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1.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 14(1): 44-49, ene.-mar. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET6-1895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the natural change of nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM), and its association with the progression of refractive error. METHODS: Students of the Beijing Myopia Progression Study were examined at baseline and follow-up examinations, which included cycloplegic autorefraction. Initial NITM and its decay were assessed objectively immediately after binocularly-viewing and performing a sustained 5-minute near task (20 cm). RESULTS: There were 223 students with both NITM and cycloplegic refractive data enrolled. There were 142 myopic (63.7%), 32 emmetropic (14.4%), and 49 hyperopic (22.0%) students according to their baseline cycloplegic refraction. The annual refractive change was -0.45 (-0.73, -0.21) D. From the baseline to the one-year and two-year follow-up periods, the initial NITM (median) increased significantly in the myopic students (0.16, 0.21, and 0.20D, p = 0.01, respectively). The overall proportion of NITM decay types shifted significantly from none being induced at baseline (non-induced: 17.0%, complete decay 57.4%, incomplete decay 25.6%) to incomplete decay at the 2-year follow-up (non-induced: 6.7%, complete decay 65.0%, incomplete decay 28.3%, p = 0.01). For the hyperopic students, after adjusting for risk factors, for every 1 diopter increase in the initial NITM at baseline, there was approximately a -1.48 diopter more relative myopic refractive progression (p = 0.01). No significant association was found between refractive change and the NITM parameters for either the myopic or emmetropic students after adjusting for the same confounders. However, this relation was significant in the hyperopes (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: NITM was only found to be significantly associated with the progression of a myopic refractive shift among the hyperopes


No disponible

2.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441318

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the refractive change and incidence of myopia, as well as their risk factors, among Chinese rural children aged 6-17 years. METHODS: Children who completed the baseline vision examination of the Handan Offspring Myopia Study were re-examined, including both cycloplegic and non-cyloplegic autorefraction, with a mean follow-up time of 42.4±1.47 months. RESULTS: A total of 601 children (68.5%) who completed both baseline and the follow-up examinations were enrolled. The cumulative refractive change and axial length change were -0.53±1.03 diopter and 0.39±0.46 mm (-0.15 diopter/year and 0.11 mm/year), respectively. A hundred and five out of the 469 non-myopic children at baseline become myopic at the follow-up, yielding a cumulative myopia incidence of 22.4% (95% CI: 18.6% to 26.2%), or annual myopia incidence of 6.3%. After adjustment, younger age (ß=0.08, p<0.001), more myopic baseline refraction (ß=0.31, p<0.001), larger difference between cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refraction (ß=-0.20, p=0.007) and more myopic paternal refraction (ß=0.09, p=0.007) were found to be associated with more rapid myopic refractive change. More myopic baseline refraction (relative risk (RR), 95% CI: 0.19, 0.13-0.28, p<0.001) and more myopic paternal refraction (RR, 95% CI: 0.92, 0.84-1.00, p=0.039) were also associated with myopia incidence. CONCLUSION: Relatively low myopic refractive change and myopia incidence were found in this study cohort. Children's refraction and paternal refraction were associated with both myopic refractive change and myopia incidence. Such information will be helpful for further comparisons in other rural versus urban areas of China, and other countries.

3.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 13: 2793-2799, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293880

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the impact of eye exercises of acupoints on myopic progression among Chinese urban students. Methods: The Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) was a three-year cohort study, with 386 students (aged 6-17 years) enrolled at baseline. These students were invited to be reexamined in the years 2011, 2012, and 2013. The student's cycloplegic refraction at each visit and the parental non-cycloplegic refraction at baseline were performed. Students were also required to complete the eye exercise of acupoints questionnaire and the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS). Results: At the final follow-up, 226 students (57.2%) with complete refraction and eye exercises questionnaire data were enrolled in the present study. In the multivariate analysis, only students who performed the eye exercises twice or more per day had less myopic refractive change (ß=0.32, p=0.04), as compared to those who performed the eye exercises less than twice per day. No significant association was found between the CISS score and the refractive change for items in the eye exercises questionnaire. Conclusion: In this study cohort, the Chinese eye exercises of acupoints had a modest effect on reducing myopic progression among Chinese urban students aged 6 to 17 years. The precise mechanism remains unclear, especially in the absence of a control group.

