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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(1): e0008972, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395435

RESUMO

Arbovirus infection in Aedes aegypti has historically been quantified from a sample of the adult population by pooling collected mosquitoes to increase detectability. However, there is a significant knowledge gap about the magnitude of natural arbovirus infection within areas of active transmission, as well as the sensitivity of detection of such an approach. We used indoor Ae. aegypti sequential sampling with Prokopack aspirators to collect all mosquitoes inside 200 houses with suspected active ABV transmission from the city of Mérida, Mexico, and tested all collected specimens by RT-PCR to quantify: a) the absolute arbovirus infection rate in individually tested Ae. aegypti females; b) the sensitivity of using Prokopack aspirators in detecting ABV-infected mosquitoes; and c) the sensitivity of entomological inoculation rate (EIR) and vectorial capacity (VC), two measures ABV transmission potential, to different estimates of indoor Ae. aegypti abundance. The total number of Ae. aegypti (total catch, the sum of all Ae. aegypti across all collection intervals) as well as the number on the first 10-min of collection (sample, equivalent to a routine adult aspiration session) were calculated. We individually tested by RT-PCR 2,161 Aedes aegypti females and found that 7.7% of them were positive to any ABV. Most infections were CHIKV (77.7%), followed by DENV (11.4%) and ZIKV (9.0%). The distribution of infected Aedes aegypti was overdispersed; 33% houses contributed 81% of the infected mosquitoes. A significant association between ABV infection and Ae. aegypti total catch indoors was found (binomial GLMM, Odds Ratio > 1). A 10-min indoor Prokopack collection led to a low sensitivity of detecting ABV infection (16.3% for detecting infected mosquitoes and 23.4% for detecting infected houses). When averaged across all infested houses, mean EIR ranged between 0.04 and 0.06 infective bites per person per day, and mean VC was 0.6 infectious vectors generated from a population feeding on a single infected host per house/day. Both measures were significantly and positively associated with Ae. aegypti total catch indoors. Our findings provide evidence that the accurate estimation and quantification of arbovirus infection rate and transmission risk is a function of the sampling effort, the local abundance of Aedes aegypti and the intensity of arbovirus circulation.

2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(1): e0009036, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the absence of vaccines or drugs, insecticides are the mainstay of Aedes-borne disease control. Their utility is challenged by the slow deployment of resources, poor community compliance and inadequate household coverage. Novel application methods are required. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A 10% w/w metofluthrin "emanator" that passively disseminates insecticide from an impregnated net was evaluated in a randomized trial of 200 houses in Mexico. The devices were introduced at a rate of 1 per room and replaced at 3-week intervals. During each of 7 consecutive deployment cycles, indoor resting mosquitoes were sampled using aspirator collections. Assessments of mosquito landing behaviours were made in a subset of houses. Pre-treatment, there were no differences in Aedes aegypti indices between houses recruited to the control and treatment arms. Immediately after metofluthrin deployment, the entomological indices between the trial arms diverged. Averaged across the trial, there were significant reductions in Abundance Rate Ratios for total Ae. aegypti, female abundance and females that contained blood meals (2.5, 2.4 and 2.3-times fewer mosquitoes respectively; P<0.001). Average efficacy was 60.2% for total adults, 58.3% for females, and 57.2% for blood-fed females. The emanators also reduced mosquito landings by 90% from 12.5 to 1.2 per 10-minute sampling period (P<0.05). Homozygous forms of the pyrethroid resistant kdr alleles V410L, V1016L and F1534C were common in the target mosquito population; found in 39%, 24% and 95% of mosquitoes collected during the trial. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first randomized control trial to evaluate the entomological impact of any volatile pyrethroid on urban Ae. aegypti. It demonstrates that volatile pyrethroids can have a sustained impact on Ae. aegypti population densities and human-vector contact indoors. These effects occur despite the presence of pyrethroid-resistant alleles in the target population. Formulations like these may have considerable utility for public health vector control responses.

