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1.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107122, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598011

RESUMO

Binge drinking among young adults (18-25) has been recognized as a public health concern. Considerable variation among drinking behaviors have been found among this group. Several statistical methods are available to identify theoretically and empirically meaningful correlates of binge drinking. The present study evaluated three methods for identifying correlates of binge drinking, comparing logistic regression to two machine learning methods-classification tress and random forests. While each model identified similar correlates of binge drinking-such as propensity for engaging in risky behaviors, marijuana dependence, cocaine dependence, identifying as non-Hispanic white, and higher education-the AUC analysis showed that the random forest analysis more accurately classified positive cases of binge drinking. Random forests modelling of psychosocial data is a feasible approach for identifying correlates of binge drinking behaviors among young adults. Clinical implications are discussed related to screening for binge drinking in behavioral health organizations.


Assuntos
Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Adulto , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Programas de Rastreamento , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 720273, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778126

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the associations between childhood, parental, and grandparental asthma. Methods: We studied 59,484 children randomly selected from 94 kindergartens, elementary, and middle schools in seven Chinese cities from 2012 to 2013, using a cross-sectional survey-based study design. Information on their and their family members' (parents, paternal grandparents, and maternal grandparents) asthma status were reported by children's parents or guardians. Mixed effects logistic regressions were used to assess hereditary patterns of asthma and mediation analysis was performed to estimate the potential mediation effect of parents on the association between grandparental asthma and childhood asthma. Results: The magnitude of ORs for childhood asthma increased as the number of family members affected by asthma increased. Among children who had one family member with asthma, childhood asthma was associated with asthma in maternal grandmothers (OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.67-2.59), maternal grandfathers (OR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.71-2.53), paternal grandmothers (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.93-2.99), and paternal grandfathers (OR: 2.59, 95% CI: 2.14-3.13). Among children who had two family members with asthma, the highest asthma risk was found when both parents had asthma (OR: 15.92, 95% CI: 4.66-54.45). Parents had a small proportion of mediation effect (9-12%) on the association between grandparental asthma and childhood asthma. Conclusions: Grandparents with asthma were associated with childhood asthma and parents with asthma partially mediated the association.

3.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 229(Pt B): 109139, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Roughly one in ten American adults have used hallucinogens, and emerging evidence suggests that the prevalence of use is increasing. However, our understanding of the degree to which individuals "specialize" in the use of a particular hallucinogen or are poly-hallucinogen users remains incomplete. METHODS: This study examined data from 6381 individuals reporting past-year hallucinogen use in the 2016-2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Logistic regression examined the association between the number of distinct hallucinogens used and psychosocial/behavioral risks, and latent class analysis (LCA) characterized subgroups of hallucinogen users. RESULTS: The vast majority of hallucinogen users, roughly 70%, are not "specialists" who use only one hallucinogen type; rather, lifetime poly-hallucinogen use is the norm. Critically, however, we also see that important differences exist within the population of hallucinogen users-half (51%) could be classified as LSD-Mushroom-Ecstasy users only (this group was disproportionally comprised of youth), nearly one third (30%) were Poly-Hallucinogen users (this group was disproportionately male and non-Hispanic White), and smaller proportions were limited primarily to use of LSD-Mushrooms (6%; these individuals were almost exclusively ages 35 and older) or Ecstasy Only (12%; these individuals were mostly younger adults ages 18-34). CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide a fresh contribution to our understanding of poly-hallucinogen use in a time in which local and state governmental leaders, and people across the country, weigh the benefits and drawbacks of legalizing specific hallucinogenic drugs.

4.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; : 306624X211049199, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605279

RESUMO

The current study examines whether the link between low self-control and perceptions of procedural justice among urban-born youth is contingent on acts of officer intrusiveness. Data come from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and are restricted to youth reporting lifetime police stops at Year 15 (N = 918). Findings reveal that the association between low self-control and diminished perceptions of procedural justice is significantly moderated by officer intrusiveness. To be precise, low self-control became more relevant in diminished perceptions of procedural justice as officer intrusiveness decreased. The findings carry implications for police-citizen interactions, including the training of police officers in developmental science and how low self-control may shape youth perceptions of police encounters.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639621

RESUMO

Mothers who had a nonmarital birth experience multiple risk factors for depression, including housing instability. Yet, important questions remain about the extent of long-term housing instability and its association with future depression among at-risk mothers. Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study data, we examine cumulative housing instability over a 15-year period following nonmarital birth and its association with maternal depression. Based on a sample of 2279 mothers who had a nonmarital birth in 20 major US cities between 1998-2000, we examined their 15-year residential moves and housing arrangements. Then, we tested the associations between the cumulative residential moves and major depressive episodes (MDE) in Year 15 using logistic regression analysis. One in every four mothers had six or more residential moves in 15 years following a nonmarital birth. For each additional move, mothers reported up to 27.9% higher odds of having a past-year MDE in Year 15, translating into the prevalence increases from 6.0% (zero move) to 20.6% (10 moves). Our findings suggest that greater attention should be paid to housing needs among mothers following a nonmarital birth, including temporary housing assistance and more fundamental programs to reduce housing instability as preventive mental health services.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Criança , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Mães
6.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; : 306624X211049200, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622698

RESUMO

Psychopathic traits and a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are common among imprisoned individuals. Although previous research has examined correlates of TBI among juvenile offenders, little research has explored the relationship between psychopathic traits and TBI among this population. Study objectives included: (1) examine the association between the history of a TBI and psychopathic traits among juvenile offenders and (2) determine if the history of a TBI predicts the manifestation of different psychopathic factors among juvenile offenders. Cross-sectional data from the Multidimensional Youth Residential Inventory consisted of 226 juvenile offenders. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results of linear regression analyses showed that history of a TBI significantly predicted callous unemotional and impulsive irresponsible traits. Clinical implications suggest early intervention is needed to treat the potential long-term effects of TBIs and the development of psychopathic traits. Recommendations for further research are discussed.

7.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 228: 109055, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hallucinogen use is rising in the US, yet little is known regarding the prevalence and psychosocial/behavioral correlates of driving under the influence of these drugs. METHODS: This study examined data from 4447 individuals ages 16-64 who reported past-year hallucinogen use in the 2016-2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Prevalence estimates (with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were calculated for driving under the influence of hallucinogens (DUIH). Logistic regression examined psychosocial/behavioral correlates of DUIH, and latent class analysis (LCA) characterized subgroups of individuals reporting DUIH. RESULTS: The prevalence of past-year hallucinogen use was 2.42% (CI = 2.30-2.54) and, in the general population, the prevalence of DUIH was 0.21%. Among past-year hallucinogen users, 8.94% (CI = 7.74-10.31) reported DUIH on at least one occasion over the previous 12 months. The probability of DUIH increased significantly with more frequent use. Compared to individuals who used hallucinogens and did not report DUIH, individuals reporting DUIH were significantly more likely to report mental health problems; use of other illicit drugs; selling drugs; a past-year arrest; or driving under the influence of alcohol, cannabis, or other illicit drugs. LCA identified three classes of individuals reporting DUIH, characterized by: use of and driving under the influence of cannabis; use of and driving under the influence of cannabis and other illicit drugs; and mental health concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly one in ten individuals who report using hallucinogens also report driving under the influence of hallucinogens-drugs that affect perception and risk-taking, with alarming implications for driving safety.

