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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591465

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a common, chronic and debilitating neuropsychiatric syndrome affecting tens of millions of individuals worldwide. While rare genetic variants play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia, most of the currently explained liability is within common variation, suggesting that variation predating the human diaspora out of Africa harbors a large fraction of the common variant attributable heritability. However, common variant association studies in schizophrenia have concentrated mainly on cohorts of European descent. We describe genome-wide association studies of 6152 cases and 3918 controls of admixed African ancestry, and of 1234 cases and 3090 controls of Latino ancestry, representing the largest such study in these populations to date. Combining results from the samples with African ancestry with summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) study of schizophrenia yielded seven newly genome-wide significant loci, and we identified an additional eight loci by incorporating the results from samples with Latino ancestry. Leveraging population differences in patterns of linkage disequilibrium, we achieve improved fine-mapping resolution at 22 previously reported and 4 newly significant loci. Polygenic risk score profiling revealed improved prediction based on trans-ancestry meta-analysis results for admixed African (Nagelkerke's R2 = 0.032; liability R2 = 0.017; P < 10-52), Latino (Nagelkerke's R2 = 0.089; liability R2 = 0.021; P < 10-58), and European individuals (Nagelkerke's R2 = 0.089; liability R2 = 0.037; P < 10-113), further highlighting the advantages of incorporating data from diverse human populations.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from anatomical, pharmacological, and genetic studies supports a role for the neuropeptide melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) system in modulating emotional and cognitive functions. Genome wide association (GWA) studies revealed a potential association between the MCH receptor (MCHR1) gene locus and schizophrenia and the largest GWA study conducted to date shows a credible GWA. METHODS: We analyze MCHR1 and pro-melanin concentrating hormone (PMCH) RNA-Seq expression in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Disruptions in the MCH system were modeled in the mouse brain by germline deletion of MCHR1 and by conditional ablation of MCH expressing neurons using a Cre-inducible diphtheria toxin (iDTR) system. RESULTS: MCHR1 expression is decreased in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenia samples (FDR p< 0.05, CommonMind and PsychEncode combined datasets, N = 901) while PMCH is below the detection threshold. MCHR1 expression decreased with aging (p = 6.6E-57) in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The deletion of MCHR1 was found to lead to behavioral abnormalities mimicking schizophrenia-like phenotypes: hyperactivity, increased stereotypic and repetitive behavior, social impairment, impaired sensorimotor gating, and disrupted cognitive functions. Conditional ablation of PMCH neurons increased repetitive behavior and produced a deficit in sensorimotor gating. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that early disruption of the MCH system interferes with neurodevelopmental processes which may contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Further neurobiological research on the developmental timing and circuits that are affected by MCH may lead to a therapeutic target for early prevention of schizophrenia.

3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(10): e59, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869147

RESUMO

Deletions in the 16.6 kb mitochondrial genome have been implicated in numerous disorders that often display muscular and/or neurological symptoms due to the high-energy demands of these tissues. We describe a catalogue of 4489 putative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions, including their frequency and relative read rate, using a combinatorial approach of mitochondria-targeted PCR, next-generation sequencing, bioinformatics, post-hoc filtering, annotation, and validation steps. Our bioinformatics pipeline uses MapSplice, an RNA-seq splice junction detection algorithm, to detect and quantify mtDNA deletion breakpoints rather than mRNA splices. Analyses of 93 samples from postmortem brain and blood found (i) the 4977 bp 'common deletion' was neither the most frequent deletion nor the most abundant; (ii) brain contained significantly more deletions than blood; (iii) many high frequency deletions were previously reported in MitoBreak, suggesting they are present at low levels in metabolically active tissues and are not exclusive to individuals with diagnosed mitochondrial pathologies; (iv) many individual deletions (and cumulative metrics) had significant and positive correlations with age and (v) the highest deletion burdens were observed in major depressive disorder brain, at levels greater than Kearns-Sayre Syndrome muscle. Collectively, these data suggest the Splice-Break pipeline can detect and quantify mtDNA deletions at a high level of resolution.

