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1.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799480

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a progressive erosive autoimmune disease that affects 1% of the world population. Anti-citrullinated protein autoantibodies (ACPA) are routinely used for the diagnosis of RA, however 20-30% of patients are ACPA negative. ACPA status is a delineator of RA disease endotypes with similar clinical manifestation but potentially different pathophysiology. Profiling of key peripheral blood and synovial tissue immune populations including B cells, T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and CD4 T cell proinflammatory cytokine responses could elucidate the underlying immunological mechanisms involved and inform a treat to target approach for both ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative RA. Detailed high dimensionality flow cytometric analysis with supervised and unsupervised algorithm analysis revealed unique RA patient peripheral blood B cell and Tfh cell profiles. Synovial tissue single cell analysis of B cell subpopulation distribution was similar between ACPA- and ACPA+ RA patients, highlighting a key role for specific B cell subsets in both disease endotypes. Interestingly, synovial tissue single cell analysis of CD4 T cell proinflammatory cytokine production was markedly different between ACPA- and APCA+ RA patients. RNAseq analysis of RA patient synovial tissue highlighted disease endotype specific gene signatures. ACPA status associates with unique immune profile signatures that reinforce the need for a treat to target approach for both endotypes of RA.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 633201, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746971

RESUMO

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs which have been implicated as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets in autoimmune diseases. This study examines circulatory miRNAs in RA patients and further investigates if a serum miRNA signature precedes clinical manifestations of disease in arthralgia or "at-risk individuals". Methods: Serum was collected from HC subjects (N = 20), RA patients (N = 50), and arthralgia subjects (N = 10), in addition to a subgroup of the RA patients post-methotrexate (MTX) (N = 18). The FirePlex miRNA Immunology-V2 panel was selected for multiplex analysis of 68 miRNAs in each sample. DNA intelligent analysis (DIANA)-mirPath and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software were used to predict pathways targeted by the dysregulated miRNAs. Results: 8 miRNA (miR-126-3p, let-7d-5p, miR-431-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-24-3p, miR-130a-3p, miR-339-5p, let-7i-5p) were significantly elevated in RA serum compared to HC (all p < 0.01) and 1 miRNA (miR-17-5p) was significantly lower in RA (p < 0.01). High specificity and sensitivity were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Both miR-339-5p and let-7i-5p were significantly reduced post-MTX (both p < 0.01). MiR-126-3p, let-7d-5p, miR-431-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-24-3p, miR-130a-3p were also significantly elevated in subjects "at risk" of developing RA (all p < 0.05) compared to HC. IPA analysis of this miRNA signature identified downstream targets including key transcription factors NF-κB, STAT-1, STAT-3, cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-α, and matrix-metalloproteases all importantly associated with RA pathogenesis. Conclusion: This study identified six miRNAs that are altered in both RA and "at-risk individuals," which potentially regulate key downstream pathways involved in regulating inflammation. These may have potential as predictive signature for disease onset and early progression.

