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1.
Nanoscale ; 11(16): 7682-7689, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946426

RESUMO

Ullmann coupling or, more generally, dehalogenative aryl-aryl coupling, is one of the most widely exploited chemical reactions to obtain one- and two-dimensional polymers on metal surfaces. It is generally described as a two-step reaction: (i) dehalogenation, resulting in the formation of a stable intermediate organometallic phase and subsequent (ii) C-C coupling. The topology of the resulting polymer depends on the number and positions of the halogen atoms in the haloaromatic precursor, although its orientation and order are determined by the structure of the intermediate phase. Hitherto, only one intermediate structure, identified as an organometallic (OM) phase, has been reported for such a reaction. Here we demonstrate the formation of two distinct OM phases during the temperature-induced growth of poly(para-phenylene) from 1,4-dibromobenzene precursors on Cu(110). Beyond the already known linear-OM chains, we show that a phase reorganization to a chessboard-like 2D-OM can be activated in a well-defined temperature range. This new intermediate phase, revealed only when the reaction is carried out at low molecular coverages, was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and modeled by density functional theory calculations. Our data show that the 2D-OM remains stable after cooling down the sample and is stabilized by four-Cu clusters at each node. The observation of such unexpected intermediate phase shows the complexity of the mechanisms underlying on-surface synthesis and broadens the understanding of Ullmann coupling, which continues to be astonishing despite its extensive use.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(10): 2510-2517, 2018 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688007

RESUMO

The challenge of synthesizing graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with atomic precision is currently being pursued along a one-way road, based on the synthesis of adequate molecular precursors that react in predefined ways through self-assembly processes. The synthetic options for GNR generation would multiply by adding a new direction to this readily successful approach, especially if both of them can be combined. We show here how GNR synthesis can be guided by an adequately nanotemplated substrate instead of by the traditionally designed reactants. The structural atomic precision, unachievable to date through top-down methods, is preserved by the self-assembly process. This new strategy's proof-of-concept compares experiments using 4,4''-dibromo-para-terphenyl as a molecular precursor on flat Au(111) and stepped Au(322) substrates. As opposed to the former, the periodic steps of the latter drive the selective synthesis of 6 atom-wide armchair GNRs, whose electronic properties have been further characterized in detail by scanning tunneling spectroscopy, angle resolved photoemission, and density functional theory calculations.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(1): 25-30, 2018 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29220194

RESUMO

Recent advances in graphene-nanoribbon-based research have demonstrated the controlled synthesis of chiral graphene nanoribbons (chGNRs) with atomic precision using strategies of on-surface chemistry. However, their electronic characterization, including typical figures of merit like band gap or frontier band's effective mass, has not yet been reported. We provide a detailed characterization of (3,1)-chGNRs on Au(111). The structure and epitaxy, as well as the electronic band structure of the ribbons, are analyzed by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission, and density functional theory.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(51): 16696-16702, 2016 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27958750

RESUMO

Surface-confined polymerization via Ullmann coupling is a promising route to create one- and two-dimensional covalent π-conjugated structures, including the bottom-up growth of graphene nanoribbons. Understanding the mechanism of the Ullmann reaction is necessary to provide a platform for rationally controlling the formation of these materials. We use fast X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in kinetic measurements of epitaxial surface polymerization of 1,4-dibromobenzene on Cu(110) and devise a kinetic model based on mean field rate equations, involving a transient state. This state is observed in the energy landscapes calculated by nudged elastic band (NEB) within density functional theory (DFT), which assumes as initial and final geometries of the organometallic and polymeric structures those observed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The kinetic model accounts for all the salient features observed in the experimental curves extracted from the fast-XPS measurements and enables an enhanced understanding of the polymerization process, which is found to follow a nucleation-and-growth behavior preceded by the formation of a transient state.

5.
ACS Nano ; 10(9): 9000-8, 2016 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27548516

RESUMO

Contributing to the need for new graphene nanoribbon (GNR) structures that can be synthesized with atomic precision, we have designed a reactant that renders chiral (3,1)-GNRs after a multistep reaction including Ullmann coupling and cyclodehydrogenation. The nanoribbon synthesis has been successfully proven on different coinage metals, and the formation process, together with the fingerprints associated with each reaction step, has been studied by combining scanning tunneling microscopy, core-level spectroscopy, and density functional calculations. In addition to the GNR's chiral edge structure, the substantial GNR lengths achieved and the low processing temperature required to complete the reaction grant this reactant extremely interesting properties for potential applications.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(17): 5685-92, 2016 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27115554

RESUMO

Surface-confined dehalogenation reactions are versatile bottom-up approaches for the synthesis of carbon-based nanostructures with predefined chemical properties. However, for devices generally requiring low-conductivity substrates, potential applications are so far severely hampered by the necessity of a metallic surface to catalyze the reactions. In this work we report the synthesis of ordered arrays of poly(p-phenylene) chains on the surface of semiconducting TiO2(110) via a dehalogenative homocoupling of 4,4″-dibromoterphenyl precursors. The supramolecular phase is clearly distinguished from the polymeric one using low-energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy as the substrate temperature used for deposition is varied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of C 1s and Br 3d core levels traces the temperature of the onset of dehalogenation to around 475 K. Moreover, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and tight-binding calculations identify a highly dispersive band characteristic of a substantial overlap between the precursor's π states along the polymer, considered as the fingerprint of a successful polymerization. Thus, these results establish the first spectroscopic evidence that atomically precise carbon-based nanostructures can readily be synthesized on top of a transition-metal oxide surface, opening the prospect for the bottom-up production of novel molecule-semiconductor devices.

7.
ACS Nano ; 10(2): 2644-51, 2016 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26841052

RESUMO

The tunable properties of molecular materials place them among the favorites for a variety of future generation devices. In addition, to maintain the current trend of miniaturization of those devices, a departure from the present top-down production methods may soon be required and self-assembly appears among the most promising alternatives. On-surface synthesis unites the promises of molecular materials and of self-assembly, with the sturdiness of covalently bonded structures: an ideal scenario for future applications. Following this idea, we report the synthesis of functional extended nanowires by self-assembly. In particular, the products correspond to one-dimensional organic semiconductors. The uniaxial alignment provided by our substrate templates allows us to access with exquisite detail their electronic properties, including the full valence band dispersion, by combining local probes with spatial averaging techniques. We show how, by selectively doping the molecular precursors, the product's energy level alignment can be tuned without compromising the charge carrier's mobility.

8.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10235, 2016 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26725974

RESUMO

On-surface covalent self-assembly of organic molecules is a very promising bottom-up approach for producing atomically controlled nanostructures. Due to their highly tuneable properties, these structures may be used as building blocks in electronic carbon-based molecular devices. Following this idea, here we report on the electronic structure of an ordered array of poly(para-phenylene) nanowires produced by surface-catalysed dehalogenative reaction. By scanning tunnelling spectroscopy we follow the quantization of unoccupied molecular states as a function of oligomer length, with Fermi level crossing observed for long chains. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a quasi-1D valence band as well as a direct gap of 1.15 eV, as the conduction band is partially filled through adsorption on the surface. Tight-binding modelling and ab initio density functional theory calculations lead to a full description of the band structure, including the gap size and charge transfer mechanisms, highlighting a strong substrate-molecule interaction that drives the system into a metallic behaviour.

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