3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(1): e1008627, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465065

RESUMO

Heterogeneous exposure to mosquitoes determines an individual's contribution to vector-borne pathogen transmission. Particularly for dengue virus (DENV), there is a major difficulty in quantifying human-vector contacts due to the unknown coupled effect of key heterogeneities. To test the hypothesis that the reduction of human out-of-home mobility due to dengue illness will significantly influence population-level dynamics and the structure of DENV transmission chains, we extended an existing modeling framework to include social structure, disease-driven mobility reductions, and heterogeneous transmissibility from different infectious groups. Compared to a baseline model, naïve to human pre-symptomatic infectiousness and disease-driven mobility changes, a model including both parameters predicted an increase of 37% in the probability of a DENV outbreak occurring; a model including mobility change alone predicted a 15.5% increase compared to the baseline model. At the individual level, models including mobility change led to a reduction of the importance of out-of-home onward transmission (R, the fraction of secondary cases predicted to be generated by an individual) by symptomatic individuals (up to -62%) at the expense of an increase in the relevance of their home (up to +40%). An individual's positive contribution to R could be predicted by a GAM including a non-linear interaction between an individual's biting suitability and the number of mosquitoes in their home (>10 mosquitoes and 0.6 individual attractiveness significantly increased R). We conclude that the complex fabric of social relationships and differential behavioral response to dengue illness cause the fraction of symptomatic DENV infections to concentrate transmission in specific locations, whereas asymptomatic carriers (including individuals in their pre-symptomatic period) move the virus throughout the landscape. Our findings point to the difficulty of focusing vector control interventions reactively on the home of symptomatic individuals, as this approach will fail to contain virus propagation by visitors to their house and asymptomatic carriers.

4.
Trials ; 21(1): 839, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current urban vector control strategies have failed to contain dengue epidemics and to prevent the global expansion of Aedes-borne viruses (ABVs: dengue, chikungunya, Zika). Part of the challenge in sustaining effective ABV control emerges from the paucity of evidence regarding the epidemiological impact of any Aedes control method. A strategy for which there is limited epidemiological evidence is targeted indoor residual spraying (TIRS). TIRS is a modification of classic malaria indoor residual spraying that accounts for Aedes aegypti resting behavior by applying residual insecticides on exposed lower sections of walls (< 1.5 m), under furniture, and on dark surfaces. METHODS/DESIGN: We are pursuing a two-arm, parallel, unblinded, cluster randomized controlled trial to quantify the overall efficacy of TIRS in reducing the burden of laboratory-confirmed ABV clinical disease (primary endpoint). The trial will be conducted in the city of Merida, Yucatan State, Mexico (population ~ 1million), where we will prospectively follow 4600 children aged 2-15 years at enrollment, distributed in 50 clusters of 5 × 5 city blocks each. Clusters will be randomly allocated (n = 25 per arm) using covariate-constrained randomization. A "fried egg" design will be followed, in which all blocks of the 5 × 5 cluster receive the intervention, but all sampling to evaluate the epidemiological and entomological endpoints will occur in the "yolk," the center 3 × 3 city blocks of each cluster. TIRS will be implemented as a preventive application (~ 1-2 months prior to the beginning of the ABV season). Active monitoring for symptomatic ABV illness will occur through weekly household visits and enhanced surveillance. Annual sero-surveys will be performed after each transmission season and entomological evaluations of Ae. aegypti indoor abundance and ABV infection rates monthly during the period of active surveillance. Epidemiological and entomological evaluation will continue for up to three transmission seasons. DISCUSSION: The findings from this study will provide robust epidemiological evidence of the efficacy of TIRS in reducing ABV illness and infection. If efficacious, TIRS could drive a paradigm shift in Aedes control by considering Ae. aegypti behavior to guide residual insecticide applications and changing deployment to preemptive control (rather than in response to symptomatic cases), two major enhancements to existing practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04343521 . Registered on 13 April 2020. The protocol also complies with the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (Additional file 1). PRIMARY SPONSOR: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH/NIAID).

5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9): 2077-2086, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818402

RESUMO

Measuring heterogeneity of dengue illness is necessary to define suitable endpoints in dengue vaccine and therapeutic trials and will help clarify behavioral responses to illness. To quantify heterogeneity in dengue illness, including milder cases, we developed the Dengue Illness Perceptions Response (IPR) survey, which captured detailed symptom data, including intensity, duration, and character, and change in routine activities caused by illness. During 2016-2019, we collected IPR data daily during the acute phase of illness for 79 persons with a positive reverse transcription PCR result for dengue virus RNA. Most participants had mild ambulatory disease. However, we measured substantial heterogeneity in illness experience, symptom duration, and maximum reported intensity of individual symptoms. Symptom intensity was a more valuable predicter of major activity change during dengue illness than symptom presence or absence alone. These data suggest that the IPR measures clinically useful heterogeneity in dengue illness experience and its relation to altered human behavior.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008477, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722709