3.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 25, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biologic therapies have greatly improved outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Yet, our ability to predict long-term remission and persistence or continuation of therapy remains limited. This study explores predictors of remission and persistence of the initial biologic therapy in patients after 12 years. Furthermore, outcomes with adalimumab and etanercept are compared. PATIENTS AND METHODS: RA and PsA patients were prospectively recruited from a biologic clinic. Outcomes on commencing therapy, at 1 year and 12 years were reviewed. Demographics, medications, morning stiffness, patient global health score, tender and swollen joint counts, antibody status, CRP and HAQ were collected. Outcomes at 1 year and 12 years are reported and predictors of biologic persistence and EULAR-defined remission (DAS28-CRP < 2.6) are examined with univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: A total of 403 patients (274 RA and 129 PsA) were analysed. PsA patients were more likely to be male, in full-time employment and have completed higher education. PsA had higher remission rates than RA at both 1 year (60.3% versus 34.5%, p < 0.001) and 12 years (91.3% versus 60.6%, p < 0.001). This difference persisted when patients were matched for baseline disease activity (p < 0.001). Biologic continuation rates were high for RA and PsA at 1 year (49.6% versus 58.9%) and 12 years (38.2% versus 52.3%). In PsA, patients starting on etanercept had lower CRP at 12 years (p = 0.041). Multivariate analysis showed 1-year continuation [OR 4.28 (1.28-14.38)] and 1-year low-disease activity [OR 3.90 (95% CI 1.05-14.53)] was predictive of a 12-year persistence. Persistence with initial biologic at 12 years [OR 4.98 (95% CI 1.83-13.56)] and male gender [OR 4.48 (95% CI 1.25-16.01)] predicted 12 year remission. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show better response to biologic therapy in PsA compared to RA at 12 years. Long-term persistence with initial biologic agent was high and was predicted by biologic persistence and low-disease activity at 1 year. Interestingly, PsA patients had higher levels of employment, educational attainment, and long-term remission rates compared to RA patients.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To establish, amongst Irish rheumatic musculoskeletal disease (RMD) patients, rates of COVID-19 symptoms and positive tests, DMARD adherence and attitudes to virtual clinics. METHODS: An online survey assessing COVID-19 status, RMD diagnoses, adherence and information sources was disseminated via the Arthritis Ireland website and social media channels. RESULTS: There were 1381 respondents with 74.8% on immunosuppressive medication. Symptoms of COVID-19 were reported by 3.7% of respondents of which 0.46% tested positive, consistent with the general Irish population. The frequency of COVID-19 symptoms was higher for respondents with spondyloarthropathy [odds ratio (OR) 2.06, 95% CI: 1.14, 3.70] and lower in those on immunosuppressive medication (OR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.88), and those compliant with health authority (HSE) guidance (OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.89). Adherence to RMD medications was reported in 84.1%, with 57.1% using health authority guidelines for information on medication use. Importantly, adherence rates were higher amongst those who cited guidelines (89.3% vs 79.9%, P <0.001), and conversely lower in those with COVID-19 symptoms (64.0% vs 85.1%, P =0.009). Finally, the use of virtual clinics was supported by 70.4% of respondents. CONCLUSION: The rate of COVID-19 positivity in RMD patients was similar to the general population. COVID-19 symptoms were lower amongst respondents on immunosuppressive medication and those adherent to medication guidelines. Respondents were supportive of HSE advice and virtual clinics.

5.
JCI Insight ; 5(21)2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148884

RESUMO

While autoantibodies are used in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the function of B cells in the inflamed joint remains elusive. Extensive flow cytometric characterization and SPICE algorithm analyses of single-cell synovial tissue from patients with RA revealed the accumulation of switched and double-negative memory programmed death-1 receptor-expressing (PD-1-expressing) B cells at the site of inflammation. Accumulation of memory B cells was mediated by CXCR3, evident by the observed increase in CXCR3-expressing synovial B cells compared with the periphery, differential regulation by key synovial cytokines, and restricted B cell invasion demonstrated in response to CXCR3 blockade. Notably, under 3% O2 hypoxic conditions that mimic the joint microenvironment, RA B cells maintained marked expression of MMP-9, TNF, and IL-6, with PD-1+ B cells demonstrating higher expression of CXCR3, CD80, CD86, IL-1ß, and GM-CSF than their PD-1- counterparts. Finally, following functional analysis and flow cell sorting of RA PD-1+ versus PD-1- B cells, we demonstrate, using RNA-Seq and emerging fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of cellular NAD, a significant shift in metabolism of RA PD-1+ B cells toward glycolysis, associated with an increased transcriptional signature of key cytokines and chemokines that are strongly implicated in RA pathogenesis. Our data support the targeting of pathogenic PD-1+ B cells in RA as a focused, novel therapeutic option.