8.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 228: 109059, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Asian Americans (AAs) are the fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States. There is a paucity of research on alcohol-related problems among AAs. However, alcohol use and misuse are a growing concern within this population and are associated with adverse health and mental health consequences. METHODS: Using data from the 2015-2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), we examined the prevalence, psycho-social-behavioral correlates, and gender differences in drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol use disorder (AUD) among AA adolescents and adults. We also estimated the prevalence of binge drinking and AUD by country of origin and nativity. RESULTS: Older adolescents (15-17) had the highest prevalence of past-month drinking (8.00%), binge drinking (4.3%), and AUD (1.8%). Among AA adults, the highest rates of binge drinking (23.0%) and AUD (7.2%) were observed among young adults ages 18-25. The highest rates of binge drinking and AUD were observed among US-born Korean Americans (binge drinking: 26.9%, AUD: 13.1%) and US-born Filipino Americans (binge drinking: 25.9%, AUD: 6.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to the common perception that AA is a low-risk group for alcohol problems, we found that AA young adults, US-born Korean, Filipino, and Indian Americans have a high risk for drinking, binge drinking, and/or AUD. We also identified risk and protective factors against alcohol use/misuse among AAs. Preventions and interventions that incorporate the important risk/protective factors for AAs using a culturally sensitive approach are needed.

9.
Toxics ; 9(9)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564372

RESUMO

Numerous studies have demonstrated that exposure to ambient ozone (O3) could have adverse effects on children's respiratory health. However, previous studies mainly focused on asthma and wheezing. Evidence for allergic rhinitis and bronchitic symptoms (e.g., persistent cough and phlegm) associated with O3 is limited, and results from existing studies are inconsistent. This study included a total of 59,754 children from the seven northeastern cities study (SNEC), who were aged 2 to 17 years and from 94 kindergarten, elementary and middle schools. Information on doctor-diagnosed allergic rhinitis (AR), persistent cough, and persistent phlegm was collected during 2012-2013 using a standardized questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Information for potential confounders was also collected via questionnaire. Individuals' exposure to ambient ozone (O3) during the four years before the investigation was estimated using a satellite-based random forest model. A higher level of O3 was significantly associated with increased risk of AR and bronchitic symptoms. After controlling for potential confounders, the OR (95% CI) were 1.13 (1.07-1.18), 1.10 (1.06-1.16), and 1.12 (1.05-1.20) for AR, persistent cough, and persistent phlegm, respectively, associated with each interquartile range (IQR) rise in O3 concentration. Interaction analyses showed stronger adverse effects of O3 on AR in children aged 7-17 years than those aged 2-6 years, while the adverse association of O3 with cough was more prominent in females and children aged 7-12 years than in males and children aged 2-6 and 13-17 years. This study showed that long-term exposure to ambient O3 was significantly associated with higher risk of AR and bronchitic symptoms in children, and the association varies across age and gender. Our findings contribute additional evidence for the importance of controlling O3 pollution and protecting children from O3 exposure.

10.
J Res Adolesc ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553445

RESUMO

Youth-police encounters are common in the United States, with potentially serious mental health ramifications requiring social supports to cope. Still, no research has examined youth disclosure of these experiences to others. Using a national sample of youth stopped by police (N = 918; 56.09% Black, 20.48% Hispanic), we find that more than two-thirds disclosed police encounters-most commonly to mothers. Even so, disclosure became less likely as perceptions of procedural injustice, social stigma, and legal cynicism increased. Among youth who disclosed stops but not to parents, disclosure to friends was common (61.18%), whereas disclosure to nonparent adults was not. Enhanced training for teachers, school counselors, and community leaders may improve youth outcomes by facilitating additional opportunities for disclosure and support.

11.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111974, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent research attention has been paid to anthropogenic heat emissions (AE), temperature increase generated by human activity such as lighting, transportation, manufacturing, construction, and building climate controls. However, there is no epidemiological data available to investigate the association between anthropogenic heat emissions and metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of conditions that increase risk of stroke, heart disease and diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationships between AE and MetS in China. METHODS: We recruited 15,477 adults from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study, a cross-sectional study in northeastern China. We retrieved anthropogenic heat flux by collecting socio-economic and energy consumption data as well as satellite-based nighttime light and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index datasets, including emissions from buildings, transportation, human metabolism, and industries. We also measured MetS components consisting of triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, and waist circumference. Restricted cubic spline models were applied to assess the associations between AE and MetS. RESULTS: The median flux of total AE was 30.98 W/m2 and industrial AE was the dominant contributor (87.64%). The adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) of MetS for the 75th and 95th percentiles of the total AE against the threshold were 1.29 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.38) and 1.65 (95% CI: 1.47, 1.85). Greater AE was associated with higher odds of MetS in a dose-response pattern, and the lowest point of U-shape curve indicated the threshold effect. Participants who are young and middle-aged exhibited stronger associations between AE and MetS. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel findings reveal that AE are positively associated with MetS and that associations are modified by age. Further investigations into the mechanisms of the effects are needed.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374827

