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1.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 109(2): e21861, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904747

RESUMO

The red imported fire ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta Buren is native to South America and known as a global problematic invasive species. At low temperatures, several investigations have demonstrated an increase in glycerol as a primary rapid cold hardening (RCH) component and an increase in the supercooling point. Two genes, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and glycerol kinase (GK), have been identified as being involved in the glycerol production process. In this study, one GPDH and two GK sequences were extracted from RIFA transcriptome analysis (Si-GPDH, Si-GK1, and Si-GK2). All three genes were expressed in different body parts and different tissues of S. invicta that Si-GK2 showed a higher expression level than the others. According to gene expression levels by qRT-PCR analysis, the highest expression levels of three genes were observed in fat body tissues. After 1 h of exposure to low temperatures (5°C or lower), the mRNA levels of these genes significantly increased, according to expression analyses. RNA interference (RNAi) of Si-GPDH or Si-GK1 and Si-GK2 exhibited a significant downregulation at the mRNA level. The mortality rate of treated RIFA by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) specific to GPDH and GK2 significantly increased at low temperatures. This study indicates that GPDH and GK2 as glycerol biosynthesis genes in RIFA have a high expression level to synthesize a high level of glycerol as an RCH factor and they play crucial roles in survival during the cold period.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Formigas/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Glicerol , Espécies Introduzidas , RNA de Cadeia Dupla
2.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(10)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681004

RESUMO

Solenopsis japonica, as a fire ant species, shows some predatory behavior towards earthworms and woodlice, and preys on the larvae of other ant species by tunneling into a neighboring colony's brood chamber. This study focused on the molecular response process and gene expression profiles of S. japonica to low (9 °C)-temperature stress in comparison with normal temperature (25 °C) conditions. A total of 89,657 unigenes (the clustered non-redundant transcripts that are filtered from the longest assembled contigs) were obtained, of which 32,782 were annotated in the NR (nonredundant protein) database with gene ontology (GO) terms, gene descriptions, and metabolic pathways. The results were 81 GO subgroups and 18 EggNOG (evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups) keywords. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with log2fold change (FC) > 1 and log2FC < -1 with p-value ≤ 0.05 were screened for cold stress temperature. We found 215 unigenes up-regulated and 115 unigenes down-regulated. Comparing transcriptome profiles for differential gene expression resulted in various DE proteins and genes, including fatty acid synthases and lipid metabolism, which have previously been reported to be involved in cold resistance. We verified the RNA-seq data by qPCR on 20 up- and down-regulated DEGs. These findings facilitate the basis for the future understanding of the adaptation mechanisms of S. japonica and the molecular mechanisms underlying the response to low temperatures.

3.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 108(3): e21840, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569086

RESUMO

Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the cotton bollworm, is a destructive pest which is famous for its resistance to a variety of insecticides. RNA interference is a posttranscriptional gene silencing mechanism that has become a popular tool to control insect pests, triggered by double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). The effect of ingestion and injection delivery methods of dsRNA related to some protease genes including Trypsin (Ha-TRY39 and Ha-TRY96), Chymotrypsin (Ha-CHY), and Cathepsin L (Ha-CAT) on growth and development of H. armigera was investigated in this study. All protease genes encoded full ORFs and were expressed in all H. armigera larvae stages and tissues. In both injection and feeding bioassays, Ha-RNAi CHY's performance outperformed that of other protease genes. CHY enzyme activity in the midgut of larvae was significantly reduced after treatment with ds-HaCHY. Oral administration of ds-CHY also resulted in significant mortality of H. armigera larvae. However, because of the high RNase activity in the midgut lumen of lepidoptera, a large amount of dsRNA was needed to effectively kill instars of H. armigera. To reduce dsRNA degradation, bacterial expression and dsRNA formulation were used. After oral administration, it was toxic to H. armigera larvae. Before oral administration, bacterial cells were sonicated to increase dsRNA release. The RNA interference efficiency of sonicated bacteria was significantly increased, resulting in higher larval mortality when administered orally. All of these findings point to Ha-CHY as a new candidate for developing an effective dsRNA-based pesticide for H. armigera control.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Peptídeo Hidrolases , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/farmacologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Catepsinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Catepsinas/genética , Quimotripsina/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimotripsina/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mortalidade , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados , Peptídeo Hidrolases/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/biossíntese , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Tripsina/efeitos dos fármacos , Tripsina/genética
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16476, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389756