RESUMO

Previous studies measuring the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of individuals with dengue focused on treatment seeking populations. However, the vast majority of global dengue cases are unlikely to be detected by health systems. Representative measurements of HRQoL should therefore include patients with disease not likely to trigger treatment-seeking behavior. This study based in Iquitos, Peru used the Quality of Wellbeing Scale-Self Administered, a survey that enquires about not only physical health, but also psychological health, self-care, mobility, and usual social activities, and rates HRQoL between 0 (death) and 1 (optimum function), to evaluate the impact of dengue on HRQoL. In order to enroll treatment and non treatment-seeking participants, three modalities of participant recruitment were used. In addition to clinic and community-based febrile surveillance, a contact-cluster methodology was also employed to identify infected individuals less likely to seek treatment. We measured changes in HRQoL and identified common areas of health impairment in 73 virologically confirmed dengue cases at 3 time points during the participant's illness; the early-acute (days 0-6 post symptom onset), late-acute (days 7-20), and convalescent illness phases (days 21 +). Participants reported HRQoL related impairments at significantly higher frequency during the early-acute versus convalescent illness phase (Fisher's exact: P<0.01). There was substantial heterogeneity in scores during each illness phase with median scores in the early-acute, late-acute and convalescent phases of 0.56 (IQR: 0.41-0.64), 0.70 (IQR: 0.57-0.94), and 1 (IQR: 0.80-1.00), respectively. In all illness phases participants recruited in clinics had on average the lowest HRQoL scores where as those recruited in the contact clusters had the highest. Only 1 individual who was recruited in the contact-clusters had no reduction in HRQoL score during their illness. These data illustrate that dengue should be considered as a disease that may have significant implications for not only physical health but also psychological health and social functioning. The impact of dengue on the HRQoL of non-treatment-seeking individuals, although lower than the impact among treatment-seeking individuals, is not necessarily trivial.


Assuntos
Dengue/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Dengue/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Peru/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(4): e1007743, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310958

RESUMO

Recent years have seen rising incidence of dengue and large outbreaks of Zika and chikungunya, which are all caused by viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. In most settings, the primary intervention against Aedes-transmitted viruses is vector control, such as indoor, ultra-low volume (ULV) spraying. Targeted indoor residual spraying (TIRS) has the potential to more effectively impact Aedes-borne diseases, but its implementation requires careful planning and evaluation. The optimal time to deploy these interventions and their relative epidemiological effects are, however, not well understood. We used an agent-based model of dengue virus transmission calibrated to data from Iquitos, Peru to assess the epidemiological effects of these interventions under differing strategies for deploying them. Specifically, we compared strategies where spray application was initiated when incidence rose above a threshold based on incidence in recent years to strategies where spraying occurred at the same time(s) each year. In the absence of spraying, the model predicted 361,000 infections [inter-quartile range (IQR): 347,000-383,000] in the period 2000-2010. The ULV strategy with the fewest median infections was spraying twice yearly, in March and October, which led to a median of 172,000 infections [IQR: 158,000-183,000], a 52% reduction from baseline. Compared to spraying once yearly in September, the best threshold-based strategy utilizing ULV had fewer median infections (254,000 vs. 261,000), but required more spraying (351 vs. 274 days). For TIRS, the best strategy was threshold-based, which led to the fewest infections of all strategies tested (9,900; [IQR: 8,720-11,400], a 94% reduction), and required fewer days spraying than the equivalent ULV strategy (280). Although spraying twice each year is likely to avert the most infections, our results indicate that a threshold-based strategy can become an alternative to better balance the translation of spraying effort into impact, particularly if used with a residual insecticide.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Incidência , Inseticidas , Modelos Teóricos , Mosquitos Vetores , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(6): 3319-3325, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974303