4.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200003, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016334

RESUMO

Psychiatric illness is unlikely to arise from pathology occurring uniformly across all cell types in affected brain regions. Despite this, transcriptomic analyses of the human brain have typically been conducted using macro-dissected tissue due to the difficulty of performing single-cell type analyses with donated post-mortem brains. To address this issue statistically, we compiled a database of several thousand transcripts that were specifically-enriched in one of 10 primary cortical cell types in previous publications. Using this database, we predicted the relative cell type content for 833 human cortical samples using microarray or RNA-Seq data from the Pritzker Consortium (GSE92538) or publicly-available databases (GSE53987, GSE21935, GSE21138, CommonMind Consortium). These predictions were generated by averaging normalized expression levels across transcripts specific to each cell type using our R-package BrainInABlender (validated and publicly-released on github). Using this method, we found that the principal components of variation in the datasets strongly correlated with the predicted neuronal/glial content of the samples. This variability was not simply due to dissection-the relative balance of brain cell types appeared to be influenced by a variety of demographic, pre- and post-mortem variables. Prolonged hypoxia around the time of death predicted increased astrocytic and endothelial gene expression, illustrating vascular upregulation. Aging was associated with decreased neuronal gene expression. Red blood cell gene expression was reduced in individuals who died following systemic blood loss. Subjects with Major Depressive Disorder had decreased astrocytic gene expression, mirroring previous morphometric observations. Subjects with Schizophrenia had reduced red blood cell gene expression, resembling the hypofrontality detected in fMRI experiments. Finally, in datasets containing samples with especially variable cell content, we found that controlling for predicted sample cell content while evaluating differential expression improved the detection of previously-identified psychiatric effects. We conclude that accounting for cell type can greatly improve the interpretability of transcriptomic data.

5.
Cell Stem Cell ; 22(5): 698-712.e9, 2018 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681516

RESUMO

The hypothalamus contains neurons that integrate hunger and satiety endocrine signals from the periphery and are implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity. The limited availability of human hypothalamic neurons hampers our understanding of obesity disease mechanisms. To address this, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from multiple normal body mass index (BMI; BMI ≤ 25) subjects and super-obese (OBS) donors (BMI ≥ 50) with polygenic coding variants in obesity-associated genes. We developed a method to reliably differentiate hiPSCs into hypothalamic-like neurons (iHTNs) capable of secreting orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides. Transcriptomic profiling revealed that, although iHTNs maintain a fetal identity, they respond appropriately to metabolic hormones ghrelin and leptin. Notably, OBS iHTNs retained disease signatures and phenotypes of high BMI, exhibiting dysregulated respiratory function, ghrelin-leptin signaling, axonal guidance, glutamate receptors, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways. Thus, human iHTNs provide a powerful platform to study obesity and gene-environment interactions.

6.
Biol Psychiatry ; 83(9): 780-789, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic risk factors of schizophrenia (SCZ), a severe psychiatric disorder, are not yet fully understood. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role in SCZ, but comprehensive association studies are lacking. We hypothesized that variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence susceptibility to SCZ. METHODS: We conducted gene-based and gene-set analyses using summary association results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Schizophrenia Phase 2 (PGC-SCZ2) genome-wide association study comprising 35,476 cases and 46,839 control subjects. We applied the MAGMA method to three sets of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes: oxidative phosphorylation genes, other nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes, and genes involved in nucleus-mitochondria crosstalk. Furthermore, we conducted a replication study using the iPSYCH SCZ sample of 2290 cases and 21,621 control subjects. RESULTS: In the PGC-SCZ2 sample, 1186 mitochondrial genes were analyzed, among which 159 had p values < .05 and 19 remained significant after multiple testing correction. A meta-analysis of 818 genes combining the PGC-SCZ2 and iPSYCH samples resulted in 104 nominally significant and nine significant genes, suggesting a polygenic model for the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. Gene-set analysis, however, did not show significant results. In an in silico protein-protein interaction network analysis, 14 mitochondrial genes interacted directly with 158 SCZ risk genes identified in PGC-SCZ2 (permutation p = .02), and aldosterone signaling in epithelial cells and mitochondrial dysfunction pathways appeared to be overrepresented in this network of mitochondrial and SCZ risk genes. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that specific aspects of mitochondrial function may play a role in SCZ, but we did not observe its broad involvement even using a large sample.

