pretransplant psychopathology and substance use disorders in liver transplant recipients with cholangiocarcinoma to better characterize this patient group. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 143 liver transplant recipients who completed pretransplant psychological screening with the PAS, BDI-FS, BSI-18, and the SAAST between 2000 and 2004. The majority completed an evaluation by a transplant psychiatrist. Rates of pretransplant psychiatric and substance use symptoms and disorders were compared between 26 patients with cholangiocarcinoma and 117 other liver recipients using χ(2) or Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Of the total cohort, 35% had a pretransplant psychiatric diagnosis, 35% had a substance use disorder, and 43% were current or former smokers. The cholangiocarcinoma cohort had significantly lower scores on the PAS, BDI-FS, and the BSI-18. On interview, the cholangiocarcinoma group was less likely to have an alcohol use disorder (P = 0.03) or any substance use disorder (P = 0.04), but the two groups did not differ significantly in the likelihood of having a psychiatric disorder or smoking history. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that patients with cholangiocarcinoma have lower rates of alcohol and drug use disorders than other liver transplant recipients. They do not differ in rates of psychiatric disorders or smoking. Psychosocial assessment and support are recommended throughout the transplant process.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Colangiocarcinoma/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Colangiocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação da Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 83(2): 165-8, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18241626

RESUMO

Liver transplant (LT) has revolutionized the management of end-stage liver disease in the past 2 decades. The institution of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scoring system for organ allocation has de-emphasized recipient waiting time, but its effect on patients' referral to liver transplant centers is unclear. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the outcome of patients referred for liver transplant in a 12-month period (January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2005) after the institution of the new scoring system. During the study period, 555 patients were presented 605 times to the Liver Transplant Selection Committee. Of the 295 patients initially denied LT, 150 patients (51%) were denied because they were considered too early, 29 (10%) because their tumor did not meet institutional criteria, 72 (24%) because of concomitant psychosocial issues, and 44 (15%) because of comorbid conditions. Patients considered too early and those with psychosocial reasons for denial were often re-presented and listed for LT. Our findings suggest that patients could benefit from early referral to an LT center, even if they are initially denied listing, because management of end-stage renal disease could be initiated and psychosocial issues could be addressed. Referring physicians and transplant centers need to develop a strategy to ensure optimal timing of referrals for LT.


Assuntos
Falência Hepática/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pacientes , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/organização & administração , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Listas de Espera
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