RESUMO

Viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, such as dengue, Zika, and chikungunya, have expanding ranges and seem unabated by current vector control programs. Effective control of these pathogens likely requires integrated approaches. We evaluated dengue management options in an endemic setting that combine novel vector control and vaccination using an agent-based model for Yucatán, Mexico, fit to 37 y of data. Our intervention models are informed by targeted indoor residual spraying (TIRS) experiments; trial outcomes and World Health Organization (WHO) testing guidance for the only licensed dengue vaccine, CYD-TDV; and preliminary results for in-development vaccines. We evaluated several implementation options, including varying coverage levels; staggered introductions; and a one-time, large-scale vaccination campaign. We found that CYD-TDV and TIRS interfere: while the combination outperforms either alone, performance is lower than estimated from their separate benefits. The conventional model hypothesized for in-development vaccines, however, performs synergistically with TIRS, amplifying effectiveness well beyond their independent impacts. If the preliminary performance by either of the in-development vaccines is upheld, a one-time, large-scale campaign followed by routine vaccination alongside aggressive new vector control could enable short-term elimination, with nearly all cases avoided for a decade despite continuous dengue reintroductions. If elimination is impracticable due to resource limitations, less ambitious implementations of this combination still produce amplified, longer-lasting effectiveness over single-approach interventions.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Dengue , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Modelos Biológicos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Dengue/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Dengue/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Dengue/imunologia , Vacinas contra Dengue/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Humanos , México , Mosquitos Vetores
10.
Math Biosci ; 321: 108294, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836567

RESUMO

In mathematical epidemiology, a well-known formula describes the impact of heterogeneity on the basic reproductive number, R0, for situations in which transmission is separable and for which there is one source of variation in susceptibility and one source of variation in infectiousness. This formula is written in terms of the magnitudes of the heterogeneities, as quantified by their coefficients of variation, and the correlation between them. A natural question to ask is whether analogous results apply when there are multiple sources of variation in susceptibility and/or infectiousness. In this paper we demonstrate that with three or more coupled heterogeneities, R0 under separable transmission depends on details of the distribution of the heterogeneities in a way that is not seen in the well-known simpler situation. We provide explicit formulae for the cases of multivariate normal and multivariate log-normal distributions, showing that R0 can again be expressed in terms of the magnitudes of the heterogeneities and the pairwise correlations between them. The formulae, however, differ between the two multivariate distributions, demonstrating that no formula of this type applies generally when there are three or more coupled heterogeneities. We see that the results of the formulae are approximately equal when heterogeneities are relatively small and show that an earlier result in the literature (Koella, 1991) should be viewed in this light. We provide numerical illustrations of our results and discuss a setting in which coupled heterogeneities are likely to have a major impact on the value of R0. We also describe a rather surprising result: in a system with three heterogeneities, R0 can exhibit non-monotonic behavior with increasing levels of heterogeneity, in marked contrast to the familiar two heterogeneity setting in which R0 either increases or decreases with increasing heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução , Modelos Biológicos , Humanos
11.
Ecol Evol ; 9(22): 12658-12675, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788205

RESUMO

Invasive species can encounter environments different from their source populations, which may trigger rapid adaptive changes after introduction (niche shift hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether postintroduction evolution is correlated with contrasting environmental conditions between the European invasive and source ranges in the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus. The comparison of environmental niches occupied in European and source population ranges revealed more than 96% overlap between invasive and source niches, supporting niche conservatism. However, we found evidence for postintroduction genetic evolution by reanalyzing a published ddRADseq genomic dataset from 90 European invasive populations using genotype-environment association (GEA) methods and generalized dissimilarity modeling (GDM). Three loci, among which a putative heat-shock protein, exhibited significant allelic turnover along the gradient of winter precipitation that could be associated with ongoing range expansion. Wing morphometric traits weakly correlated with environmental gradients within Europe, but wing size differed between invasive and source populations located in different climatic areas. Niche similarities between source and invasive ranges might have facilitated the establishment of populations. Nonetheless, we found evidence for environmental-induced adaptive changes after introduction. The ability to rapidly evolve observed in invasive populations (genetic shift) together with a large proportion of unfilled potential suitable areas (80%) pave the way to further spread of Ae. albopictus in Europe.

12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007756, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human mobility plays a central role in shaping pathogen transmission by generating spatial and/or individual variability in potential pathogen-transmitting contacts. Recent research has shown that symptomatic infection can influence human mobility and pathogen transmission dynamics. Better understanding the complex relationship between symptom severity, infectiousness, and human mobility requires quantification of movement patterns throughout infectiousness. For dengue virus (DENV), human infectiousness peaks 0-2 days after symptom onset, making it paramount to understand human movement patterns from the beginning of illness. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through community-based febrile surveillance and RT-PCR assays, we identified a cohort of DENV+ residents of the city of Iquitos, Peru (n = 63). Using retrospective interviews, we measured the movements of these individuals when healthy and during each day of symptomatic illness. The most dramatic changes in mobility occurred during the first three days after symptom onset; individuals visited significantly fewer locations (Wilcoxon test, p = 0.017) and spent significantly more time at home (Wilcoxon test, p = 0.005), compared to when healthy. By 7-9 days after symptom onset, mobility measures had returned to healthy levels. Throughout an individual's symptomatic period, the day of illness and their subjective sense of well-being were the most significant predictors for the number of locations and houses they visited. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is one of the first to collect and analyze human mobility data at a daily scale during symptomatic infection. Accounting for the observed changes in human mobility throughout illness will improve understanding of the impact of disease on DENV transmission dynamics and the interpretation of public health-based surveillance data.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Comportamento de Doença , Locomoção , Adolescente , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Febre , Humanos , Masculino , Peru/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc ; 35(2): 107-112, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442127

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently recommended indoor residual spraying (IRS) as part of a vector control strategy to combat Aedes-borne diseases, including dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. Hand compression sprayers have been used in malaria prevention and control programs worldwide since the 1950s and are a standard for IRS application. However, there are technological advances that should be considered to improve IRS application (e.g., flow-control valves, rechargeable-battery equipment, reduced-drift nozzles, etc.), particularly if interventions are performed in urban areas to target Aedes aegypti. Using WHO guidelines, we contrasted technical characteristics of potential IRS equipment including hand compression sprayers (Hudson X-pert, Goizper IK Vector Control Super), rechargeable-battery sprayers (Solo 416, Birchmeier REC 15ABZ, Hudson NeverPump), and motorized sprayers (Honda WJR 2525, Kawashima AK35GX). Measurements included flow rate, droplet size, battery/fuel life, and technical/physical characteristics. Flow rate, the most important parameter, of the Hudson X-pert was stabilized at 550 ml/min by the use of a control flow valve (CFV). The IK Vector Control Super had integrated CFVs and produced a similar flow as the Hudson X-pert. Rechargeable-battery equipment provided consistent flow as well as negligible noise. Motorized sprayers also produced consistent flow, but their weight, high noise pollution when used indoors, and high engine temperature made them highly unpleasant for technicians. We identify alternatives to the more traditional hand compression Hudson X-pert sprayer with technical and operational considerations for performing IRS.


Assuntos
Aedes , Habitação , Inseticidas , Controle de Mosquitos/instrumentação , Animais
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007255, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145744

RESUMO

During the last 50 years, the geographic range of the mosquito Aedes aegypti has increased dramatically, in parallel with a sharp increase in the disease burden from the viruses it transmits, including Zika, chikungunya, and dengue. There is a growing consensus that vector control is essential to prevent Aedes-borne diseases, even as effective vaccines become available. What remains unclear is how effective vector control is across broad operational scales because the data and the analytical tools necessary to isolate the effect of vector-oriented interventions have not been available. We developed a statistical framework to model Ae. aegypti abundance over space and time and applied it to explore the impact of citywide vector control conducted by the Ministry of Health (MoH) in Iquitos, Peru, over a 12-year period. Citywide interventions involved multiple rounds of intradomicile insecticide space spray over large portions of urban Iquitos (up to 40% of all residences) in response to dengue outbreaks. Our model captured significant levels of spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal variation in Ae. aegypti abundance within and between years and across the city. We estimated the shape of the relationship between the coverage of neighborhood-level vector control and reductions in female Ae. aegypti abundance; i.e., the dose-response curve. The dose-response curve, with its associated uncertainties, can be used to gauge the necessary spraying effort required to achieve a desired effect and is a critical tool currently absent from vector control programs. We found that with complete neighborhood coverage MoH intra-domicile space spray would decrease Ae. aegypti abundance on average by 67% in the treated neighborhood. Our framework can be directly translated to other interventions in other locations with geolocated mosquito abundance data. Results from our analysis can be used to inform future vector-control applications in Ae. aegypti endemic areas globally.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Cidades , Feminino , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peru , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal
15.
J Med Entomol ; 56(5): 1331-1337, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120502

RESUMO

A cluster-randomized controlled trial quantified the entomological efficacy of aerial ultra-low volume (AULV) applications of the insecticide chlorpyrifos against Aedes aegypti in Puerto Vallarta, México, during November-October 2017. The trial involved 16 large (1 × 1 km) clusters distributed between treatment-control arms. Primary endpoint was the abundance of Ae. aegypti indoors (total adults, females, and blood-fed females) collected using Prokopack aspirators. After four consecutive weekly cycles of AULV, all adult Ae. aegypti infestation indices were significantly lower in the treatment arm (OR and IRR ≤ 0.28). Efficacy in reducing indoor Ae. aegypti increased with each weekly application cycle from 30 to 73% (total adults), 33 to 76% (females), and 45.5 to 89% (blood-fed females). Entomological indices remained significantly lower in the treatment arm up to 2 wk after the fourth spraying round. Performing AULV spraying can have significant and lasting entomological impact on Ae. aegypti as long as multiple (ideally four) spray cycles are implemented using an effective insecticide.