7.
Mol Neuropsychiatry ; 3(3): 125-134, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29594131

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA mutations have been reported to be associated with bipolar disorder (BD). In this study, we performed genome-wide analyses to assess mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphism (mtSNP) effects on BD risk and early-onset BD (EOBD) among BD patients, focusing on interaction effects between nuclear SNPs (nSNPs) and mtSNPs. Common nSNP and mtSNP data from European American BD cases (n = 1,001) and controls (n = 1,034) from the Genetic Association Information Network BD study were analyzed to assess the joint effect of nSNP and nSNP-mtSNP interaction on the risk of BD and EOBD. The effect of nSNP-mtSNP interactions was also assessed. For BD risk, the strongest evidence of an association was obtained for nSNP rs1880924 in MGAM and mtSNP rs3088309 in CytB (pjoint = 8.2 × 10-8, pint = 1.4 × 10-4). Our results also suggest that the minor allele of the nSNP rs583990 in CTNNA2 increases the risk of EOBD among carriers of the mtSNP rs3088309 minor allele, while the nSNP has no effect among those carrying the mtSNP major allele (OR = 4.53 vs. 1.05, pjoint = 2.1 × 10-7, pint = 1.16 × 10-6). While our results are not statistically significant after multiple testing correction and a large-sample replication is required, our exploratory study demonstrates the potential importance of considering the mitochondrial genome for identifying genetic factors associated with BD.

8.
Mol Neuropsychiatry ; 3(3): 157-169, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29594135

RESUMO

Subjects with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) show decreased protein and transcript levels for mitochondrial complex I. In vitro results suggest antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs may be responsible. We measured complex I activity in BD, SZ, and controls and presence of antipsychotic and antidepressant medications, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, and the mtDNA "common deletion" in the brain. Complex I activity in the prefrontal cortex was decreased by 45% in SZ compared to controls (p = 0.02), while no significant difference was found in BD. Complex I activity was significantly decreased (p = 0.01) in pooled cases (SZ and BD) that had detectable psychotropic medications and drugs compared to pooled cases with no detectable levels. Subjects with age at onset in their teens and psychotropic medications showed decreased (p < 0.05) complex I activity compared to subjects with an adult age at onset. Both SZ and BD groups displayed significant increases (p < 0.05) in mtDNA copy number compared to controls; however, common deletion burden was not altered. Complex I deficiency is found in SZ brain tissue, and psychotropic medications may play a role in mitochondrial dysfunction. Studies of medication-free first-episode psychosis patients are needed to elucidate whether mitochondrial pathophysiology occurs independent of medication effects.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0191153, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370225

RESUMO

Oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria is the main source of aerobic energy for neuronal functioning, and the key genes are located in mitochondrial DNA. Deficits in oxidative phosphorylation functioning have been reported for schizophrenia, but efforts in the identification of genetic markers within the mitochondrial DNA that predispose to schizophrenia have been limited. We genotyped a set of mitochondrial SNPs using Illumina HumanExome arrays and tested for association in the Swedish schizophrenia sample (N> 10,000). We developed a novel approach for mitochondrial DNA imputation in order to increase the number of common SNPs available for association analysis. The most significant findings were for the mitochondrial SNPs C15452A (GRCh38.p10; rs527236209; p = 0.007; gene MT-CYB; defining haplogroup JT); A11251G (rs869096886; p = 0.007; gene MT-ND4; defining haplogroup JT), and T4216C (rs1599988; p = 0.008, gene MT-ND1, defining haplogroup R2'JT). We also conducted rare variant burden analyses and obtained a p-value of 0.007. For multimarker haplotypes analysis, the most significant finding was for the J group (OR: 0.86, p = 0.02). We conducted the largest association study of mitochondrial DNA variants and schizophrenia but did not find an association that survived multiple testing correction. Analysis of a larger sample is required and will allow a better understanding of the role of mitochondria in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Suécia
10.
Schizophr Res ; 187: 67-73, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28693754