6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1406, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733468

RESUMO

Monocyte-derived Dendritic cells (Mo-DC) are a distinct DC subset, involved in inflammation and infection, they originate from monocytes upon stimulation in the circulation and their activation and function may vary in autoimmune diseases. In this study we investigate the differences in Mo-DC differentiation and function in patients with Rheumatoid (RA) compared to Psoriatic arthritis (PsA). A significant increase in the Mo-DC differentiation marker CD209, paralleled by a corresponding decrease in the monocytic marker CD14, was demonstrated in RA compared to PsA, as early as 1 day post Mo-DC differentiation. RA monocytes ex-vivo were phenotypically different to PsA, displaying a more mature phenotype associated with altered cellular-morphology, early dendrite formation, and a significant increase in the CD40 marker. In addition, SPICE algorithm flow cytometric analysis showed distinct differences in chemokine receptors distribution in HC compared to PsA and RA CD14+ cells in the blood, with increased expression of the chemokine receptors CCR7 and CXCR4 observed in PsA and RA. In addition CD14+ cells at the site of inflammation showed a different chemokine receptor pattern between PsA and RA patients, with higher expression of CXCR3 and CXCR5 in RA when compared to PsA. The early priming observed in RA resulted in monocyte-endocytosis and antigen-uptake mechanisms to be impaired, effects that were not observed in PsA where phagocytosis capacity remained highly functional. Tofacitinib inhibited early Mo-DC differentiation, decreasing both CD209 and CD40 activation markers in RA. Inhibition of Mo-DC differentiation in response to Tofacitinib was mediated via an imbalance in the activation of NADPH-oxidases NOX5 and NOX2. This effect was reversed by NOX5 inhibition, but not NOX2, resulting in suppression of NOX5-dependent ROS production. In conclusion, RA monocytes are already primed ex vivo to become DC, evident by increased expression of activation markers, morphological appearance and impaired endocytosis capacity. Furthermore, we demonstrated for the first time that NOX5 mediates Mo-DC differentiation and function in response to Tofacitinib, which may alter DC functions.

7.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(12): 2030-2039, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We undertook this study to examine microRNA (miRNA) expression across rheumatoid arthritis (RA) phenotypes, along with the effects and mechanisms of action of miRNA-17-5p (miR-17). METHODS: A miRNA array was performed in synovial tissue biopsied from patients with naive erosive RA (n = 3) and patients with nonerosive RA (n = 3). MicroRNA-17 lipoplex was delivered intraarticularly in the murine collagen-induced arthritis model. Clinical, histologic, and structural effects were studied over the course of arthritis. In-depth studies of the mechanisms of action of miR-17 were performed in primary RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) isolated from synovial tissue. RESULTS: Fifty-five miRNAs including miR-17 were reduced in erosive RA. The miR-17 transfection into arthritic paws reduced the clinical inflammation score between day 2 and day 7 (2.8 versus 1.9; P = 0.03). Synovial B cell, T cell, macrophage, and polynuclear neutrophil infiltration was significantly reduced. Structural damage was also decreased, as shown by a reduction in the number of osteoclasts detected using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining (osteoclast surface/bone surface 32% versus 18%; P = 0.005) and erosion score by computed tomography analysis (2.9 versus 1.7; P = 0.023). Proinflammatory cytokines from the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family and IL-1ß expression were also significantly reduced, but tumor necrosis factor was not. MicroRNA-17 directly targeted the 3'-untranslated regions of STAT3 and JAK1. STAT3 and JAK1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression were reduced in RA FLS following miR-17 transfection. STAT3 and JAK1 mRNA and activation of STAT3, as assessed by immunohistochemistry, were also reduced in injected paws (% stained area 93% versus 62%; P = 0.035). CONCLUSION: We demonstrate an antiinflammatory and antierosive role of miR-17 in vivo. This effect involves the suppression of the IL-6 family autocrine-amplifying loop through the direct targeting of JAK1 and STAT3.