Assuntos
Aedes , Clorpirifos , Inseticidas , Controle de Mosquitos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , México
16.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(7): 540-548, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964426

RESUMO

Arthropod vector feeding preferences are defined as an overutilization of a particular host species given its abundance in relationship to other species in the community. Numerous methods exist to quantify vector feeding preferences; however, controlled host choice experiments are generally an underutilized approach. In this report, we present results from controlled vector host choice experiments using Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes and wild avian hosts identified as important contributors to West Nile virus (WNv) transmission in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. In each experiment, we allowed lab-reared F1 Cx. quinquefasciatus to feed freely overnight on two avian individuals of a different species (i.e., northern cardinals, American robins, blue jays, brown thrashers, and gray catbirds). We then estimated WNv transmission potential using vectorial capacity and R0. We found that mosquito blood feeding success was extremely variable among experimental replicates and that patterns of host choice only occasionally aggregated to a particular bird species. Vectorial capacity was highest for American robins and blue jays due to these species' higher reservoir competence for WNv and greater probabilities of mosquito selection of these species. Despite species-specific differences in vectorial capacity, total community capacity was similar among species pairs. R0 estimates were qualitatively similar to capacity, and R0 was below and above unity across species pairs. Our results provide empirical evidence that C. quinquefasciatus is an opportunistic blood feeder and highlight how variability in vector-host contact rates as well as host community composition can influence the likelihood of WNv transmission in avian communities.


Assuntos
Culex/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Passeriformes/sangue , Animais , Feminino , Georgia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Passeriformes/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/transmissão , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(2): e0007203, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817759

RESUMO

Challenges in maintaining high effectiveness of classic vector control in urban areas has renewed the interest in indoor residual spraying (IRS) as a promising approach for Aedes-borne disease prevention. While IRS has many benefits, application time and intrusive indoor applications make its scalability in urban areas difficult. Modifying IRS to account for Ae. aegypti resting behavior, named targeted IRS (TIRS, spraying walls below 1.5 m and under furniture) can reduce application time; however, an untested assumption is that modifications to IRS will not negatively impact entomological efficacy. We conducted a comparative experimental study evaluating the residual efficacy of classically-applied IRS (as developed for malaria control) compared to two TIRS application methods using a carbamate insecticide against a pyrethroid-resistant, field-derived Ae. aegypti strain. We performed our study within a novel experimental house setting (n = 9 houses) located in Merida (Mexico), with similar layouts and standardized contents. Classic IRS application (insecticide applied to full walls and under furniture) was compared to: a) TIRS: insecticide applied to walls below 1.5 m and under furniture, and b) Resting Site TIRS (RS-TIRS): insecticide applied only under furniture. Mosquito mortality was measured eight times post-application (out to six months post-application) by releasing 100 Ae. aegypti females /house and collecting live and dead individuals after 24 hrs exposure. Compared to Classic IRS, TIRS and RS-TIRS took less time to apply (31% and 82% reduction, respectively) and used less insecticide (38% and 85% reduction, respectively). Mortality of pyrethroid-resistant Ae. aegypti did not significantly differ among the three IRS application methods up to two months post application, and did not significantly differ between Classic IRS and TIRS up to four months post application. These data illustrate that optimizing IRS to more efficiently target Ae. aegypti can both reduce application time and insecticide volume with no apparent reduction in entomological efficacy.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Habitação , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Fenilcarbamatos/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Resistência a Inseticidas , México , Piretrinas/farmacologia
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(3): e1006710, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893294