RESUMO

The red imported fire ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta Buren is native to South America and is known as a global problematic invasive species. This study focused on the molecular response of RIFA by comparing gene expression profiles after exposing ants to low (10 °C) and high (40 °C) temperature stress and comparing them to untreated controls (30 °C). A total of 99,085 unigenes (the clustered non-redundant transcripts that are filtered from the longest assembled contigs) were obtained, of which 19,154 were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, and metabolic pathways. 86 gene ontology (GO) functional sub-groups and 23 EggNOG terms resulted. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with log2FC ≥ 10 were screened and were compared at different temperatures. We found 203, 48, and 66 specific DEGs co-regulated at 10, 20, and 40 °C. Comparing transcriptome profiles for differential gene expression resulted in various DE genes, including cytochrome P450, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, cuticle protein and heat shock protein (HSP), which have previously been reported to be involved in cold and high temperature resistance. GO analysis revealed that antioxidant activity is up-regulated under high temperature stress. We verified the RNA-seq data by qPCR on 20 up- and down-regulated DEGs. These findings provide a basis for future understanding of the adaptation mechanisms of RIFA and the molecular mechanisms underlying the response to low and high temperatures.


Assuntos
Formigas/genética , Animais , Formigas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura , Transcriptoma/genética , Transcriptoma/fisiologia
5.
Science ; 373(6554): 535-541, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326235

RESUMO

Interkingdom competition occurs between hymenopteran parasitoids and insect viruses sharing the same insect hosts. It has been assumed that parasitoid larvae die with the death of the infected host or as result of competition for host resources. Here we describe a gene family, parasitoid killing factor (pkf), that encodes proteins toxic to parasitoids of the Microgastrinae group and determines parasitism success. Pkfs are found in several entomopathogenic DNA virus families and in some lepidopteran genomes. We provide evidence of equivalent and specific toxicity against endoparasites for PKFs found in entomopoxvirus, ascovirus, baculovirus, and Lepidoptera through a mechanism that elicits apoptosis in the cells of susceptible parasitoids. This highlights the evolutionary arms race between parasitoids, viruses, and their insect hosts.


Assuntos
Entomopoxvirinae/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/toxicidade , Lepidópteros/parasitologia , Lepidópteros/virologia , Proteínas Virais/toxicidade , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose , Evolução Biológica , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genoma de Inseto , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Vírus de Insetos/fisiologia , Larva/genética , Larva/parasitologia , Larva/virologia , Lepidópteros/genética , Lepidópteros/metabolismo , Nucleopoliedrovírus/fisiologia , Spodoptera/genética , Spodoptera/metabolismo , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Spodoptera/virologia , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Vespas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Insects ; 12(5)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069069

RESUMO

Repat (=response to pathogen) is proposed for an immune-associated gene family from Spodoptera exigua, a lepidopteran insect. In this gene family, 46 members (Repat1-Repat46) have been identified. They show marked variations in their inducible expression patterns in response to infections by different microbial pathogens. However, their physiological functions in specific immune responses and their interactions with other immune signaling pathways remain unclear. Repat33 is a gene highly inducible by bacterial infections. The objective of this study was to analyze the physiological functions of Repat33 in mediating cellular and humoral immune responses. Results showed that Repat33 was expressed in all developmental stages and induced in immune-associated tissues such as hemocytes and the fat body. RNA interference (RNAi) of Repat33 expression inhibited the hemocyte-spreading behavior which impaired nodule formation of hemocytes against bacterial infections. Such RNAi treatment also down-regulated expression levels of some antimicrobial genes. Interestingly, Repat33 expression was controlled by eicosanoids. Inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis by RNAi against a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) gene suppressed Repat33 expression while an addition of arachidonic acid (a catalytic product of PLA2) to RNAi treatment recovered such suppression of Repat33 expression. These results suggest that Repat33 is a downstream component of eicosanoids in mediating immune responses of S. exigua.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20183, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214688