RESUMO

Antipsychotic Induced Weight Gain (AIWG) is a common and severe side effect of many antipsychotic medications. Mitochondria play a vital role for whole-body energy homeostasis and there is increasing evidence that antipsychotics modulate mitochondrial function. This study aimed to examine the role of variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in conferring risk for AIWG. We selected 168 European-Caucasian individuals from the CATIE sample based upon meeting criteria of multiple weight measures while taking selected antipsychotics (risperidone, quetiapine or olanzapine). We tested the association of 670 nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes with weight change (%) using MAGMA software. Thirty of these genes showed nominally significant P-values (<0.05). We were able to replicate the association of three genes, CLPB, PARL, and ACAD10, with weight change (%) in an independent prospectively assessed AIWG sample. We analyzed mtDNA variants in a subset of 74 of these individuals using next-generation sequencing. No common or rare mtDNA variants were found to be significantly associated with weight change (%) in our sample. Additionally, analysis of mitochondrial haplogroups showed no association with weight change (%). In conclusion, our findings suggest nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes play a role in AIWG. Replication in larger sample is required to validate our initial report of mtDNA variants in AIWG.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , DNA Mitocondrial , Genes Mitocondriais , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/genética , Adulto , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Olanzapina , Testes Farmacogenômicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumarato de Quetiapina/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Risperidona/efeitos adversos
11.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 72, 2017 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders are multigenic diseases with complex etiology that contribute significantly to human morbidity and mortality. Although clinically distinct, several disorders share many symptoms, suggesting common underlying molecular changes exist that may implicate important regulators of pathogenesis and provide new therapeutic targets. METHODS: We performed RNA sequencing on tissue from the anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens from three groups of 24 patients each diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder, and from 24 control subjects. We identified differentially expressed genes and validated the results in an independent cohort. Anterior cingulate cortex samples were also subjected to metabolomic analysis. ChIP-seq data were used to characterize binding of the transcription factor EGR1. RESULTS: We compared molecular signatures across the three brain regions and disorders in the transcriptomes of post-mortem human brain samples. The most significant disease-related differences were in the anterior cingulate cortex of schizophrenia samples compared to controls. Transcriptional changes were assessed in an independent cohort, revealing the transcription factor EGR1 as significantly down-regulated in both cohorts and as a potential regulator of broader transcription changes observed in schizophrenia patients. Additionally, broad down-regulation of genes specific to neurons and concordant up-regulation of genes specific to astrocytes was observed in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients relative to controls. Metabolomic profiling identified disruption of GABA levels in schizophrenia patients. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a comprehensive post-mortem transcriptome profile of three psychiatric disorders across three brain regions. We highlight a high-confidence set of independently validated genes differentially expressed between schizophrenia and control patients in the anterior cingulate cortex and integrate transcriptional changes with untargeted metabolite profiling.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Transcriptoma , Autopsia , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
12.
Biol Psychiatry ; 82(5): 351-360, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28395871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional antidepressants usually require several weeks to achieve a full clinical response in patients with major depressive disorder, an illness associated with dysregulated circadian rhythms and a high incidence of suicidality. Two rapid-acting antidepressant strategies, low-dose ketamine (KT) and sleep deprivation (SD) therapies, dramatically reduce depressive symptoms within 24 hours in a subset of major depressive disorder patients. However, it is unknown whether they exert their actions through shared regulatory mechanisms. To address this question, we performed comparative transcriptomics analyses to identify candidate genes and relevant pathways common to KT and SD. METHODS: We used the forced swim test, a standardized behavioral approach to measure antidepressant-like activity of KT and SD. We investigated gene expression changes using high-density microarrays and pathway analyses (Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis) in KT- and SD-treated mice compared with saline-treated control male mice. RESULTS: We show that KT and SD elicit common transcriptional responses implicating distinct elements of the circadian clock and processes involved in neuronal plasticity. There is an overlap of 64 genes whose expression is common in KT and SD. Specifically, there is downregulation of clock genes including Ciart, Per2, Npas4, Dbp, and Rorb in both KT- and SD-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a potential involvement of the circadian clock in rapid antidepressant responses. These findings could open new research avenues to help design chronopharmacological strategies to treat major depressive disorder.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização do Ritmo Circadiano/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Ketamina/farmacologia , Privação do Sono/metabolismo , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Transtorno Depressivo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Giro do Cíngulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise em Microsséries , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/fisiologia
13.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 66: 80-91, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27108532

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide characterized by altered neuronal activity in brain regions involved in the control of stress and emotion. Although multiple lines of evidence suggest that altered stress-coping mechanisms underlie the etiology of MDD, the homeostatic control of neuronal excitability in MDD at the molecular level is not well established. In this review, we examine past and current evidence implicating dysregulation of the polyamine system as a central factor in the homeostatic response to stress and the etiology of MDD. We discuss the cellular effects of abnormal metabolism of polyamines in the context of their role in sensing and modulation of neuronal, electrical, and synaptic activity. Finally, we discuss evidence supporting an allostatic model of depression based on a chronic elevation in polyamine levels resulting in self-sustained stress response mechanisms maintained by maladaptive homeostatic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transmissão Sináptica , Encéfalo , Humanos , Poliaminas , Suicídio
14.
Microarrays (Basel) ; 5(1)2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26998349