9.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(6): 700-712, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: According to the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a systematic literature review was followed by a consensus meeting to develop this update involving 28 international taskforce members in May 2019. Levels of evidence and strengths of recommendations were determined. RESULTS: The updated recommendations comprise 6 overarching principles and 12 recommendations. The overarching principles address the nature of PsA and diversity of both musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal manifestations; the need for collaborative management and shared decision-making is highlighted. The recommendations provide a treatment strategy for pharmacological therapies. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and local glucocorticoid injections are proposed as initial therapy; for patients with arthritis and poor prognostic factors, such as polyarthritis or monoarthritis/oligoarthritis accompanied by factors such as dactylitis or joint damage, rapid initiation of conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs is recommended. If the treatment target is not achieved with this strategy, a biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) targeting tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-17A or IL-12/23 should be initiated, taking into account skin involvement if relevant. If axial disease predominates, a TNF inhibitor or IL-17A inhibitor should be started as first-line disease-modifying antirheumatic drug. Use of Janus kinase inhibitors is addressed primarily after bDMARD failure. Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibition is proposed for patients in whom these other drugs are inappropriate, generally in the context of mild disease. Drug switches and tapering in sustained remission are addressed. CONCLUSION: These recommendations provide stakeholders with an updated consensus on the pharmacological management of PsA, based on a combination of evidence and expert opinion.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Sociedades Médicas , Consenso , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Interleucina-12/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-17/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-23/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 4/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Sintéticos/uso terapêutico , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
10.
J Rheumatol ; 47(12): 1760-1767, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: MicroRNA (miRNA) are small endogenous regulatory RNA molecules that have emerged as potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers in autoimmunity. Here, we investigated serum miRNA levels in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and further assessed a serum miRNA signature in therapeutic responder versus nonresponder PsA patients. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from healthy controls (HC; n = 20) and PsA patients (n = 31), and clinical demographics were obtained. To examine circulatory miRNA in serum from HC and PsA patients, a focused immunology miRNA panel was analyzed utilizing a miRNA Fireplex assay (FirePlex Bioworks Inc.). MiRNA expression was further assessed in responders versus nonresponders according to the European League Against Rheumatism response criteria. RESULTS: Six miRNA (miR-221-3p, miR-130a-3p, miR-146a-5p, miR-151-5p, miR-26a-5p, and miR-21-5p) were significantly higher in PsA compared to HC (all P < 0.05), with high specificity and sensitivity determined by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. Analysis of responder versus nonresponders demonstrated higher baseline levels of miR-221-3p, miR-130a-3p, miR-146a-5p, miR-151-5p, and miR-26a-5p were associated with therapeutic response. CONCLUSION: This study identified a 6-serum microRNA signature that could be attractive candidates as noninvasive markers for PsA and may help to elucidate the disease pathogenesis.

11.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(10): 2816-2828, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the reciprocal relationship linking fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and T lymphocytes in the inflamed RA synovium and subsequently targeted cellular metabolic pathways in FLS to identify key molecular players in joint inflammation. METHODS: RA FLS were cultured with CD4 T cells or T cell conditioned medium (CD4CM); proliferation, expression of adhesion molecules and intracellular cytokines were examined by flow cytometry. FLS invasiveness and secreted cytokines were measured by transwell matrigel invasion chambers and ELISA, while metabolic profiles were determined by extracellular Seahorse flux analysis. Gene expression was quantified by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: Our results showed mutual activation between CD4 T cells and FLS, which resulted in increased proliferation and expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 by both CD4 T cells and FLS. Furthermore, interaction between CD4 T cells and FLS resulted in an increased frequency of TNF-α+, IFN-γ+ and IL-17A+ CD4 T cells and augmented TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF secretion. Moreover, CD4CM promoted invasiveness and boosted glycolysis in FLS while downregulating oxidative phosphorylation, effects paralleled by increased glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3; key glycolytic enzymes GSK3A, HK2, LDHA and PFKFB3; angiogenic factor VEGF and MMP-3 and MMP-9. Importantly, these effects were reversed by the glycolytic inhibitor 2-DG and AMP analogue 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that CD4 T cells elicit an aggressive phenotype in FLS, which subsequently upregulate glycolysis to meet the increased metabolic demand. Accordingly, 2-DG and AICAR prevent this activation, suggesting that glycolytic manipulation could have clinical implications for RA treatment.

13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(6): 896-902, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate a role for insulin-resistant pathways in inflammation and therapeutic targeting for disease modification in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: RA disease activity and cardiovascular risk factors, including insulin resistance and body mass index (BMI), were assessed in an Irish RA cohort. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) and GLUT-4 activity in RA and osteoarthritis (OA) synovial tissue was examined using immunohistochemistry. Spontaneous release of proinflammatory mediators from ex vivo RA synovial explants and primary synovial fibroblast (SF) cell culture supernatants was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and GLUT-1 protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting. Cellular glycolytic and oxidative phosphorylation was assessed using extracellular flux analysis. RESULTS: Insulin resistance was independently associated with both BMI (unstandardized coefficient B 0.113 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.059-0.167]; P < 0.001) (n = 61) and swollen joint count in 28 joints (SJC28) (B 0.114 [95% CI 0.032-0.197]; P = 0.008) (n = 61). Increased GLUT-1 expression in RA synovium (n = 26) versus OA synovium (n = 16) was demonstrated (P = 0.0003), with increased expression in the lining, sublining, and vascular regions. In contrast, decreased GLUT-4 expression in the RA lining layer (n = 21) versus the OA lining layer (n = 8) was observed (P = 0.0358). Decreased GLUT-1 protein expression was observed in parallel with increased p-AMPK protein expression in SFs in the presence of metformin (n = 4). Metformin increased glycolytic activity and decreased oxidative phosphorylation in RASFs (n = 7) (P < 0.05 for both). Metformin or aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide presence decreased spontaneous production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 in RA synovial explants and SFs (n = 5-7). CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance is significantly associated with BMI and synovitis in RA, suggesting distinct interplay between glucose availability and inflammation in RA. Furthermore, the effect of metformin on proinflammatory mechanisms suggests a role for AMPK-modifying compounds in the treatment of RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Sinovite/metabolismo , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/etiologia , Western Blotting , Índice de Massa Corporal , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Inflamação , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Líquido Sinovial/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Sinovite/complicações
15.
J Rheumatol ; 47(1): 20-27, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the association between different remission criteria and physical function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis followed in clinical practice. METHODS: Longitudinal data from the METEOR database were used. Seventeen definitions of remission were tested: American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) Boolean-based; Simplified/Clinical Disease Activity Index (SDAI/CDAI); and 14 Disease Activity Score (DAS)-based definitions. Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) ≤ 0.5 was defined as good functional status. Associations were investigated using generalized estimating equations. Potential confounders were tested and sensitivity analyses performed. RESULTS: Data from 32,915 patients (157,899 visits) were available. The most stringent definition of remission was the ACR/EULAR Boolean-based definition (1.9%). The proportion of patients with HAQ ≤ 0.5 was higher for the most stringent definitions, although it never reached 100%. However, this also meant that, for the most stringent criteria, many patients in nonremission had HAQ ≤ 0.5. All remission definitions were associated with better function, with the strongest degree of association observed for the SDAI (adjusted OR 3.36, 95% CI 3.01-3.74). CONCLUSION: The 17 definitions of remission confirmed their validity against physical function in a large international clinical practice setting. Achievement of remission according to any of the indices may be more important than the use of a specific index. A multidimensional approach, targeted at wider goals than disease control, is necessary to help all patients achieve the best possible functional status.

16.
Cells ; 8(10)2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652652

RESUMO

rs26232, located in intron one of C5orf30, is associated with the susceptibility to and severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we investigate the relationship between this variant and the biological activities of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs). RASFs were isolated from the knee joints of 33 RA patients. The rs26232 genotype was determined and cellular migration, invasion, and apoptosis were compared using in vitro techniques. The production of adhesion molecules, chemokines, and proteases was measured by ELISA or flow cytometry. Cohort genotypes were CC n = 16; CT n = 14; TT n = 3. In comparison with the RASFs of the CT genotype, the CC genotype showed a 1.48-fold greater invasiveness in vitro (p = 0.02), 1.6-fold higher expression intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 (p = 0.001), and 5-fold IFN-γ inducible protein-10 (IP-10) (p = 0.01). There was no association of the rs26232 genotype with the expression levels of either total C5orf30 mRNA or any of the three transcript variants. The rs26232 C allele, which has previously been associated with both the risk and severity of RA, is associated with greater invasive activity of RASFs in vitro, and with higher expression of ICAM-1 and IP-10. In resting RASFs, rs26232 is not a quantitative trait locus for C5orf30 mRNA, indicating a more complex mechanism underlying the genotype‒phenotype relationship.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Fibroblastos , Fosfoproteínas , Polimorfismo Genético , Membrana Sinovial , Alelos , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Adesão Celular/genética , Movimento Celular/genética , Quimiocina CXCL10/genética , Quimiocina CXCL10/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/patologia
17.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2056, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555281

RESUMO

Objectives: Oncostatin M (OSM), a pleiotropic cytokine and a member of the gp130/IL-6 cytokine family, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Here we investigate the mechanisms by which its synergistic interactions with TNFα regulate the cellular bioenergetics and invasive function of synovial cells from patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Methods: Primary RA synovial fibroblasts (RAFLS) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cultured with OSM alone or in combination with TNFα. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, angiogenic growth factors and adhesion molecules were quantified by real-time PCR and ELISA. Invasion, angiogenesis and cellular adhesion were quantified by Transwell invasion chambers, Matrigel tube formation assays, and adhesion binding assays. Cellular bioenergetics was assessed using the Seahorse XFe96 Analyser. Key metabolic genes (GLUT-1, HK2, PFKFB3, HIF1α, LDHA, PKM2) and transcription factor STAT3 were measured using real-time PCR and western blot. Results: OSM differentially regulates pro-inflammatory mediators in RAFLS and HUVEC, with IL-6, MCP-1, ICAM-1, and VEGF all significantly induced, in contrast to the observed inhibition of IL-8 and GROα, with opposing effects observed for VCAM-1 depending on cell type. Functionally, OSM significantly induced angiogenic network formation, adhesion, and invasive mechanisms. This was accompanied by a change in the cellular bioenergetic profile of the cells, where OSM significantly increased the ECAR/OCR ratio in favor of glycolysis, paralleled by induction of the glucose transporter GLUT-1 and key glycolytic enzymes (HK2, PFKFB3, HIF1α). OSM synergizes with TNFα to differentially regulate pro-inflammatory mechanisms in RAFLS and HUVEC. Interestingly, OSM differentially synergizes with TNFα to regulate metabolic reprogramming, where induction of glycolytic activity with concomitant attenuation of mitochondrial respiration and ATP activity was demonstrated in RAFLS but not in HUVEC. Finally, we identified a mechanism, whereby the combination of OSM with TNFα induces transcriptional activity of STAT3 only in RAFLS, with no effect observed in HUVEC. Conclusion: STAT3 mediates the differential effects of OSM and TNFα on RAFLS and EC function. Targeting OSM or downstream signaling pathways may lead to new potential therapeutic or adjuvant strategies, particularly for those patients who have sub-optimal responses to TNFi.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/etiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Oncostatina M/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Adesão Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Membrana Sinovial
18.
EBioMedicine ; 47: 402-413, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although neoangiogenesis is a hallmark of chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory arthritis and many cancers, therapeutic agents targeting the vasculature remain elusive. Here we identified miR-125a as an important regulator of angiogenesis. METHODS: MiRNA levels were quantified in Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) synovial-tissue by RT-PCR and compared to macroscopic synovial vascularity. HMVEC were transfected with anti-miR-125a and angiogenic mechanisms quantified using tube formation assays, transwell invasion chambers, wound repair, RT-PCR and western blot. Real-time analysis of EC metabolism was assessed using the XF-24 Extracellular-Flux Analyzer. Synovial expression of metabolic markers was assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent staining. MiR-125a CRISPR/Cas9-based knock-out zebrafish were generated and vascular development assessed. Finally, glycolytic blockade using 3PO, which inhibits Phosphofructokinase-fructose-2,6-bisphophatase 3 (PFKFB3), was assessed in miR-125a-/- ECs and zebrafish embryos. FINDINGS: MiR-125a is significantly decreased in PsA synovium and inversely associated with macroscopic vascularity. In-vivo, CRISPR/cas9 miR-125a-/- zebrafish displayed a hyper-branching phenotype. In-vitro, miR-125a inhibition promoted EC tube formation, branching, migration and invasion, effects paralleled by a shift in their metabolic profile towards glycolysis. This metabolic shift was also observed in the PsA synovial vasculature where increased expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), PFKFB3 and Pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme M2 (PKM2) were demonstrated. Finally, blockade of PFKFB3 significantly inhibited anti-miR-125a-induced angiogenic mechanisms in-vitro, paralleled by normalisation of vascular development of CRISPR/cas9 miR-125a-/- zebrafish embryos. INTEPRETATION: Our results provide evidence that miR-125a deficiency enhances angiogenic processes through metabolic reprogramming of endothelial cells. FUND: Irish Research Council, Arthritis Ireland, EU Seventh Framework Programme (612218/3D-NET).