RESUMO

Epoxyoctadecamonoenoic acids (EpOMEs) are epoxide derivatives of linoleic acid (9,12-octadecadienoic acid) and include 9,10-EpOME and 12,13-EpOME. They are synthesized by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) and degraded by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Although EpOMEs are well known to play crucial roles in mediating various physiological processes in mammals, their role is not well understood in insects. This study chemically identified their presence in insect tissues: 941.8 pg/g of 9,10-EpOME and 2,198.3 pg/g of 12,13-EpOME in fat body of a lepidopteran insect, Spodoptera exigua. Injection of 9,10-EpOME or 12,13-EpOME into larvae suppressed the cellular immune responses induced by bacterial challenge. EpOME treatment also suppressed the expression of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes. Among 139 S. exigua CYPs, an ortholog (SE51385) to human EpOME synthase was predicted and its expression was highly inducible upon bacterial challenge. RNA interference (RNAi) of SE51385 prevented down-regulation of immune responses at a late stage (> 24 h) following bacterial challenge. A soluble epoxide hydrolase (Se-sEH) of S. exigua was predicted and showed specific expression in all development stages and in different larval tissues. Furthermore, its expression levels were highly enhanced by bacterial challenge in different tissues. RNAi reduction of Se-sEH interfered with hemocyte-spreading behavior, nodule formation, and AMP expression. To support the immune association of EpOMEs, urea-based sEH inhibitors were screened to assess their inhibitory activities against cellular and humoral immune responses of S. exigua. 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid (AUDA) was highly potent in suppressing the immune responses. The addition of AUDA to a pathogenic bacterium significantly increased bacterial pathogenicity by suppressing host immune defense. In sum, this study demonstrated that EpOMEs play a crucial role in facilitating anti-inflammatory responses in S. exigua.


Assuntos
Compostos de Epóxi/imunologia , Ácidos Oleicos/imunologia , Spodoptera/imunologia , Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Adamantano/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Compostos de Epóxi/metabolismo , Compostos de Epóxi/farmacologia , Corpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Hemócitos/fisiologia , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/imunologia , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/imunologia , Ácidos Láuricos/farmacologia , Ácidos Oleicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Oleicos/farmacologia , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/genética , Spodoptera/metabolismo
8.
Insects ; 11(4)2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231170

RESUMO

Sterile insect release technique (SIT) is effective for eradicating quarantine insects including various tephritid fruit flies. When SIT is used for fruit flies, it is challenging to remove females from sterile males due to oviposition-associated piercing damage. This study developed a sex transition technique by feeding double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) specific to a sex-determining gene, Transformer-2 (Zs-Tra2) of the striped fruit fly, Zeugodacus scutellata. Zs-Tra2 is homologous to other fruit fly orthologs. It is highly expressed in female adults. RNA interference (RNAi) of Zs-Tra2 by injecting or feeding its specific dsRNA to larvae significantly increased male ratio. Recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing dsRNA specific to Zs-Tra2 were prepared and used to feed larvae to suppress Zs-Tra2 gene expression levels. When these recombinant bacteria were fed to larvae during the entire feeding stage, the test population was significantly male-biased. Some females treated with such recombinant E. coli exhibited mosaic morphological characters such as the presence of male-specific abdominal setae in females. This study proposes a novel technique by feeding dsRNA specific to Transformer-2 to reduce female production during mass-rearing of tephritid males for SIT.

9.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 107: 103643, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067998

RESUMO

Eicosanoids mediate both cellular and humoral immune responses in insects. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are a group of eicosanoids containing epoxide formed by epoxygenase (EPX) activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP). Although EETs have been considered to mediate immune responses in some insects, their synthetic machinery was little understood in insects. This study monitored EETs in a lepidopteran insect, Spodoptera exigua, immunized with bacteria and found all four EETs (5,6-EET, 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET, and 14,15-EET) from larval fat body at 247-1,736 pg/g levels. Then to predict EPXs, 140 CYPs were collected from S. exigua transcriptomes and compared with human EPXs. Four CYPs (SeEPX1-SeEPX4) sharing homologies with human EPXs were chosen and assessed in subsequent expression and functional analyses. All four EPXs were expressed in all development stages. In larval stage, all four EPXs were expressed in immune-associated tissues such as fat body and hemocytes. Furthermore, their expression levels were highly enhanced by bacterial challenge in different tissues. RNA interference (RNAi) using gene-specific double stranded RNA injection suppressed their expression levels by more than 55%. RNAi treatments interfered with hemocyte-spreading behavior and nodule formation upon bacterial challenge except RNAi treatment against SeEPX2. All four EETs stimulated cellular immune response measured by nodule formation in S. exigua. The suppressed immune responses by the RNAi treatments against three SeEPXs were rescued by the addition of 8,9-EET. However, other three EETs gave their specific rescue effect depending on SeEPX types under RNAi. In humoral immune response, all four RNAi treatments suppressed expression of antimicrobial peptide genes. This study reports the presence of all four EETs in larval fat body of S. exigua and suggests that four SeEPXs are associated with immune responses mediated by EETs.