4.
J Glaucoma ; 29(11): 1001-1005, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941321

RESUMO

PRECIS: Aerosols generated by a noncontact tonometer (NCT) were quantified. There was a positive correlation between aerosols and intraocular pressure (IOP), and the concentration of aerosols beside the air jet port was the highest. PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of IOP on the aerosol density generated during the use of an NCT and provide references and suggestions for daily protection of ophthalmic medical staff during the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: This cross-sectional clinical trial included 214 eyes of 140 patients from a hospital in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang Province. All subjects' IOPs were measured by an NCT (39 eyes with low IOP, 90 eyes with normal IOP, 37 eyes with moderately high IOP, and 48 eyes with very high IOP) between March 7 and June 17, 2020. The density of particulate matter (PM) 2.5 and PM10 generated during the process of IOP measurement with an NCT was analyzed. IOP values were recorded simultaneously. The aerosols generated during different IOP measurements were plotted in scatter plots. RESULTS: PM2.5 was generated more at the air jet port of the tonometer during the process of IOP measurement (H=2.731, P=0.019). Larger quantities of PM2.5 and PM10 were generated when the IOP was higher, and these differences were statistically significant (PM2.5: H=119.476, P<0.001; PM10: H=160.801, P<0.001). Linear correlation analysis with one variable demonstrated that IOP had significantly positive correlations with PM2.5 (r=0.756, P<0.001) and PM10 (r=0.864, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Aerosols can be generated while using an NCT to measure IOP, and aerosols and IOP are positively correlated. Patients with moderately high IOP or very high IOP tend to generate more aerosols during the IOP measurement. The concentration of aerosols beside the air jet port was the highest.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Lágrimas/química , Tonometria Ocular/instrumentação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Optom ; 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739315

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the natural change of nearwork-induced transient myopia (NITM), and its association with the progression of refractive error. METHODS: Students of the Beijing Myopia Progression Study were examined at baseline and follow-up examinations, which included cycloplegic autorefraction. Initial NITM and its decay were assessed objectively immediately after binocularly-viewing and performing a sustained 5-minute near task (20 cm). RESULTS: There were 223 students with both NITM and cycloplegic refractive data enrolled. There were 142 myopic (63.7%), 32 emmetropic (14.4%), and 49 hyperopic (22.0%) students according to their baseline cycloplegic refraction. The annual refractive change was -0.45 (-0.73, -0.21) D. From the baseline to the one-year and two-year follow-up periods, the initial NITM (median) increased significantly in the myopic students (0.16, 0.21, and 0.20D, p = 0.01, respectively). The overall proportion of NITM decay types shifted significantly from none being induced at baseline (non-induced: 17.0%, complete decay 57.4%, incomplete decay 25.6%) to incomplete decay at the 2-year follow-up (non-induced: 6.7%, complete decay 65.0%, incomplete decay 28.3%, p = 0.01). For the hyperopic students, after adjusting for risk factors, for every 1 diopter increase in the initial NITM at baseline, there was approximately a -1.48 diopter more relative myopic refractive progression (p = 0.01). No significant association was found between refractive change and the NITM parameters for either the myopic or emmetropic students after adjusting for the same confounders. However, this relation was significant in the hyperopes (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: NITM was only found to be significantly associated with the progression of a myopic refractive shift among the hyperopes.

6.
Front Genet ; 11: 276, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269590

RESUMO

Background: Myopia is a common eye disorder that is approaching epidemic proportions worldwide. A genome-wide association study identified AREG (rs12511037), GABRR1 (rs13215566), and PDE10A (rs12206610) as being associated with refractive error in Asian populations. The present study investigated the associations between these three genetic variants and the occurrence and development of myopia, spherical equivalent refraction (SER), axial length (AL), and corneal curvature (CC) in a cohort of southeastern Chinese schoolchildren. Methods: We examined and followed 550 children in grade 1 enrolled in the Wenzhou Epidemiology of Refractive Error (WERE) project. During the 4-year follow-up, non-cycloplegic refraction was evaluated twice each year, and the AL and CC were measured once every year. Age, sex, and the amounts of time spent on near work and outdoors were documented with a questionnaire. Sanger DNA sequencing was used to genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). SNPtest software was used to identify potential genetic variants associated with myopia, SER, AL, and CC. Ten thousand permutations were used to correct for multiple testing. Results: In total, 469 children, including 249 (53.1%) boys and 220 (46.9%) girls, were included in analyses. The mean age of all the children was 6.33 ± 0.48 years. After adjusting for age, sex, time spent on near work and time spent outdoors, neither the genotypes nor the allele frequencies of the three SNPs were significantly associated with myopic shift, incident myopia or the change in SER. After adjusting for age, sex, near-work time and outdoor time with 10,000 permutations, the genotype AREG (rs12511037) was associated with an increase in AL (P'-values for the dominant, recessive, additive and general models were 0.0032, 0.0275, 0.0045, and 0.0099, respectively); the genotype PDE10A (rs12206610) was associated with a change in CC in the additive (P' = 0.0096), dominant (P' = 0.0096), and heterozygous models (P' = 0.0096). Conclusion: These findings preliminarily indicate that AREG SNP rs12511037 and PDE10A SNP rs12206610 are etiologically relevant for ocular traits, providing a basis for further exploration of the development of myopia and its molecular mechanism. However, elucidating the role of AREG and PDE10A in the pathogenesis of myopia requires further animal model and human genetic epidemiology studies. This trial is registered as ChiCTR1900020584 at www.Chictr.org.cn.