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prior research examining alcohol use using national data has often overlooked vital heterogeneity among Hispanics, especially that related to language dominance and gender. We examine the prevalence of alcohol abstinence and-given prior research suggesting that many Spanish dominant Hispanics do not drink-examine rates of binge drinking among past-year alcohol users with a focus on the intersections of language and gender among Hispanics, while drawing comparisons with non-Hispanic (NH) White and NH Black adults. METHODS: Drawing from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health-a nationally representative survey between 2002 and 2018-we examine the year-by-year prevalence of alcohol abstinence and binge drinking among adults ages 18 and older in the United States. RESULTS: A disproportionate number of Spanish-dominant Hispanics abstain from alcohol use (54%), with particularly high levels of alcohol abstinence observed among Spanish dominant women (men: 39%, women: 67%). The prevalence of alcohol abstinence among English-dominant Hispanic men (24%) and women (32%) is far lower, approximating that of NH Whites (men: 23%, women: 32%). Importantly, however, among Spanish-dominant drinkers, the prevalence of binge drinking (men: 52%, women: 33%) is comparable to or greater than NH Whites (men: 42%, women: 32%). Binge drinking levels among English-dominant Hispanic men (50%) and women (37%) are greater than among their NH White counterparts. CONCLUSION: Findings paint a complex picture; consistent with prior research, we see that many Hispanics abstain from alcohol, but we also see new evidence underscoring that-among Hispanic drinkers-the prevalence of binge drinking is disconcertingly elevated.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379168

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies have examined externalizing behaviors among African American youth using variable-centered approaches that study aggression and delinquency separately. However, aggression and delinquency often operate together in shaping adolescent behavior. For this reason, person-centered approaches are essential for identifying subgroups of African American youth using multiple indicators of aggression and delinquency to model the behavioral heterogeneity within this population. We examined the relationship between interpersonal, school, and parenting factors and externalizing behaviors among African American youth. METHOD: Drawing from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health 2015-2018, we conducted latent class analysis based on 5 externalizing behavior indicator variables (i.e., serious fight, attack to harm, stealing, drug selling, handgun carrying) using a sample of 7,236 African American adolescents, aged 12-17. RESULTS: We identified a three class solution: Class #1-No Involvement (74.4%), characterized by very low levels of involvement in all of the externalizing behaviors examined; Class #2-Serious fight (23.3%), which is characterized by near-universal involvement in a serious fight, far lower levels of attack to harm, and negligible levels of stealing, drug selling, and handgun caring; and Class #3-Multidimensional externalizing (2.3%), characterized by very high levels of involvement in all of the externalizing variables examined. CONCLUSION: Most African American youth are not involved in externalizing behaviors. It is vital to support both the large majority of African-American youth who are abstaining from externalizing behaviors and to develop/implement programs to address the contextual and interpersonal needs of youth at elevated risk for consequences related to externalizing.