Assuntos
Compostos de Epóxi/metabolismo , Corpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Spodoptera/imunologia , Animais , Compostos de Epóxi/imunologia , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/genética , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transcriptoma
10.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 101(3): e21559, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062425

RESUMO

Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) hydrolyzes fatty acids from phospholipids at the sn-2 position. Two intracellular PLA2 s, iPLA2 A and iPLA2 B, have been found in Spodoptera exigua. Both are calcium-independent cellular PLA2 . Their orthologs have been found in other insects. These two iPLA2 s are different in ankyrin motif of N terminal region. The objective of this study was to determine whether Toll/immune deficiency (IMD) signal pathways could mediate cellular immune responses via induction of iPLA2 expression. Both iPLA 2 s were expressed in all developmental stages of S. exigua, showing the highest expression in the adult stage. During larval stage, hemocyte is the main tissue showing expression of these iPLA2 s. Both iPLA2 s exhibited similar expression patterns after immune challenge with different microbial pathogens such as virus, bacteria, and fungi. Promoter component analysis of orthologs encoded in S. frugiperda indicated nuclear factor-κB- and Relish-responsible elements on their promoters, suggesting their expression in S. exigua under Toll/IMD immune signaling pathways. RNA interference (RNAi) of MyD88 or Pelle under Toll pathway suppressed inducible expression levels of both iPLA2 s in response to Gram-positive bacteria containing Lys-type peptidoglycan or fungal infection. In contrast, RNAi against Relish under IMD pathway suppressed both iPLA2 s in response to infection with Gram-negative bacteria. Under RNAi conditions, hemocytes significantly lost cellular immune response measured by nodule formation. However, addition of arachidonic acid (a catalytic product of PLA2 ) rescued such immunosuppression. These results suggest that Toll/IMD signal pathways can mediate cellular immune responses via eicosanoid signaling by inducing iPLA2 expression.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Celular , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Fosfolipases A2/genética , Spodoptera/imunologia , Animais , Fungos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Nucleopoliedrovírus/fisiologia , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Spodoptera/enzimologia , Spodoptera/genética , Spodoptera/microbiologia
11.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 95: 108-117, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776421

RESUMO

Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) hydrolyses phospholipids at sn-2 position to release free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. Secretory type of PLA2 (sPLA2) has been found in many different animals including insects. Insect sPLA2s have been divided into venomous and nonvenomous PLA2s. A non-venomous sPLA2 (Se-sPLA2) has been identified in beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. Its high enzyme activity is detected in hemolymph of naïve larvae. However, the physiological role of high sPLA2 activity in hemolymph remains unclear. To determine the physiological role of sPLA2 in hemolymph, a recombinant Se-sPLA2 (rSe-sPLA2) was expressed in a bacterial expression system and purified to test antimicrobial activity against various microbes. Purified rSe-sPLA2 exhibited typical enzyme kinetic properties, including becoming saturated at high substrate concentrations, exhibiting optimal activity at pH 7-9, and being inactivated at high temperatures. However, a reducing agent (dithiothreitol) or calcium chelator treatment inhibited the catalytic activity. A specific inhibitor to sPLA2 also inhibited the enzyme activity of rSe-sPLA2 while other type PLA2 inhibitors did not. Furthermore, eight bacterial metabolites of Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus known to be inhibitory against insect PLA2 significantly inhibited the enzyme activity of rSe-sPLA2. High concentrations of rSe-sPLA2 (above 0.5 mM) showed significant cytotoxicity to hemocytes of S. exigua. At concentrations without showing cytotoxicity, rSe-sPLA2 possessed significant antimicrobial activities against entomopathogenic bacteria (Serratia marscens and Entercoccus mondtii) and fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhyzium rileyi). Hemolymph obtained from larvae treated with RNA interference specific to Se-sPLA2 significantly lost such antimicrobial activities. However, the addition of rSe-sPLA2 to the hemolymph significantly rescued such antimicrobial activities. These results indicate that Se-sPLA2 possesses antimicrobial activity, suggesting that it might act as a prophylactic agent against microbial pathogens in the hemolymph of S. exigua.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/imunologia , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Fosfolipases A2/imunologia , Spodoptera/imunologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos , Hemolinfa , Proteínas de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Inibidores de Fosfolipase A2/farmacologia , Fosfolipases A2/isolamento & purificação , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Spodoptera/metabolismo , Spodoptera/microbiologia
12.
Protoplasma ; 256(2): 447, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280255