7.
J Ophthalmol ; 2019: 1607064, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885881

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the axial length difference (ALD) and the estimated generational axial length shift (ALS) from parents to their children and its risk factors in urban and rural China. Methods: Participants were enrolled from two longitudinal cohort studies, the Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) and the Handan Offspring Myopia Study (HOMS). Ocular biometry was performed in both parents and their children. ALD was defined as the difference between the children's axial length and the corresponding parental axial length. Generational ALS was estimated according to a binominal prediction model at 18 years of age. Results: 237 and 380 urban and rural Chinese children (6-17 years) and their parents from the BMPS and HOMS, respectively, were enrolled. Children's axial length was estimated to be closest to the parental axial length at 11 and 9 years of age in the urban and rural areas, respectively; the estimated generational ALS would be 1.53 and 0.57 mm, respectively. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that older children (urban ß = 0.26, p < 0.001; rural ß = 0.11, p < 0.001) and males had larger ALD (urban ß = 0.55, p < 0.001; rural ß = 0.52, p < 0.001) in both areas. Furthermore, urban children with more educated parents (fathers: ß = -0.30, p=0.002; mothers: ß = -0.29, p=0.004) and more outdoor activity (ß = -0.23, p=0.006) had a less ALD. Conclusions: The urban generational axial length shift was estimated to be approximately 1 mm longer than that of the rural area. These results suggest different environmental effects on the ocular development in these two populations of Chinese children.

8.
J Ophthalmol ; 2019: 5613986, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341654

RESUMO

Purpose: To assess the changing profile of astigmatism in Chinese schoolchildren and the association between astigmatism changes and ocular biometry. Methods: We examined and followed up 1,463 children aged 6-9 years from Wenzhou, China. We measured noncycloplegic refraction twice each year and tested axial length (AL) and corneal radius of curvature (CRC) annually for two years. We defined clinically significant astigmatism (CSA) as ≤-0.75 diopter (D) and non-CSA astigmatism as ≤0 to >-0.75 D. Results: Prevalence of CSA at baseline was 22.4% (n = 327) and decreased to 20.3% (n = 297) at the two-year follow-up (P = 0.046). Ninety-two (8.1%) non-CSA children developed CSA. In multiple regression, after adjusting for age, gender, baseline cylinder refraction, and axis, children who had longer baseline ALs (>23.58 mm; odds ratio (OR) = 5.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.72-9.90) and longer baseline AL/CRC ratio (>2.99, OR = 4.99, 95% CI: 2.37-10.51) were more likely to develop CSA after two years. Four-hundred and two (27.5%) children had increased astigmatism, 783 (53.5%) had decreased, and 278 (19.0%) had no change during the two-year follow-up. Children with increased astigmatism had longer baseline ALs (23.33 mm, P < 0.001), higher AL/CRC ratios (2.99 mm, P < 0.001), and more negative spherical equivalent refraction (SER) (-0.63 D, P < 0.001) compared with the decreased and no astigmatism change subgroups. Also, children in the increased astigmatism subgroup had more AL growth (0.68 mm, P < 0.001), higher increases in AL/CRC ratio (0.08, P < 0.001), and more negative SER change (-0.86 D, P < 0.001) compared with the decreased and no astigmatism change subgroups. Conclusions: The prevalence of astigmatism decreased slightly over the two-year study period. Longer ALs and higher AL/CRC ratios were independent risk factors for developing CSA. Increased astigmatism was associated with AL growth, AL/CRC ratio increases, and the development of myopia. This trial is registered with ChiCTR1800019915.

