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1.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(1)2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477676

RESUMO

We analyzed the clinical and pathological features of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients treated with cabozantinib stratified by body mass index (BMI). We retrospectively collected data from 16 worldwide centers involved in the treatment of RCC. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional models were used at univariate and multivariate analyses. We collected data from 224 patients with advanced RCC receiving cabozantinib as second- (113, 5%) or third-line (111, 5%) therapy. The median PFS was significantly higher in patients with BMI ≥ 25 (9.9 vs. 7.6 months, p < 0.001). The median OS was higher in the BMI ≥ 25 subgroup (30.7 vs. 11.0 months, p = 0.003). As third-line therapy, both median PFS (9.2 months vs. 3.9 months, p = 0.029) and OS (39.4 months vs. 11.5 months, p = 0.039) were longer in patients with BMI ≥ 25. BMI was a significant predictor for both PFS and OS at multivariate analysis. We showed that a BMI ≥ 25 correlates with longer survival in patients receiving cabozantinib. BMI can be easily assessed and should be included in current prognostic criteria for advanced RCC.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(1)2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401585

RESUMO

A number of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been approved as first-line therapy in case of cisplatin-ineligible patients or as second-line therapy for patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) of the bladder. About 30% of patients with mUC will respond to ICIs immunotherapy. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression detected by immunohistochemistry seems to predict response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with mUC as supported by the objective response rate (ORR) and overall survival (OS) associated with the response observed in most clinical trials. Pembrolizumab, an anti-PD-1 antibody, demonstrated better OS respective to chemotherapy in a randomized phase 3 study for second-line treatment of mUC. Nivolumab, a PD-1 antibody, also demonstrated an OS benefit when compared to controls. Atezolizumab, Durvalumab, and Avelumab antibodies targeting PD-L1 have also received approval as second-line treatments for mUC with durable response for more than 1 year in selected patients. Atezolizumab and Pembrolizumab also received approval for first-line treatment of patients that are ineligible for cisplatin. A focus on the utility of ICIs in the adjuvant or neoadjuvant setting, or as combination with chemotherapy, is the basis of some ongoing trials. The identification of a clinically useful biomarker, single or in association, to determine the optimal ICIs treatment for patients with mUC is very much needed as emphasized by the current literature. In this review, we examined relevant clinical trial results with ICIs in patients with mUC alone or as part of drug combinations; emphasis is also placed on the adjuvant and neoadjuvant setting. The current landscape of selected biomarkers of response to ICIs including anti-PD-L1 immunohistochemistry is also briefly reviewed.

3.
Virchows Arch ; 475(6): 735-744, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588959

RESUMO

Focal or non-focal/extensive extraprostatic extension of prostate carcinoma is an important pathologic prognostic parameter to be reported after radical prostatectomy. Currently, there is no agreement on how to measure and what are the best cutoff points to be used in practice. We hypothesized that digital microscopy would potentially provide more objective measurements of extraprostatic extension, thus better defining its clinical significance. To further our knowledge on digital prostate pathology, we evaluated the status of extraprostatic extension in 107 consecutive laparoscopic radical prostatectomy samples, using digital and conventional light microscopy. Mean linear and radial measurements of extraprostatic extension by digital microscopy significantly correlated to pT status (p = 0.022 and p = 0.050, respectively) but only radial measurements correlated to biochemical recurrence (p = 0.042) and grade groups (p = 0.022). None of the measurements, whether conventional or digital, were associated with lymph node status. Receiving operating characteristic analysis showed a potential cutoff point to assess linear measurements by conventional (< vs. > 24.21 mm) or digital microscopy (< vs. > 15 mm) or by radial measurement (< vs. > 1.6 mm). Finally, we observed an association between the number of paraffin blocks bearing EPE with pT (p = 0.041) status (digital microscopy), and linear measurements by conventional (p = 0.044) or digital microscopy (p = 0.045) with lymph node status. Reporting EPE measurements by digital microscopy, both linear and radial, and the number of paraffin blocks with EPE, might provide additional prognostic features after radical prostatectomy.


Assuntos
Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico
4.
Hum Pathol ; 93: 6-15, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442520

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to test whether the grade group assessed in the index tumor nodule predicts biochemical recurrence after surgery. The study cohort series included 144 consecutive patients treated by laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. The following parameters were evaluated in each case: type of radical prostatectomy (with/without lymphadenectomy), pT and pN status, histologic type of prostate carcinoma (acinar versus mixed histology), surgical margin resection status, perineural invasion, lymphovascular invasion, biochemical recurrence status, presence of tertiary Gleason 5 pattern, and grade group that was assessed both in overall prostate cancer and in index (dominant) tumor nodule. Twenty patients (13.9%) experienced postoperative biochemical recurrence at a mean follow-up time of 12.2 months. The univariate survival analysis selected type of radical prostatectomy, histological subtype, lymphovascular invasion, American Joint Committee on Cancer pT and pN classification, tertiary Gleason 5 pattern, preoperative serum prostate specific antigen level, and the grade group assessed in both the overall prostate and index tumor nodule as significant for biochemical recurrence-free survival. Type of radical prostatectomy (P = .020), histological subtype (P = .002), lymphovascular invasion (P = .023), tertiary Gleason pattern 5 (P = .016), and grade group classification in index tumor nodule (P ≤ .0001) were selected as independent predictors of biochemical recurrence-free survival. In conclusion, our results validate grade group in the index tumor nodule as an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence-free survival, thus emphasizing the value of reporting grade group in index tumor nodule. The main limitation of our study is the relatively low number of cases in the current series, suggesting the need of large confirmatory studies.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Próstata/patologia , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Glândulas Seminais/patologia
5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(1)2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905816

RESUMO

Cabozantinib is approved for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, prognostic factors are still lacking in this context. The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors in RCC patients treated with second- or third-line cabozantinib. A multicenter retrospective real-world study was conducted, involving 32 worldwide centers. A total of 237 patients with histologically confirmed clear-cell and non-clear-cell RCC who received cabozantinib as second- or third-line therapy for metastatic disease were included. We analyzed overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and time-to-strategy failure (TTSF) using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional models were used at univariate and multivariate analyses.The median PFS and OS of cabozantinib were 7.76 months (95% CI 6.51-10.88) and 11.57 months (95% CI 10.90-not reached (NR)) as second-line and 11.38 months (95% CI 5.79-NR) and NR (95% CI 11.51-NR) as third-line therapy. The median TTSF and OS were 11.57 and 15.52 months with the sequence of cabozantinib-nivolumab and 25.64 months and NR with nivolumab-cabozantinib, respectively. The difference between these two sequences was statistically significant only in good-risk patients. In the second-line setting, hemoglobin (Hb) levels (HR= 2.39; 95% CI 1.24-4.60, p = 0.009) and IMDC (International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium) group (HR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.04-2.87, p = 0.037) were associated with PFS while ECOG-PS (HR = 2.33; 95%CI, 1.16-4.69, p = 0.018) and Hb levels (HR = 3.12; 95%CI 1.18-8.26, p = 0.023) correlated with OS at multivariate analysis, while in the third-line setting, only Hb levels (HR = 2.72; 95%CI 1.04-7.09, p = 0.042) were associated with OS. Results are limited by the retrospective nature of the study.This real-world study provides evidence on the presence of prognostic factors in RCC patients receiving cabozantinib.

6.
Virchows Arch ; 472(3): 451-460, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453523

RESUMO

Positive surgical margin (PSM) extension reported as focal or non-focal/extensive is an important pathologic prognostic parameter after radical prostatectomy. Likewise, there is limited or no agreement on how to measure and what the best cut-off points to be used in practice are. We hypothesized that digital microscopy (DM) would potentially provide a more objective way to measure PSM and better define its clinical significance. To further our knowledge, we have evaluated PSM status in 107 laparoscopic radical prostatectomies using digital and conventional light microscopy (LM). DM evaluation detected three additional PSM cases, but no differences were seen (LM vs DM; p = 0.220). Mean linear measurement correlated to biochemical recurrence (BR) (LM, p = 0.002; DM, p = 0.001). ROC analysis identified a cut-off point to assess linear measurement by LM (3.5 mm) or DM (3.2 mm), but only digital measurement was significant for BR-free survival. Our study also evaluated a cut-off ≤ 3 mm that was associated to BR using LM (p = 0.023) or DM (p = 0.001). Finally, the number of paraffin blocks bearing PSM correlated with BR (p < 0.001) status with either LM or DM. In conclusion, DM produces similar data than LM but shows more accurate measurements. Reporting of PSM with score of ≤ 3 vs. > 3 mm linear extent using LM (3.2 mm if digital microscopy is applied) might represent an important prognostic feature after radical prostatectomy. Alternatively, reporting the number of blocks with PSM 1 vs. 2 or more might also provide important prognostic data in practice.


Assuntos
Margens de Excisão , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Prostatectomia/métodos
7.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 21(4): 401-414, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28281901

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite more than 30 years of research on p53 resulting in >50,000 publications, we are now beginning to figure out the complexity of the p53 pathway, gene ontology and conformational structure of the molecule. Recent years brought great advances in p53 related drugs and the potencial ways in which p53 is inactivated in cancer. Areas covered: We searched for related publications on Pubmed and ClinicalTrial.gov using the following keywords 'p53, Tp53, p53 and bladder cancer, p53 and therapeutic target'. Relevant articles improved the understanding on p53 pathways and their potential as candidate to targeted therapy in bladder cancer. Expert opinion: Novel strategies developed to restore the function of mutants with chemical chaperones or by using compounds to improved pharmacokinetic properties are in development with potential to be applied in the oncology clinic. Other strategies targeting aberrantly overexpressed p53 regulators with wild-type p53 are also an active area of research. In particular, studies inhibiting the interaction of p53 with its negative regulators MDMX and MDM2 are an important field in drug discovery. Small molecules for inhibition of MDM2 are now in clinical trials process. However, personalized anticancer therapy might eventually advance through analyses of p53 status in cancer patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Chaperonas Moleculares/farmacologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-mdm2/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
8.
Curr Drug Targets ; 17(7): 757-70, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26844572

RESUMO

Bladder cancer treatment, namely systemic therapy, was dominated in the last three decades due to the absence of newer therapeutic options other than chemotherapy regimens. Chemotherapy, by itself, both in first and second-line seems to have achieved the modest plateau of its possibilities at the cost of non-negligible toxicity. Targeted therapies, which changed the therapy of many different tumors, seem rather ineffective in bladder cancer. More recently, a new generation of Immunotherapy based regimens represent the most promising avenue for the future systemic treatment of bladder cancer. Checkpoint inhibition, namely PD1/PD-L1 pathway inhibition, showed impressive results in many other tumor types and are expected to become a major player in the treatment of bladder cancer. Other immunotherapy strategies such as fusion proteins represent distant, although promising, options. A brief overview of the current status of bladder cancer immunotherapy is presented.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Genética/métodos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
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