RESUMO

In the original version of this article unfortunately some symbols did not appear in the plates caused by technical problems of the journal. We apologize for any inconvenience caused.

13.
Protoplasma ; 256(2): 431-445, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203160

RESUMO

The subtribe Cajaninae of papilionoid legumes has a pantropical distribution and comprises approximately 490 species. These species have diversified throughout dry environments where there are high temperatures and strong light. The subtribe stands out because all its representatives have vesicular glands. In addition, bulbous-based and capitate trichomes are important secretory structures present in all genera of the Cajaninae. We analyzed the ultrastructure and histochemistry of these glandular trichome types in leaflets of the three species of the subtribe. Using transmission electron microscopy and histochemical analyses, we link the glandular secretions to subcellular structures. We here report for the first time the type of exudate and ultrastructure of the glands of subtribe Cajaninae. Terpenoids and phenolics were confirmed by histochemistry tests, and we observed that the organelles responsible for biosynthesis of oils are the most representative in these glands. Each glandular trichome showed particular ultrastructural features compatible with the compounds produced. We suggest that these glandular trichomes, with their respective exudates, act in defense against herbivory and against possible damage by ultraviolet radiation.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Terpenos/química , Tricomas/ultraestrutura
14.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 89: 83-92, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107251

RESUMO

Eicosanoids are oxygenated C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids that mediate various physiological processes in insects. Eicosanoid biosynthesis begins with a C20 precursor, arachidonic acid (5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid: AA). AA is usually released from phospholipids at sn-2 position by catalytic activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Although various PLA2s classified into 16 gene families (= Groups) are known in various biological systems, few PLA2s are known in insects. Only two PLA2s involved in intracellular calcium independent PLA2 (iPLA2) group have been identified in lepidopteran insects with well known eicosanoid physiology. This study reports the first secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) in lepidopteran insects. A partial open reading frame (ORF) of PLA2 was obtained by interrogating Spodoptera exigua transcriptome. Subsequent 3'-RACE resulted in a full ORF (Se-sPLA2A) encoding 194 amino acid sequence containing signal peptide, calcium-binding domain, and catalytic site. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Se-sPLA2A was clustered with other Group III sPLA2s. Se-sPLA2A was expressed in most larval instars except late last instar. Its expression was inducible by immune challenge and juvenile hormone analog injection. RNA interference of Se-sPLA2A significantly suppressed cellular immunity and impaired larval development. These results suggest that non-venomous sPLA2 plays a crucial role in immune and developmental processes in S. exigua, a lepidopteran insect.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/fisiologia , Fosfolipases A2 Secretórias/fisiologia , Spodoptera/enzimologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Insetos , Imunidade Celular , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Modelos Moleculares , Fosfolipases A2 Secretórias/genética , Fosfolipases A2 Secretórias/imunologia , Filogenia , Domínios Proteicos , Interferência de RNA , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spodoptera/imunologia
15.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 439, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata, is a woody vine native to Southeast Asia that has been introduced globally for cattle forage and erosion control. The vine is highly invasive in its introduced areas, including the southeastern US. Modern molecular marker resources are limited for the species, despite its importance. Transcriptomes for P. montana var. lobata and a second phaseoloid legume taxon previously ascribed to genus Pueraria, Neustanthus phaseoloides, were generated and mined for microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms. RESULTS: Roche 454 sequencing of P. montana var. lobata and N. phaseoloides transcriptomes produced read numbers ranging from ~ 280,000 to ~ 420,000. Trinity assemblies produced an average of 17,491 contigs with mean lengths ranging from 639 bp to 994 bp. Transcriptome completeness, according to BUSCO, ranged between 64 and 77%. After vetting for primer design, there were 1646 expressed simple sequence repeats (eSSRs) identified in P. montana var. lobata and 1459 in N. phaseoloides. From these eSSRs, 17 identical primer pairs, representing inter-generic phaseoloid eSSRs, were created. Additionally, 13 primer pairs specific to P. montana var. lobata were also created. From these 30 primer pairs, a final set of seven primer pairs were used on 68 individuals of P. montana var. lobata for characterization across the US, China, and Japan. The populations exhibited from 20 to 43 alleles across the seven loci. We also conducted pairwise tests for high-confidence SNP discovery from the kudzu transcriptomes we sequenced and two previously sequenced P. montana var. lobata transcriptomes. Pairwise comparisons between P. montana var. lobata ranged from 358 to 24,475 SNPs, while comparisons between P. montana var. lobata and N. phaseoloides ranged from 5185 to 30,143 SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: The discovered molecular markers for kudzu provide a starting point for comparative genetic studies within phaseoloid legumes. This study both adds to the current genetic resources and presents the first available genomic resources for the invasive kudzu vine. Additionally, this study is the first to provide molecular evidence to support the hypothesis of Japan as a source of US kudzu and begins to narrow the origin of US kudzu to the central Japanese island of Honshu.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Espécies Introduzidas , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Pueraria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pueraria/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Controle de Qualidade , Análise de Sequência
16.
Appl Plant Sci ; 6(3): e1036, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732266

