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Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143273


Our aims were to investigate the presence of pituitary glycoprotein hormones in preterm and donor milk, and to examine the effects of Holder pasteurization and refrigeration on the levels of these hormones. We measured follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in milk samples from mothers who delivered prematurely (n = 27) and in samples of mothers who delivered at term and donated milk to the Mother's Milk Bank of Iowa (n = 30). The gonadotropins and TSH were present in similar amounts within human milk produced for preterm and term infants. FSH increased 21% after refrigeration (p < 0.05), while LH declined by 39% (p < 0.05). Holder pasteurization decreased LH by 24% (p < 0.05) and increased TSH by 17% (p < 0.05). Holder pasteurization followed by refrigeration resulted in a 21% increase in FSH and a 41% decrease in LH (both p < 0.05), resulting in more than a 3-fold increase in donor milk FSH:LH ratios (p < 0.05 versus fresh donor milk). Despite structural similarities, the gonadotropins are differentially impacted by Holder pasteurization and refrigeration, and this results in marked alterations in the relative amount of FSH and LH that may be administered to preterm infants, potentially swinging hormonal balance towards ovarian hyperstimulation in females and hypogonadism in males.

Pediatr Res ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000260


BACKGROUND: After birth, breastfeeding is the exclusive source of hormonal signaling between mother and infant. Hospitalized infants often receive donor milk when their own mother's milk is unavailable. METHODS: The presence of insulin, leptin, cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone was examined in samples from milk bank donors and mothers of preterm infants. We further investigated the effect of Holder pasteurization (HoP) on hormone levels. RESULTS: Comparing nonpasteurized samples, leptin levels were nearly threefold higher in milk from mothers of preterm infants versus donated milk, and regardless of milk source, leptin levels were significantly decreased by HoP. Insulin concentrations were also decreased by HoP, and among mothers of preterm infants, obesity was associated with significantly higher content of leptin and insulin. While combined use of donor milk and HoP was associated with cortisol levels nearly threefold higher than those in nonpasteurized own mother's milk, progesterone and testosterone content did not differ by source or pasteurization. CONCLUSIONS: The hormonal composition of breast milk is impacted by HoP and maternal obesity. Compared to nonpasteurized maternal milk, use of pasteurized donor milk dramatically decreases the intake of leptin while increasing the intake of cortisol. Further research is necessary to define optimal breast milk processing practices.

Int Breastfeed J ; 14: 9, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792750


Background: Breast milk provides nutrition for infants and also contains a variety of bioactive factors that influence the development of the newborn. Human milk is a complex biological fluid that can be separated into different layers (water phase and lipid phase with its component water and lipid fractions). It can affect the developing human body along the whole length of the gastrointestinal tract, and through the circulation, its factors may reach every organ. Methods: In the present study, we analyzed milk samples collected monthly for 6 months from 16 mothers from the 4th week postpartum between 2014 and 2016 in Baranya County, Hungary. The 96 samples provided us information about the fluctuation of certain bioactive factors during the first 6 months of lactation. We investigated with Luminex technology the concentrations of several cytokines (CD40, Flt-3L), chemokines (MCP-1, RANTES, GRO, MIP-1ß, MDC, eotaxin, fractalkine), and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post-hoc tests were used to compare the data. Results: We detected the presence of each bioactive factor in every layer of the milk samples during the first 6 months of breastfeeding in widespread concentration ranges. In the case of GRO, MIP-1ß, MDC, Flt-3L, fractalkine, and eotaxin, the concentrations were constant during the first 6 months of lactation. The water phase of human milk contained higher factor concentrations compared to both fractions of the lipid phase for most factors (except eotaxin and MIP-1ß). The concentrations of CD40, EGF, MCP-1, and RANTES in the first 3 months were significantly different compared to the values detected between 4th and 6th months. In the water phase, the level of MCP-1 was significantly decreased, while all of the other factors increased during the 4th through 6th months. We found significantly higher EGF, GRO, and RANTES levels in the water fraction compared to the lipid fraction of the lipid phase. Conclusions: The novel findings of this investigation were the presence of Flt-3L and MDC in all layers of breast milk, and nearly all bioactive factors in the lipid phase. Due to their widespread physiological effects these factors may have an essential role in organogenesis.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol ; 96(10): 1004-1011, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847733


Previously, we found that desethylamiodarone (DEA) may have therapeutic potentiality in bladder cancer. In this study, we determined its effects on human cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Cell viability was evaluated by Muse Cell Count & Viability Assay; cell apoptosis was detected by Muse Annexin V & Dead Cell Assay. Cell cycle was flow cytometrically determined by Muse Cell Cycle Kit and the morphological changes of the cells were observed under a fluorescence microscope after Hoechst 33342 staining. The changes in the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins in the HeLa cells were assessed by immunoblot. Our results showed that DEA significantly inhibited the proliferation and viability of HeLa cells and induced apoptosis in vitro in dose-dependent and also in cell cycle-dependent manner because DEA induced G0/G1 phase arrest in the HeLa cell line. We found that DEA treatment downregulated the expression of phospho-Akt and phospho-Bad. In addition, DEA could downregulate expression of Bcl-2, upregulate Bax, and induce cytochrome c release. Our results indicate that DEA might have significance as an anti-tumor agent against human cervical cancer.

Amiodarona/análogos & derivados , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Amiodarona/metabolismo , Amiodarona/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos