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Eur Respir J ; 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112731


Although mesenchymal stromal (stem) cell (MSC) administration attenuates sepsis-induced lung injury in pre-clinical models, the mechanism(s) of action and host immune system contributions to its therapeutic effects, remain elusive. We show that treatment with MSCs decreased expression of host-derived microRNA (miR)-193b-5p and increased expression of its target gene, the tight junctional protein occludin (Ocln), in lungs from septic mice. Mutating the Ocln 3' UTR miR-193b-5p binding sequence impaired binding to Ocln mRNA. Inhibition of miR-193b-5p in human primary pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) prevents tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced decrease in Ocln gene and protein expression and loss of barrier function. MSC conditioned media mitigated TNF-induced miR-193b-5p upregulation and Ocln downregulation in vitro When administered in vivo, MSC conditioned media recapitulated the effects of MSC administration on pulmonary miR-193b-5p and Ocln expression. MiR-193b deficient mice were resistant to pulmonary inflammation and injury induced by LPS instillation. Silencing of Ocln in miR-193b deficient mice partially recovered the susceptibility to LPS-induced lung injury. In vivo inhibition of miR-193b-5p protected mice from endotoxin-induced lung injury. Finally, the clinical significance of these results was supported by the finding of increased miR-193b-5p expression levels in lung autopsy samples from Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome patients who died with diffuse alveolar damage.

Nat Mater ; 20(3): 329-334, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462464


Dissipationless currents from topologically protected states are promising for disorder-tolerant electronics and quantum computation. Here, we photogenerate giant anisotropic terahertz nonlinear currents with vanishing scattering, driven by laser-induced coherent phonons of broken inversion symmetry in a centrosymmetric Dirac material ZrTe5. Our work suggests that this phononic terahertz symmetry switching leads to formation of Weyl points, whose chirality manifests in a transverse, helicity-dependent current, orthogonal to the dynamical inversion symmetry breaking axis, via circular photogalvanic effect. The temperature-dependent topological photocurrent exhibits several distinct features: Berry curvature dominance, particle-hole reversal near conical points and chirality protection that is responsible for an exceptional ballistic transport length of ~10 µm. These results, together with first-principles modelling, indicate two pairs of Weyl points dynamically created by B1u phonons of broken inversion symmetry. Such phononic terahertz control breaks ground for coherent manipulation of Weyl nodes and robust quantum transport without application of static electric or magnetic fields.

Shock ; 56(1): 133-141, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378320


ABSTRACT: Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction (MD) is an important pathophysiological feature of multiorgan failure caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Patients with MD continue to be managed in intensive care units with limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling disease pathogenesis. Emerging evidences support the use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) therapy for treating critically ill septic patients. Combining this with the known role that microRNAs (miRNAs) play in reversing sepsis-induced myocardial-dysfunction, this study sought to investigate how MSC administration alters miRNA expression in the heart. Mice were randomized to experimental polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham surgery, treated with either MSCs (2.5 × 105) or placebo (saline). Twenty-eight hours post-intervention, RNA was collected from whole hearts for transcriptomic and microRNA profiling. The top microRNAs differentially regulated in hearts by CLP and MSC administration were used to generate a putative mRNA-miRNA interaction network. Key genes, termed hub genes, within the network were then identified and further validated in vivo. Network analysis and RT-qPCR revealed that septic hearts treated with MSCs resulted in upregulation of five miRNAs, including miR-187, and decrease in three top hit putative hub genes (Itpkc, Lrrc59, and Tbl1xr1). Functionally, MSC administration decreased inflammatory and apoptotic pathways, while increasing cardiac-specific structural and functional, gene expression. Taken together, our data suggest that MSC administration regulates host-derived miRNAs production to protect cardiomyocytes from sepsis-induced MD.

Nano Lett ; 19(2): 1033-1038, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673240


In classical morphotropic piezoelectric materials, rhombohedral and tetragonal phase variants can energetically compete to form a mixed phase regime with improved functional properties. While the discovery of morphotropic-like phases in multiferroic BiFeO3 films has broadened this definition, accessing these phase spaces is still typically accomplished through isovalent substitution or heteroepitaxial strain which do not allow for continuous modification of phase composition postsynthesis. Here, we show that it is possible to use low-energy helium implantation to tailor morphotropic phases of epitaxial BiFeO3 films postsynthesis in a continuous and iterative manner. Applying this strain doping approach to morphotropic films creates a new phase space based on internal and external lattice stress that can be seen as an analogue to temperature-composition phase diagrams of classical morphotropic ferroelectric systems.