9.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 49, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients voice concerns regarding poor night vision, even when they see 20/20 or better in the exam room. During mesopic and scotopic conditions the pupil size increases, increasing the effects on visual performance of uncorrected (residual) refractive errors. The i.Scription refraction method claims to optimize traditional refractions for mesopic and scotopic conditions, by using the information that the Zeiss i.Profilerplus gathers of ocular aberrations (low and high order). The aim of this study was to investigate any differences between habitual and i.Scription refractions and their relationship to night vision complaints. METHODS: Habitual, subjective, and i.Scription refractions were obtained from both eyes of eighteen subjects. Low and high order aberrations of the subjects were recorded with the Zeiss i.Profilerplus. The root mean square (RMS) metric was calculated for small (3 mm) and maximum pupil sizes. Subjects rated their difficulty with driving at night on a scale of 1-10. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between the habitual and i.Scription refractions on both the sphere and cylinder values [(t = 3.12, p < 0.01), (t = 5.39, p < 0.01)]. The same was found when comparing the subjective and i.Scription refractions [(t = 2.31, p = 0.03), (t = 2.54, p = 0.02)]. There were no significant differences found when comparing the sphere and cylinder values between the habitual and subjective refractions or on any combination of spherical equivalent refraction. The maximum pupil size of the subject population on this study, measured with the i.Profilerplus, was 4.8 ± 1.04 mm. Ten out of the eighteen subjects had discomfort at night with an average magnitude of 4 ± 2.7. Ratings of difficulty with night vision correlated with the change in spherical equivalent correction between the habitual and i.Scription refractions (p = 0.01). A sub-analysis of myopic subjects (n = 15) showed an increase in the significance of this relationship (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The i.Scription method improves night vision by correcting the sphere and cylinder more precisely. There was a correlation between the amount of change in the cylinder value between habitual and i.Scription prescriptions and the magnitude of the reported visual discomfort at night.


Assuntos
Cegueira Noturna/fisiopatologia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Testes Visuais/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Software , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 17(1): 203, 2017 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The near work and outdoor activity are the most important environmental risk factors for myopia. However, data from Chinese rural children are relatively rare and remain controversial. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of both near work and outdoor activities with refractive error in rural children in China. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 572 (65.1%) of 878 children (6-18 years of age) were included from the Handan Offspring Myopia Study (HOMS). Information from the parents on these children, as well as the parent's non-cycloplegic refraction, were obtained from the database of the Handan Eye Study conducted in the years 2006-2007. A comprehensive vision examination, including cycloplegic refraction, and a related questionnaire, were assessed on all children. RESULTS: The overall time spent on near work and outdoor activity in the children was 4.8 ± 1.6 and 2.9 ± 1.4 h per day, respectively. Myopic children spent more time on near work (5.0 ± 1.7 h vs.4.7 ± 1.6 h, p = 0.049), while no significant difference was found in outdoor activity hours (2.8 ± 1.3 h vs. 3.0 ± 1.4 h, p = 0.38), as compared to non-myopic children. In the multiple logistic analysis, in general, no association between near work and myopia was found after adjusting for the children's age, gender, parental refractive error, parental educational level, and daily outdoor activity hours [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10, 0.94-1.27]. However, a weak protective effect of the outdoor activity on myopia was found (OR, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.70-0.96), after adjusting for similar confounders. CONCLUSIONS: In general, no association between near work and myopia was found, except for the high near work subgroup with moderate outdoor activity levels. A weak protective effect of outdoor activity on myopia in Chinese rural children was observed.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer , Miopia/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 37(4): 489-497, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28503812

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the difference between cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic autorefraction and its association with the progression of refractive error in Beijing urban children. METHODS: A total of 386 children aged 6-17 years were enrolled in the baseline investigation of the Beijing Myopia Progression Study in 2010. They were invited for follow-up vision examinations in the years 2011, 2012, and 2013, including cycloplegic (cyclopentolate 1%, three times) autorefraction. We investigated the difference between the cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) and the non-cycloplegic SE (DSE) provided by autorefraction and its association with refractive error progression. The progression of refractive error was defined as the difference between the cycloplegic SE at follow-up and at baseline. RESULTS: Two hundred and nineteen children (57%) with completed refractive data (mean ± standard deviation: -1.36 ± 2.44 D at baseline) were ultimately enrolled. The DSE reduced from 0.51 ± 0.72 D at baseline to 0.19 ± 0.43 D in the third year of follow-up (p = 0.01). The baseline DSE was positively associated with the children's baseline cycloplegic refraction (ß = 0.193 dioptre dioptre-1 , p < 0.001). After further divided by refractive status, the DSE was consistently higher in the hyperopic group than in either the emmetropic or myopic groups at each follow-up (all p < 0.001). In the multivariate regression analysis, the myopic children with larger baseline DSE (ß = -0.404 dioptre dioptre-1 , p = 0.01) exhibited more myopic refractive change. However, baseline DSE was not found to be a significant risk factor (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 0.79-1.41) for those with newly developed myopia. CONCLUSION: In this sample, the children's DSE was found to be increased as the hyperopic refraction increased. Furthermore, greater the DSE was associated with the progression of refractive error among the myopic children, but not with the onset of myopia.


Assuntos
Ciclopentolato/administração & dosagem , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Erros de Refração/fisiopatologia , População Urbana , Adolescente , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Midriáticos/administração & dosagem , Soluções Oftálmicas , Refração Ocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Visuais
12.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 24(6): 388-393, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28426334

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the myopigenic activity change and its risk factors in urban students in Beijing. METHODS: A total of 241 primary or secondary students aged 6-17 years from the Beijing Myopia Progression Study (BMPS) were re-examined 3 years after their baseline enrollment. A detailed questionnaire was administered to assess myopigenic activities at both baseline and at the 3-year follow-up. Altogether, 217 students (90.0%) with completed data were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, primary students (n = 123) had significant increases in outdoor sports time (mean ± standard deviation: 3.5 ± 4.3 vs. 2.4 ± 3.0 hours/week, p = 0.02), near work time (32.1 ± 13.4 vs. 24.8 ± 9.2 hours/week, p < 0.001), diopter hours (128.8 ± 53.3 vs. 97.5 ± 35.9 diopter hours/week, p < 0.001), and indoor time (53.8 ± 22.8 vs. 41.4 ± 16.9 hours/week, p < 0.001) at the 3-year follow-up. At both baseline and follow-up, females spent less time than males on outdoor sports (baseline: 2.4 ± 2.8 vs. 4.0 ± 5.2 hours/week, p = 0.006; follow-up: 2.3 ± 3.1 vs. 5.1 ± 5.0 hours/week, p < 0.001), and total outdoors (baseline: 11.9 ± 7.9 vs. 14.4 ± 9.5 hours/week, p = 0.03; follow-up: 10.5 ± 8.2 vs. 13.9 ± 9.6 hours/week, p = 0.005). In the multivariate regression analysis after adjustment by student's gender, younger students had more increase in both near work time (slope = -0.99 hours/week for age, p = 0.009) and indoor time (slope = -2.04 hours/week for age, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the 3-year follow-up, primary students had more myopigenic activities. Female students had more myopigenic activities than males at both baseline and follow-up. Children's age was a significant risk factor for this myopigenic activity change.


Assuntos
Miopia/fisiopatologia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Medição de Risco , Estudantes , População Urbana , Adolescente , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
13.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 16: 349, 2016 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27599547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chinese traditional "eye exercises of acupoints" have been advocated as a compulsory measure to reduce visual symptoms, as well as to retard the development of refractive error, among Chinese students for decades. The exercises are comprised of a 5-min, bilateral eye acupoint self-massage. This study evaluated the possible effect of these eye exercises among Chinese rural students. METHODS: Eight hundred thirty-six students (437 males, 52.3 %), aged 10.6 ± 2.5 (range 6-17) years from the Handan Offspring Myopia Study (HOMS) who completed the eye exercises and vision questionnaire, the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS) questionnaire, and had a cycloplegic refraction were included in this study. RESULTS: 121 (14.5 %) students (64 males, 52.9 %) performed the eye exercises of acupoints in school. The multiple odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for those having a "serious attitude" towards performing the eye exercises (0.12, 0.03-0.49) demonstrated a protective effect for myopia, after adjusting for the children's age, gender, average parental refractive error, and the time spent on near work and outdoor activity. The more frequently, and the more seriously, the students performed the eye exercises each week, the less likely was their chance of being myopic (OR, 95 % CI: 0.17, 0.03-0.99), after adjusting for the same confounders. However, neither the "seriousness of attitude" of performing the eye exercises (multiple ß coefficients: -1.58, p = 0.23), nor other related aspects of these eye exercises, were found to be associated with the CISS score in this sample. CONCLUSIONS: The traditional eye exercises of acupoints appeared to have a modest protective effect on myopia among these Chinese rural students aged 6-17 years. However, no association between the eye exercises and near vision symptoms was found.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Terapia por Exercício , Olho/fisiopatologia , Miopia/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/fisiopatologia , População Rural
14.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 9(3): 196-202, jul.-sept. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-153350