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Animais , Biópsia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais , Inativação Gênica , Glicólise , Humanos , Osteoartrite/genética , Osteoartrite/patologia , Interferência de RNA , Peixe-Zebra
19.
Rheumatol Adv Pract ; 3(1): rkz011, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431999

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the pro-inflammatory effects of IL-6 in ex vivo temporal artery explant cultures. Methods: Patients meeting 1990 ACR classification criteria for GCA were prospectively recruited. Temporal artery biopsies were obtained and temporal artery explants cultured ex vivo with IL-6 (10-40 ng/ml) in the presence or absence of its soluble receptor (sIL-6R; 20 ng/ml) for 24 h. Explant supernatants were harvested after 24 h and assayed for IFN-γ, TNF-α, Serum amyloid A, IL-1ß, IL-17, IL-8, angiotensin II and VEGF by ELISA. Myofibroblast outgrowths, cytoskeletal rearrangement and wound repair assays were performed. Results: IL-6 augmented production of VEGF, but not of any of the other pro-inflammatory mediators assayed. No differences were observed in the explants cultured in the presence or absence of the sIL-6R or between those with a positive (n = 11) or negative (n = 17) temporal artery biopsy. IL-6 did not enhance myofibroblast proliferation or migration. Western blot analysis confirmed signalling activation, with increased expression of pSTAT3 in response to IL-6+sIL-6R. Conclusion: IL-6 stimulation of temporal artery explants from patients with GCA neither increased expression of key pro-inflammatory mediators nor influenced myofibroblast proliferation or migration.

20.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 71(10): 1387-1395, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is higher in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) compared to the general population. Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of PsA. Because tofacitinib increases circulating lipid levels in some patients, we evaluated CVD risk factors and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with active PsA receiving tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily plus conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. METHODS: Data were pooled from 2 phase III studies (Efficacy and Safety of Tofacitinib in Psoriatic Arthritis [OPAL Broaden] and Tofacitinib in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis With Inadequate Response to TNF Inhibitors [OPAL Beyond]) and 1 ongoing long-term extension (Open-Label Extension Study of Tofacitinib in Psoriatic Arthritis [OPAL Balance], data cutoff January 2017; database not locked). Outcomes included fasting lipid levels, blood pressure, hypertension-related adverse events (AEs; including hypertension, high blood pressure, and increased blood pressure), and MACE. RESULTS: Overall, 783 tofacitinib-treated patients were included. Percentage increases from baseline in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels ranged from 9% to 14% for tofacitinib 5 mg and 10 mg at 3 and 6 months; no meaningful changes in LDL-c:HDL-c or total cholesterol:HDL-c ratios were observed. Blood pressure remained stable for 24 months. Fifty-eight patients (7.4%) had hypertension-related AEs; none were fatal (incidence rate [IR] per 100 patient-years 4.81 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3.65-6.22]). Five patients (0.6%) had MACE (IR 0.24 [95% CI 0.05-0.70]); 2 were fatal. CONCLUSION: Serum lipid level increases at month 3 following tofacitinib treatment in PsA were consistent with observations in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. The IR of hypertension-related AEs and MACE was low; long-term follow-up is ongoing.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica/sangue , Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto/métodos , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirróis/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lipídeos/sangue , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
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