RESUMO

Premise of the Study: The development of pipelines for locus discovery has spurred the use of target enrichment for plant phylogenomics. However, few studies have compared pipelines from locus discovery and bait design, through validation, to tree inference. We compared three methods within Leguminosae (Fabaceae) and present a workflow for future efforts. Methods: Using 30 transcriptomes, we compared Hyb-Seq, MarkerMiner, and the Yang and Smith (Y&S) pipelines for locus discovery, validated 7501 baits targeting 507 loci across 25 genera via Illumina sequencing, and inferred gene and species trees via concatenation- and coalescent-based methods. Results: Hyb-Seq discovered loci with the longest mean length. MarkerMiner discovered the most conserved loci with the least flagged as paralogous. Y&S offered the most parsimony-informative sites and putative orthologs. Target recovery averaged 93% across taxa. We optimized our targeted locus set based on a workflow designed to minimize paralog/ortholog conflation and thus present 423 loci for legume phylogenomics. Conclusions: Methods differed across criteria important for phylogenetic marker development. We recommend Hyb-Seq as a method that may be useful for most phylogenomic projects. Our targeted locus set is a resource for future, community-driven efforts to reconstruct the legume tree of life.

17.
J Econ Entomol ; 111(1): 178-186, 2018 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29240906

RESUMO

The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lep: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest of numerous major food crops worldwide. Protease inhibitors from plants, expressed constitutively in transgenic crops, have potential for pest management as an alternative to chemical pesticides. In this study, a protease inhibitor was isolated, purified, and characterized from Datura metel L. seeds. The purity of the isolated inhibitor was confirmed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and activity staining showed one major peak and one clear activity band for the protein. Electrophoretic studies following gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography revealed two and one bands for purified proteins, respectively. Partial biochemical characterizations of the purified inhibitor were determined. Maximum inhibitory activity was observed at 40-45°C (optimal temperature) when tested against gut extracts of fourth to sixth instar H. armigera larvae. Thermo-stability of the trypsin inhibitor against sixth instar larval midgut trypsin was observed up to 50°C when incubated for 30 min and 2 h. Among metal ions tested, Fe2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+ were found to decrease the trypsin inhibitory activity, whereas Hg2+, Mg2+, K+, Zn2+, Na+, Ca2+, and Cd2+ were found to significantly increase the inhibitory effect. This trypsin inhibitor showed competitive inhibition where the apparent value of Michaelis-Menten Km increased, but the value of Vmax remained unchanged.