RESUMO

Purpose: To assess the response time associated with visual performance (VP) tasks in the presence of defocus in different presbyopic populations. Methods: 58 eyes between the ages of 35 and 50 years were studied. Subjects were categorized as pre-presbyopic (35-39 years), early-presbyopic (40-45 years), and mid-presbyopic (46-50 years). VP measurements obtained monocularly included distance and near high contrast (HC) and low contrast (LC) optotype recognition, and contrast threshold at 12cpd for different defocus magnitudes between 0D and 3D in 1D steps. Response time defined as the time taken to recognize and verbalize an optotype, was compared among different presbyopic age groups. Results: From 58 eyes, mean (SD) response time for high contrast distance visual acuity for 0D through 3D ranged between 1.48 (0.23) and 1.87 (0.31)s, whereas low contrast distance visual acuity ranged between 1.5 (0.22) and 2.09 (0.49)s. Mean response time for high contrast near visual acuity for 0D through 3D ranged between 1.56 (0.19) and 2.23 (0.45)s. However, for low contrast near visual acuity it ranged between 1.75 (0.32) and 2.71 (0.94)s. Mean (SD) response time for 12cpd ranged between 2.11 (0.50) and 5.72 (1.09)s. ANOVA revealed a significant difference in response time for distance, near visual acuity and contrast sensitivity as a function of defocus for different age groups. Conclusions: Response time is increased in the presence of increasing defocus for both distance and near visual acuity and could impact on performance for critical tasks. Full correction of visual acuity at distance and near in presbyopes is warranted always (AU)


Objetivo: Evaluar el tiempo de respuesta asociado a las tareas del desempeño visual (DV) en presencia de desenfoque, en diferentes poblaciones présbitas. Métodos: Se estudiaron 58 ojos de personas en edades comprendidas entre 35 y 50 años. Se clasificó a los sujetos conforme a las siguientes categorías: pre-presbicia (35-39 años), presbicia temprana (40-45 años), y presbicia media (46-50 años). Las mediciones del desempeño visual obtenidas de forma monocular incluyeron el reconocimiento de optotipos cercanos y lejanos de alto y bajo contraste y el umbral de contraste a 12cpd para las diferentes magnitudes de desenfoque, entre 0D y 3D, a intervalos de 1D. El tiempo de respuesta es el tiempo empleado en reconocer y verbalizar un optotipo, y se comparó entre los diferentes grupos de edad de los individuos présbitas. Resultados: De los 58 ojos, el tiempo de respuesta media (DE) para la agudeza visual de la distancia a alto contraste, entre 0D y 3D, osciló entre 1,48 (0,23) y 1,87 (0,31) segundos, mientras que la agudeza visual de la distancia a bajo contraste osciló entre 1,5 (0,22) y 2,09 (0,49) segundos. El tiempo de respuesta media para la agudeza visual cercana de alto contraste entre 0D y 3D osciló entre 1,56 (0,19) y 2,23 (0,45) segundos. Sin embargo para la agudeza visual cercana de bajo contraste osciló entre 1,75 (0,32) y 2,71 (0,94) segundos. El tiempo de respuesta media (DE) para 12cpd osciló entre 2,11 (0,50) y 5,72 (1,09) segundos. ANOVA reveló una diferencia significativa en cuanto al tiempo de respuesta para la distancia, agudeza visual cercana y sensibilidad de contraste como función del desenfoque para los diferentes grupos de edad. Conclusiones: El tiempo de respuesta se eleva al incrementarse el desenfoque en la agudeza visual lejana y cercana, pudiendo repercutir sobre el desempeño de ciertas tareas esenciales. La corrección plena de la agudeza visual cercana y lejana en individuos présbitas debe de ser siempre garantizada (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tempo de Reação/genética , Presbiopia/metabolismo , Presbiopia/patologia , Optometria/educação , Miose/complicações , Miose/genética , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Presbiopia/complicações , Presbiopia/diagnóstico , Optometria/métodos , Análise de Variância , Miose/diagnóstico , Miose/metabolismo
15.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 254(11): 2247-2255, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27460281

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of daily activities on myopic refractive change and myopic onset in Chinese urban students. METHODS: The Beijing Myopia Progression Study was a 3-year cohort study. Cycloplegic refraction and a daily activity questionnaire were assessed at baseline and at follow-up examinations. Refractive change was defined as the difference in cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) between the final follow-up and baseline. 386 students were initially enrolled in the baseline study. RESULTS: At the final follow-up, 222 students (57.5 %) with completed refractive error and daily activity data were analyzed. These students spent 0.32 ± 2.33 h/day more on near work (p = 0.04), and 0.21 ± 1.31 h/day less on outdoor leisure (p = 0.02), than they did at baseline. In the multivariate analysis, the younger among the secondary students (ß = 0.06, p < 0.001), and those with more near work hours at baseline (ß = -0.028, p = 0.033), exhibited more myopic refractive change. However, myopic refractive change was not found to be significantly associated with near work hours in the primary students, or with time spent outdoors, in either school level. After stratifying the activity hours into quartile groups, students with a greater near work load at baseline (trend P = 0.03) exhibited a greater myopic refractive change and had a higher risk to develop myopia (hazard ratio, 95 % confidence interval: 5.19, 1.49-18.13), after adjusting for the confounders. However, no significant association was found related to outdoor activity. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, children with a greater near work load at baseline exhibited more myopic refractive change and were also more likely to develop myopia. The protective effect of outdoor activity on myopic refractive change was not observed.