15.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 27(4): 649-658, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Millions of Venezuelans have left their country in search of safety and stability in the United States (U.S.) and Colombia, two countries where recent increases in anti-immigrant rhetoric and sentiment have occurred. The Perceived Negative Context of Reception Scale captures the degree to which immigrants report feeling that people from their country are unwanted/marginalized within their new receiving context. In the present study, we examine the psychometric properties of the Perceived Negative Context of Reception Scale with recent Venezuelan immigrant adolescents and adults in the U.S. and Colombia. METHOD: We conducted confirmatory factor analysis using data from the Colombia and Miami's Newest Arrivals (CAMINAR) Study, which collected data from Venezuelan adults in Bogotá, Colombia, and South Florida in October-November 2017, and the Venezolanos en Nuevos Entornos (VENE) Youth Project which surveyed Venezuelan youth living in Florida between November 2018 and July 2019. RESULTS: We found that the negative context of reception evidenced strong psychometric properties among immigrants in both the U.S. and in Colombia, among adolescents and adults, and among male and female respondents. We also found that negative context of reception scores was associated with elevated scores on criterion-related factors-that is, perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms-in ways that are theoretically coherent and support measure validity. CONCLUSION: We provide new evidence that the Perceived Negative Context of Reception scale is reliable and valid for use with Venezuelan immigrants in the U.S. and Colombia. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Colômbia , Feminino , Florida , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Estados Unidos
16.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 11: 100153, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327361

RESUMO

Background: There was lack of data on the burdens and trends of upper and lower respiratory infections (URIs and LRIs) over the past three decades in China. Methods: We estimated the incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to upper and lower respiratory infections (URIs and LRIs) and attributable risk factors in China by a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease 2019 study. Incidence, mortality, and DALYs were stratified by sex, age, and province. Risk factors for respiratory infections were analyzed from exposure data. Findings: The age-standardized incidence rates of URIs and LRIs were 179,077 and 3926 per 100,000 persons in 2019, with a 7•52% and 35•07% decrease from 1990, respectively. Moreover, 2801 and 185,264 persons died of URIs and LRIs in 2019, respectively. DALYs for URIs and LRIs also decreased from 1,516,727 in 1990 to 928,617 in 2019 and from 38,278,504 in 1990 to 4,020,676 in 2019. The burden of URIs and LRIs were generally similar in males and females, but relatively higher in the new-borns and the elderly. Child malnutrition and low birth weight were the most important cause of age-standardized DALYs of LRIs and URIs, respectively. Interpretation: Future URI and LRI prevention strategies should focus on the maternal and child health, air pollution, and tobacco control, especially in young children and the elderly population. Funding: National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFA0606200); National Natural Science Foundation of China (82041021); Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (20ykpy86) and Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (2019A1515110003); Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (No.: INV-006371).

17.
Saf Health Work ; 12(2): 167-173, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178393

RESUMO

Background: Correctional officers (COs) experience elevated rates of mental and physical ill-health as compared with other general industry and public safety occupations. The purpose of this study was to investigate demographic, mental health, job tenure, and work-family characteristics and their prospective association to burnout within and between jail officers during one year of new employment. Methods: In 2016, newly hired jail officers (N = 144) completed self-reported surveys across four time points in a one-year prospective study at a Midwestern United States urban jail. Linear mixed-effects and growth modeling examined how work-family conflict (W-FC) and depressive symptoms relate to perceptions of burnout over time. Results: Jail officer burnout increased and was related to rises in W-FC and depression symptoms. Within-person variance for W-FC (B pooled  = .52, p < .001) and depression symptoms (B pooled  = .06, p < .01) were significant predictors of burnout. Less time on the job remained a significant predictor of burnout across all analyses (B pooled  = .03, p < .001). Conclusions: Results from this study indicate that burnout increased during the first year of new employment; and increased W-FC, higher depression, and brief tenure were associated with burnout among jail COs. Future study of correctional workplace health is needed to identify tailored, multilevel interventions that address burnout and W-FC prevention and early intervention among COs.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 147060, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with mortality and hospital admission, emergency ambulance calls (EACs) could be a more accurate outcome indicator to reflect the health effects of short-term air pollution exposure. However, such studies have been scarce, especially on a multicity scale in China. METHODS: We estimated the associations of different diameter particles [i.e., inhalable particulate matter (PM10), coarse particulate matter (PMc), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)] with EACs for all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases in seven Chinese cities. We collected data on EACs and air pollution from 2014 to 2019. We used generalized additive models and random-effects meta-analysis to examine the city-specific and overall associations. Stratified analyses were conducted to examine the effect modifications of gender, age, and season. RESULTS: Significant associations of PM10 and PM2.5 with EACs were observed, while the PMc associations were positive but not statistically significant in most analyses. Specifically, each 10 µg/m3 increase in 2-day moving average concentration of PM10 was associated with a 0.25% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.04%, 0.47%] increase in all-cause EACs, 0.13% (95% CI: -0.01%, 0.26%) in cardiovascular EACs, and 0.35% (95% CI: 0.04%, 0.66%) in respiratory EACs. The corresponding increases in daily EACs for PM2.5 were 0.30% (95% CI, 0.03%, 0.57%), 0.13% (95% CI, -0.07%, 0.33%), and 0.46% (95% CI, 0.01%, 0.92%). Season of the year also modifies the association between particulate matter pollution and EACs. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 were positively associated with daily all-cause and respiratory-related EACs. The associations were stronger during warm season than cold season. Our findings suggest that the most harmful fraction of particulate matter pollution is PM2.5, which has important implications for current air quality guidelines and regulations in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ambulâncias , China , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Material Particulado/análise
19.
Ann Epidemiol ; 60: 21-27, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932570