Assuntos
Datura metel/química , Proteínas de Insetos/antagonistas & inibidores , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Tripsina/farmacologia , Tripsina/metabolismo , Animais , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/fisiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0183054, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800614

RESUMO

Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been applied to control insect pests due to its induction of RNA interference (RNAi) of a specific target gene expression. However, developing dsRNA-based insecticidal agent has been a great challenge especially against lepidopteran insect pests due to variations in RNAi efficiency. The objective of this study was to screen genes of chymotrypsins (SeCHYs) essential for the survival of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, to construct insecticidal dsRNA. In addition, an optimal oral delivery method was developed using recombinant bacteria. At least 7 SeCHY genes were predicted from S. exigua transcriptomes. Subsequent analyses indicated that SeCHY2 was widely expressed in different developmental stages and larval tissues by RT-PCR and its expression knockdown by RNAi caused high mortality along with immunosuppression. However, a large amount of dsRNA was required to efficiently kill late instars of S. exigua because of high RNase activity in their midgut lumen. To minimize dsRNA degradation, bacterial expression and formulation of dsRNA were performed in HT115 Escherichia coli using L4440 expression vector. dsRNA (300 bp) specific to SeCHY2 overexpressed in E. coli was toxic to S. exigua larvae after oral administration. To enhance dsRNA release from E. coli, bacterial cells were sonicated before oral administration. RNAi efficiency of sonicated bacteria was significantly increased, causing higher larval mortality at oral administration. Moreover, targeting young larvae possessing weak RNase activity in the midgut lumen significantly enhanced RNAi efficiency and subsequent insecticidal activity against S. exigua.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico/metabolismo , Quimotripsina/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Insetos/antagonistas & inibidores , Larva/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , Spodoptera/genética , Administração Oral , Animais , Quimotripsina/genética , Quimotripsina/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Filogenia , Isoformas de Proteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Sonicação , Spodoptera/classificação , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spodoptera/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
19.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 104: 44-59, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27495827

RESUMO

Several taxonomic and phylogenetic studies have hypothesized polyphyly within Pueraria DC., a genus comprising 19 species (24 with varieties) including the highly invasive Pueraria montana var. lobata (Kudzu) introduced to the U.S.A. about 150years ago. Previous efforts to investigate monophyly of the genus have been hampered by limited taxon sampling or a lack of comprehensive evolutionary context that would enable definitive taxonomic associations. This work presents a comprehensive phylogenetic investigation of Pueraria within the context of tribe Phaseoleae (Leguminosae). Polyphyly was found to be more extensive than previously thought, with five distinct lineages spread across the tribe and spanning over 25mya of divergence strongly supported by two chloroplast and one nuclear marker, AS2, presented here as a phylogenetic marker for the first time. Our phylogenies support taxonomic revisions to rectify polyphyly within Pueraria, including the resurrection of Neustanthus, moving one species to Teyleria, and the creation of two new genera, Haymondia and Toxicopueraria (taxonomic revisions published elsewhere).


Assuntos
Pueraria/classificação , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Biológica , Cloroplastos/genética , DNA de Plantas/química , DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pueraria/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 29070, 2016 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27356763

RESUMO

Winged bean, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC., is similar to soybean in yield and nutritional value but more viable in tropical conditions. Here, we strengthen genetic resources for this orphan crop by producing a de novo transcriptome assembly and annotation of two Sri Lankan accessions (denoted herein as CPP34 [PI 491423] and CPP37 [PI 639033]), developing simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between geographically separated genotypes. A combined assembly based on 804,757 reads from two accessions produced 16,115 contigs with an N50 of 889 bp, over 90% of which has significant sequence similarity to other legumes. Combining contigs with singletons produced 97,241 transcripts. We identified 12,956 SSRs, including 2,594 repeats for which primers were designed and 5,190 high-confidence SNPs between Sri Lankan and Nigerian genotypes. The transcriptomic data sets generated here provide new resources for gene discovery and marker development in this orphan crop, and will be vital for future plant breeding efforts. We also analyzed the soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) gene family, important plant defense genes, in the context of related legumes and found evidence for radiation of the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) gene family within winged bean.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Inibidor da Tripsina de Soja de Kunitz/genética
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