Assuntos
Miopia/fisiopatologia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , População Urbana , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Testes Visuais
16.
Clin Exp Optom ; 99(2): 168-72, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26888570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to assess non-cycloplegic objective refraction in darkness using an open-field auto-refractor, and furthermore to compare it with distance cycloplegic subjective refraction and distance cycloplegic retinoscopy in the light, in children and young adults. METHODS: Twenty-three, visually-normal, young-adults (46 eyes) ages 23 to 31 years, and five children (10 eyes) ages five to 12 years, participated in the study. The spherical component of their refraction ranged from -2.25 D to +3.75 D with a mean of +1.80 D, and a mean cylinder of -0.70 D. Three techniques were used to assess refractive error. An objective measure of the non-cycloplegic refractive state was obtained using an open-field autorefractor (WAM-5500) after five minutes in the dark to allow for dissipation of accommodative transients and relaxation of accommodation. In addition, both distance retinoscopy and subjective distance refraction were performed following cycloplegia (Cyclopentolate, 1%) using conventional clinical procedures. All measurements were obtained on the same day within a single session. The spherical component of the refraction was compared among the three techniques in both the children and adults. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in spherical refraction among the three techniques: non-cycloplegic objective refraction in the dark, distance cycloplegic retinoscopy and distance cycloplegic subjective refraction, in either the adults [F(2, 137) = 0.79, p = 0.45] or the children [F(2, 27) = 0.47, p = 0.62]. Mean difference in the spherical component between refraction in the dark and the cycloplegic distance retinoscopy was -0.34 D (r = 0.89) in the adults and +0.14 D (r = 0.96) in the children. The mean difference in spherical component between refraction in the dark and the cycloplegic distance subjective refraction was -0.25 D (r = 0.92) in the adults and -0.05 D (r = 0.95) in the children. CONCLUSION: Comparison of the spherical refractive component between the three techniques was not significantly different and furthermore, they were highly correlated in both the children and adults in this pilot study. Non-cycloplegic refraction in the dark may provide a reliable adjunct or alternative to conventional cycloplegic refraction in both children and young adults.


Assuntos
Ciclopentolato/administração & dosagem , Adaptação à Escuridão/fisiologia , Midriáticos/administração & dosagem , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Retinoscopia/métodos , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Pupila/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Optom ; 9(3): 196-202, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26749188

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the response time associated with visual performance (VP) tasks in the presence of defocus in different presbyopic populations. METHODS: 58 eyes between the ages of 35 and 50 years were studied. Subjects were categorized as pre-presbyopic (35-39 years), early-presbyopic (40-45 years), and mid-presbyopic (46-50 years). VP measurements obtained monocularly included distance and near high contrast (HC) and low contrast (LC) optotype recognition, and contrast threshold at 12cpd for different defocus magnitudes between 0D and 3D in 1D steps. Response time defined as the time taken to recognize and verbalize an optotype, was compared among different presbyopic age groups. RESULTS: From 58 eyes, mean (SD) response time for high contrast distance visual acuity for 0D through 3D ranged between 1.48 (0.23) and 1.87 (0.31)s, whereas low contrast distance visual acuity ranged between 1.5 (0.22) and 2.09 (0.49)s. Mean response time for high contrast near visual acuity for 0D through 3D ranged between 1.56 (0.19) and 2.23 (0.45)s. However, for low contrast near visual acuity it ranged between 1.75 (0.32) and 2.71 (0.94)s. Mean (SD) response time for 12cpd ranged between 2.11 (0.50) and 5.72 (1.09)s. ANOVA revealed a significant difference in response time for distance, near visual acuity and contrast sensitivity as a function of defocus for different age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Response time is increased in the presence of increasing defocus for both distance and near visual acuity and could impact on performance for critical tasks. Full correction of visual acuity at distance and near in presbyopes is warranted always.