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia encompassing the major histocompatibility locus (MHC) were highly significant following genome-wide correction. This broad region implicates many genes including the MHC complex class II. Within this interval we examined the expression of two MHC II genes (HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DRB1) in brain from individual subjects with schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and controls by differential gene expression methods. A third MHC II mRNA, CD74, was studied outside of the MHC II locus, as it interacts within the same immune complex. Exon microarrays were performed in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in BD compared to controls, and both HLA-DPA1 and CD74 were decreased in expression in BD. The expression of HLA-DPA1 and CD74 were both reduced in hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex regions in SZ and BD compared to controls by specific qPCR assay. We found several novel HLA-DPA1 mRNA variants spanning HLA-DPA1 exons 2-3-4 as suggested by exon microarrays. The intronic rs9277341 SNP was a significant cis expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) that was associated with the total expression of HLA-DPA1 in five brain regions. A biomarker study of MHC II mRNAs was conducted in SZ, BD, MDD, and control lymphoblastic cell lines (LCL) by qPCR assay of 87 subjects. There was significantly decreased expression of HLA-DPA1 and CD74 in BD, and trends for reductions in SZ in LCLs. The discovery of multiple splicing variants in brain for HLA-DPA1 is important as the HLA-DPA1 gene is highly conserved, there are no reported splicing variants, and the functions in brain are unknown. Future work on the function and localization of MHC Class II proteins in brain will help to understand the role of alterations in neuropsychiatric disorders. The HLA-DPA1 eQTL is located within a large linkage disequilibrium block that has an irrefutable association with schizophrenia. Future tests in a larger cohort are needed to determine the significance of this eQTL association with schizophrenia. Our findings support the long-held hypothesis that alterations in immune function are associated with the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders.

15.
Mol Neuropsychiatry ; 1(4): 201-19, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26550561

RESUMO

Genetic evidence has supported the hypothesis that schizophrenia (SZ) is a polygenic disorder caused by the disruption in function of several or many genes. The most common and reproducible cellular phenotype associated with SZ is a reduction in dendritic spines within the neocortex, suggesting alterations in dendritic architecture may cause aberrant cortical circuitry and SZ symptoms. Here, we review evidence supporting a multifactorial model of mitochondrial dysfunction in SZ etiology and discuss how these multiple paths to mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to dendritic spine loss and/or underdevelopment in some SZ subjects. The pathophysiological role of mitochondrial dysfunction in SZ is based upon genomic analyses of both the mitochondrial genome and nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial function. Previous studies and preliminary data suggest SZ is associated with specific alleles and haplogroups of the mitochondrial genome, and also correlates with a reduction in mitochondrial copy number and an increase in synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions of mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondrial dysfunction has also been widely implicated in SZ by genome-wide association, exome sequencing, altered gene expression, proteomics, microscopy analyses, and induced pluripotent stem cell studies. Together, these data support the hypothesis that SZ is a polygenic disorder with an enrichment of mitochondrial targets.

16.
Mol Neuropsychiatry ; 1(2): 82-93, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26405684

RESUMO

The NMDA receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) creates schizophrenia-like symptoms in normal controls. The effect of PCP on non-human primate brain gene expression was examined and compared to changes induced by olanzapine treatment. Experimental studies of PCP and antipsychotic drugs have direct relevance to understanding the patho-physiology and treatment of schizophrenia. Genome-wide changes in prefrontal cortex gene expression revealed alterations of 146 transcripts in the PCP treatment group compared to vehicle controls. Dysregulated genes were enriched in identified classes implicated in neurological and genetic disorders, including schizophrenia genes from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium 108 loci as well as cell death in PCP-treated primates. Canonical pathway analysis revealed a significant overrepresentation of several groups including synaptic long-term potentiation and calcium signaling. Olanzapine coadministered with PCP normalized 34% of the 146 PCP-induced probe set expression changes, and a network of 17 olanzapine-normalized genes was identified enriched in schizophrenia candidate genes containing RGS4, SYN1 and AKT as nodes. The results of this study support the use of PCP administration in non-human primates as a glutamatergic model of schizophrenia and suggest that a large number of PCP-induced expression differences can be reversed by olanzapine. The results of this study may be informative for identification of potential candidates for pharmacogenetics and biomarker research related to the treatment of schizophrenia.