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This population-based study explored the associations between childhood adversity and admission to emergency departments (EDs) with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and with a suicide attempt. METHODS: A nationally representative cross-sectional sample of 5-17-year-olds admitted to EDs (N = 143,113,677) from 2006 to 2015 was utilized to assess the associations between childhood adversities, NSSIs, and suicide attempts. RESULTS: ED admissions with NSSI and admissions with a suicide attempt were associated with greater odds of exposure to individual childhood adversities (aORs: 1.34 to 5.86; aORs: 2.37 to 15.69, respectively). ED admissions with a suicide attempt were associated with greater odds of exposure to childhood adversities that might be perceived as less extreme or harmful (separation or divorce aOR: 15.69) than other adversities (death of a family member aOR: 13.38; history of physical abuse aOR: 9.56) as well as greater odds of exposure to three or more childhood adversities (aOR: 20.98). CONCLUSION: Early detection of childhood adversities is important for identifying potential risk factors for self-harm. ED admission data can provide population-level surveillance to aid in these efforts and lead to more targeted and effective interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of toxic stress that can result from exposure to childhood adversities.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Suicídio , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida
20.
Environ Int ; 155: 106596, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs), a group of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) alternatives, can be widely observed in humans and environmental matrices. However, associations between exposure to Cl-PFESAs and serum lipid levels in adults are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationships between Cl-PFESA levels and serum lipid levels in adults. METHODS: We analyzed 1238 adults from the Isomers of C8 Health Project, a cross-sectional study conducted in China from July 2015 to October 2016. The average age of the participants was 61.98 ± 14.40 years. We quantified two select legacy per- and perfluoroalkyl substances [perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and PFOS] and their alternatives (6:2 and 8:2 Cl-PFESAs). We also measured four serum lipids: low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG). We used generalized linear models to estimate the associations between PFASs and serum lipids, with PFASs defined as either a categorical variable divided into quartiles or as a continuous variable. RESULTS: We found that 6:2 Cl-PFESA was positively associated with serum TC and LDL-C. For instance, LDL-C levels in the highest quartile of 6:2 Cl-PFESA exposure (Q4) were significantly higher than those in the lowest quartile (Q1) [ß: 0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08, 0.30]. Further analysis showed that one ln-ng/mL increase in 6:2 Cl-PFESA exposure corresponded to a 0.10 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.05, 0.16) LDL-C increase, and that exposure to 8:2 Cl-PFESA was negatively correlated with HDL-C (ß: -0.03, 95% CI: -0.05, -0.01). TC had a similar relationship with both 6:2 Cl-PFESA and legacy PFASs. Participants with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 exhibited a stronger association between 6:2 Cl-PFESA and TC. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings make the novel suggestion that exposure to Cl-PFESAs are adversely associated with serum lipid levels, and that such associations are also observed in legacy PFASs. Increased investigation into the effects of Cl-PFESAs exposure on human health is warranted.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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