Assuntos
Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Presbiopia/fisiopatologia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Projetos Piloto , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia , Visão Monocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0139383, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26421841

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the association between maternal reproductive age and their children' refractive error progression in Chinese urban students. METHODS: The Beijing Myopia Progression Study was a three-year cohort investigation. Cycloplegic refraction of these students at both baseline and follow-up vision examinations, as well as non-cycloplegic refraction of their parents at baseline, were performed. Student's refractive change was defined as the cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) of the right eye at the final follow-up minus the cycloplegic SE of the right eye at baseline. RESULTS: At the final follow-up, 241 students (62.4%) were reexamined. 226 students (58.5%) with completed refractive data, as well as completed parental reproductive age data, were enrolled. The average paternal and maternal age increased from 29.4 years and 27.5 years in 1993-1994 to 32.6 years and 29.2 years in 2003-2004, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, students who were younger (ß = 0.08 diopter/year/year, P<0.001), with more myopic refraction at baseline (ß = 0.02 diopter/year/diopter, P = 0.01), and with older maternal reproductive age (ß = -0.18 diopter/year/decade, P = 0.01), had more myopic refractive change. After stratifying the parental reproductive age into quartile groups, children with older maternal reproductive age (trend test: P = 0.04) had more myopic refractive change, after adjusting for the children's age, baseline refraction, maternal refraction, and near work time. However, no significant association between myopic refractive change and paternal reproductive age was found. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, children with older maternal reproductive age had more myopic refractive change. This new risk factor for myopia progression may partially explain the faster myopic progression found in the Chinese population in recent decades.


Assuntos
Idade Materna , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Erros de Refração/patologia
19.
Clin Exp Optom ; 98(6): 541-6, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26497844

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim was to determine the characteristics of near work-induced transient myopia (NITM) in asymptomatic Indian subjects and the influence of target size and contrast. METHODS: Two studies were conducted: First, 24 myopes and 24 emmetropes viewed four targets (N8 and N12 with 50 and 90 per cent contrasts) placed at 0.2 m for five minutes. The refractive status was assessed objectively, before and after carrying out the near task, with the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 open-field autorefractor under monocular viewing conditions. Second, a different group of 24 myopes and 24 emmetropes viewed a N12 target with 90 per cent contrast for 60 minutes with pre- and post-refractive state measurements repeated as above. NITM was defined as the difference between pre-task and post-task distance refraction. RESULTS: In the first study, myopes demonstrated an initial post-task myopic shift of 0.21 D, whereas emmetropes demonstrated a small hyperopic shift of 0.07 D (p < 0.001). The myopes demonstrated a decay time constant of 6.07 seconds. There was no effect of target size or contrast on the magnitude of the NITM or the decay time constant (p > 0.05). In the second study, myopes showed a NITM of 0.31 D, which was significantly greater than emmetropes (p < 0.001). The myopes demonstrated a decay time constant of 8.16 seconds. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of the NITM was higher in myopes compared to emmetropes for both five minute and 60 minute viewing time. The NITM decayed slightly faster than that found in previous literature for some other ethnic groups. Potential reasons for these findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia , Miopia/etiologia , Leitura , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/fisiopatologia , Testes Visuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cont Lens Anterior Eye ; 38(3): 194-8, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25704463

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the objective and subjective visual performance of custom toric contact lenses (TL) and their spherical off-the-shelf counterparts (SL) in subjects with low amounts of astigmatism. METHODS: Twenty-three habitual soft lens wearers (40 eyes, 25-35 years) manifesting 0.50-1.00DC and ≤±3.00DS were recruited. Air Optix Aqua (Lotrafilcon B) was fit using the spherical equivalent of the manifest refraction. Intelliwave toric in Efrofilcon A (Definitive) was fit using the manifest refraction and keratometric data. Comprehensive visual performance tests were done through manifest refraction in a trial frame; in SL; and in TL. A subjective evaluation of quality of vision was also obtained. RESULTS: ANOVA revealed that, at the morning visit (AM), high contrast logMAR distance visual acuity (HCDVA) was significantly better (p<0.01) in spectacles as compared to SL. A similar trend was noted at the afternoon visit (PM). In addition, at the PM visit, HCDVA was significantly better (p<0.01) for TL as compared to their SL. ANOVA revealed that, at the PM visit, low contrast distance visual acuity (LCDVA) was significantly better (p=0.05) in spectacles as compared to SL. None of these differences were clinically significant. In addition, no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in subjective vision rating scores was noted between SL and TL. CONCLUSIONS: The present investigation found no clinically significant difference in visual performance between spherical and toric soft contact lenses in low astigmats.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo/reabilitação , Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Adulto , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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