17.
PLoS One ; 10(5): e0127280, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26011537

RESUMO

A considerable body of evidence supports the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric disorders and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are known to alter brain energy metabolism, neurotransmission, and cause neurodegenerative disorders. Genetic studies focusing on common nuclear genome variants associated with these disorders have produced genome wide significant results but those studies have not directly studied mtDNA variants. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using next generation sequencing, the involvement of mtDNA variation in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and methamphetamine use. MtDNA extracted from multiple brain regions and blood were sequenced (121 mtDNA samples with an average of 8,800x coverage) and compared to an electronic database containing 26,850 mtDNA genomes. We confirmed novel and rare variants, and confirmed next generation sequencing error hotspots by traditional sequencing and genotyping methods. We observed a significant increase of non-synonymous mutations found in individuals with schizophrenia. Novel and rare non-synonymous mutations were found in psychiatric cases in mtDNA genes: ND6, ATP6, CYTB, and ND2. We also observed mtDNA heteroplasmy in brain at a locus previously associated with schizophrenia (T16519C). Large differences in heteroplasmy levels across brain regions within subjects suggest that somatic mutations accumulate differentially in brain regions. Finally, multiplasmy, a heteroplasmic measure of repeat length, was observed in brain from selective cases at a higher frequency than controls. These results offer support for increased rates of mtDNA substitutions in schizophrenia shown in our prior results. The variable levels of heteroplasmic/multiplasmic somatic mutations that occur in brain may be indicators of genetic instability in mtDNA.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia
18.
Schizophr Res ; 159(2-3): 370-5, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25270547

RESUMO

Large deletions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can occur during or result from oxidative stress leading to a vicious cycle that increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage and decreases mitochondrial function, thereby causing further oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to determine if disease specific brain differences of the somatic mtDNA common deletion (4977 bp) could be observed in major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SZ) compared to a control group. The accumulation of the mtDNA common deletion was measured using a quantitative assay across 10 brain regions (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, caudate nucleus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, orbitofrontal cortex, putamen, substantia nigra, and thalamus). The correlation with age of the mtDNA deletion was highly significant across brain regions as previously shown. A significant decrease in the global accumulation of common deletion in subjects with SZ compared to MDD, BD, and controls was observed after correcting for age, pH, PMI, and gender. The decreases in SZ were largest in dopaminergic regions. One potential side effect of antipsychotic drugs on mitochondria is the impairment of mitochondria function, which might explain these findings. The decreased global brain mtDNA common deletion levels suggests that mitochondrial function is impaired and might be part of an overall mitochondria dysfunction signature in subjects with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Deleção de Genes , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Encéfalo/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Estatística como Assunto
19.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 71(6): 657-64, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24718920

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Genome-wide investigations provide systematic information regarding the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: To identify biological pathways that contribute to risk for bipolar disorder (BP) using genes with consistent evidence for association in multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS). DATA SOURCES: Four independent data sets with individual genome-wide data available in July 2011 along with all data sets contributed to the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Bipolar Group by May 2012. A prior meta-analysis was used as a source for brain gene expression data. STUDY SELECTION: The 4 published GWAS were included in the initial sample. All independent BP data sets providing genome-wide data in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were included as a replication sample. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: We identified 966 genes that contained 2 or more variants associated with BP at P < .05 in 3 of 4 GWAS data sets (n = 12,127 [5253 cases, 6874 controls]). Simulations using 10,000 replicates of these data sets corrected for gene size and allowed the calculation of an empirical P value for each gene; empirically significant genes were entered into a pathway analysis. Each of these pathways was then tested in the replication sample (n = 8396 [3507 cases, 4889 controls]) using gene set enrichment analysis for single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The 226 genes were also compared with results from a meta-analysis of gene expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Empirically significant genes and biological pathways. RESULTS Among 966 genes, 226 were empirically significant (P < .05). Seventeen pathways were overrepresented in analyses of the initial data set. Six of the 17 pathways were associated with BP in both the initial and replication samples: corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling, cardiac ß-adrenergic signaling, phospholipase C signaling, glutamate receptor signaling, endothelin 1 signaling, and cardiac hypertrophy signaling. Among the 226 genes, 9 differed in expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with BP: CACNA1C, DTNA, FOXP1, GNG2, ITPR2, LSAMP, NPAS3, NCOA2, and NTRK3. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Pathways involved in the genetic predisposition to BP include hormonal regulation, calcium channels, second messenger systems, and glutamate signaling. Gene expression studies implicate neuronal development pathways as well. These results tend to reinforce specific hypotheses regarding BP neurobiology and may provide clues for new approaches to treatment and prevention.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo
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