RESUMO

Prophylactic vaccination is a powerful tool for reducing the burden of infectious diseases, due to a combination of direct protection of vaccinees and indirect protection of others via herd immunity. Computational models play an important role in devising strategies for vaccination by making projections of its impacts on public health. Such projections are subject to uncertainty about numerous factors, however. For example, many vaccine efficacy trials focus on measuring protection against disease rather than protection against infection, leaving the extent of breakthrough infections (i.e., disease ameliorated but infection unimpeded) among vaccinees unknown. Our goal in this study was to quantify the extent to which uncertainty about breakthrough infections results in uncertainty about vaccination impact, with a focus on vaccines for dengue. To realistically account for the many forms of heterogeneity in dengue virus (DENV) transmission, which could have implications for the dynamics of indirect protection, we used a stochastic, agent-based model for DENV transmission informed by more than a decade of empirical studies in the city of Iquitos, Peru. Following 20 years of routine vaccination of nine-year-old children at 80% coverage, projections of the proportion of disease episodes averted varied by a factor of 1.76 (95% CI: 1.54-2.06) across the range of uncertainty about breakthrough infections. This was equivalent to the range of vaccination impact projected across a range of uncertainty about vaccine efficacy of 0.268 (95% CI: 0.210-0.329). Until uncertainty about breakthrough infections can be addressed empirically, our results demonstrate the importance of accounting for it in models of vaccination impact.


Assuntos
Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/transmissão , Análise de Sistemas , Incerteza , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Calibragem , Criança , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Peru
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 20, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As resistance to insecticides increases in disease vectors, it has become exceedingly important to monitor populations for susceptibility. Most studies of field populations of Aedes aegypti have largely characterized resistance patterns at the spatial scale of the city or country, which may not be completely informative given that insecticide application occurs at the scale of the house or city block. Phenotypic resistance to pyrethroids dominates in Ae. aegypti, and it has been partially explained by mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. Here, we assess community-level patterns of four knockdown resistance (kdr) haplotypes (C1534/I1016, F1534/I1016, C1534/V1016 and F1534/V1016) in Ae. aegypti in 24 randomly chosen city blocks from a city in Yucatán State, Mexico, during both the dry and wet season and over two years. RESULTS: Three of the four haplotypes, C1534/I1016, C1534/V1016 and F1534/V1016 were heterogeneous between city blocks at all four sampling time points, and the double mutant haplotype, C1534/I1016, showed a significant increase following the wet season. The F1534/I1016 haplotype was rarely detected, similar to other studies. However, when haplotype frequencies were aggregated to a coarser spatial scale, the differences in space and time were obscured. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide empirical evidence that the selection of kdr alleles is occurring at fine spatial scales, indicating that future studies should include this scale to better understand evolutionary processes of resistance in natural populations.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Haplótipos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Genótipo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , México , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Mutação , Canais de Potássio de Abertura Dependente da Tensão da Membrana/genética , Piretrinas/farmacologia
20.
J Med Entomol ; 56(1): 222-232, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295776

RESUMO

In urban environments, road-side catch basins are common larval habitats of Culex spp. (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes and important targets of larval control in areas subject to West Nile virus (WNv) transmission. We quantified the impact of larviciding basins on Culex spp. populations and WNv infection prevalence by treating basins in and around urban parks in Atlanta, GA, using Mosquito Dunks and Bits (active ingredient, a.i., Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. isrealensis, Dunks-10.31%, Bits-2.86%) and Altosid 30-Day Briquets (a.i., S-methoprene 8.62%) in two separate seasons. Treatments were coupled with WNv surveillance using gravid traps and aspiration of adults resting in basins. Larviciding led to >90% reductions in Culex spp. larval and pupal collections (Dunks/Bits) and >90% pupal mortality (Briquets) in treated sites during treatment periods; however, we did not observe significant reductions in Culex spp. collections in gravid traps (general linear mixed-effects model [GLMM] result, P > 0.1) or in adults collected resting in basins (GLMM, P > 0.5). In addition, WNv infection prevalence in Culex spp. mosquitoes was similar between treated and untreated sites (GLMM, P > 0.05). Larval control remains important for controlling WNv in Atlanta; however, at the scale and frequency applied in our study, larval control alone may not lead to meaningful reductions in adult populations and WNv infection prevalence. A greater understanding of the annual dynamics of Culex spp. breeding and the importance of basins as Culex spp. larval habitats are needed to meaningfully affect WNv in cities such as Atlanta.


Assuntos
Culex , Inseticidas , Controle de Mosquitos , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/transmissão , Animais , Cidades , Georgia , Larva , Parques Recreativos , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/prevenção & controle
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