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1.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 131(10): 2393-2401, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore neurophysiological features of musicogenic epilepsy (ME), discussing experimental findings in the framework of a systematic review on ME. METHODS: Two patients with ME underwent high-density-electroencephalography (hd-EEG) while listening to ictogenic songs. In one case, musicogenic seizures were elicited. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to hd-EEG, and components hosting interictal and ictal elements were identified and localized. Finally, the temporal dynamics of spike-density was studied relative to seizures. All findings were compared against the results of a systematic review on ME, collecting 131 cases. RESULTS: Interictal spikes appeared isolated in specific fronto-temporal independent components, whose cortical generators were located in the anterior temporal and inferior frontal lobe. In the patient undergoing seizure, ictal discharge relied in the same component, with the interictal spike-density decreasing before the seizure onset. CONCLUSION: Our study shows how ICA can isolate neurophysiological features of ictal and interictal discharges in ME, highlighting a fronto-temporal localization and a suppression of spike-density preceding the seizure onset. SIGNIFICANCE: While the localization of ME activity could indicate which aspect within the musical stimulus might trigger musicogenic seizures for each patient, the study of ME dynamics could contribute to the development of models for seizure-prediction and their validation.

2.
Brain Res ; 1716: 16-26, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195855

RESUMO

The objective of the present work was to identify electroencephalographic (EEG) components in order to distinguish between braking and accelerating intention in simulated car driving. To do so, we collected high-density EEG data from thirty participants while they were driving in a car simulator. The EEG was separated into independent components that were clustered across participants according to their scalp map topographies. For each component, time-frequency activity related to braking and acceleration events was determined through wavelet analysis, and the cortical generators were estimated through minimum norm source localisation. Comparisons of the time-frequency patterns of power and phase activations revealed that theta power synchronisation distinguishes braking from acceleration events 800 ms before the action and that phase-locked activity increases for braking 800 ms before foot movement in the theta-alpha frequency range. In addition, source reconstruction showed that the dorso-mesial part of the premotor cortex plays a key role in preparation of foot movement. Overall, the results illustrate that dorso-mesial premotor areas are involved in movement preparation while driving, and that low-frequency EEG rhythms could be exploited to predict drivers' intention to brake or accelerate.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Automóveis , Simulação por Computador , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(10): 1767-1781, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556723

RESUMO

When humans compete, they invest energy and effort to injure others and to protect against injury and exploitation. The psychology behind exploiting others and protecting against exploitation is still poorly understood and is addressed here in an incentivized economic contest game in which individuals invested in predatory attack and prey defense. Consistent with standard economic theory on production and predation, we find that individuals compete less intensely when they attack rather than defend and that attacks disproportionally often fail. We find, furthermore, 2 psychological mechanisms that restrain attack more than defense. First, individuals with stronger concern for others' welfare (Experiment 1a) and with stronger empathy (Experiment 1b) less frequently attack and when they attack, they do so less forcefully. Second, shorter decision times (Experiment 2a and Experiment 2b), along with cognitive taxation (Experiment 2b) associate with more forceful, but not with more frequent attack. Finally, investments in defense were neither predicted by other-concern and empathy, nor by decision time and cognitive taxation. Thus, individuals with stronger prosocial preferences and more deliberated decisions spent less energy on injuring others, and less often defeated their antagonists but ended-up personally wealthier. The waste of conflict can be reduced by strengthening prosocial preferences and cognitive resources available for deliberate decision-making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Comportamento Social , Cognição/fisiologia , Empatia , Humanos
4.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 11: 378, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28790907

RESUMO

In this study, the cortical activity correlated with the perception and appreciation of different set of pictures was estimated by using neuroelectric brain activity and graph theory methodologies in a group of artistic educated persons. The pictures shown to the subjects consisted of original pictures of Titian's and a contemporary artist's paintings (Orig dataset) plus two sets of additional pictures. These additional datasets were obtained from the previous paintings by removing all but the colors or the shapes employed (Color and Style dataset, respectively). Results suggest that the verbal appreciation of Orig dataset when compared to Color and Style ones was mainly correlated to the neuroelectric indexes estimated during the first 10 s of observation of the pictures. Always in the first 10 s of observation: (1) Orig dataset induced more emotion and is perceived with more appreciation than the other two Color and Style datasets; (2) Style dataset is perceived with more attentional effort than the other investigated datasets. During the whole period of observation of 30 s: (1) emotion induced by Color and Style datasets increased across the time while that induced of the Orig dataset remain stable; (2) Color and Style dataset were perceived with more attentional effort than the Orig dataset. During the entire experience, there is evidence of a cortical flow of activity from the parietal and central areas toward the prefrontal and frontal areas during the observation of the images of all the datasets. This is coherent from the notion that active perception of the images with sustained cognitive attention in parietal and central areas caused the generation of the judgment about their aesthetic appreciation in frontal areas.

5.
Front Psychol ; 7: 481, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27065937

RESUMO

Over the last few years, the efforts to reveal through neuroscientific lens the relations between the mind, body, and built environment have set a promising direction of using neuroscience for architecture. However, little has been achieved thus far in developing a systematic account that could be employed for interpreting current results and providing a consistent framework for subsequent scientific experimentation. In this context, the enactive perspective is proposed as a guide to studying architectural experience for two key reasons. Firstly, the enactive approach is specifically selected for its capacity to account for the profound connectedness of the organism and the world in an active and dynamic relationship, which is primarily shaped by the features of the body. Thus, particular emphasis is placed on the issues of embodiment and motivational factors as underlying constituents of the body-architecture interactions. Moreover, enactive understanding of the relational coupling between body schema and affordances of architectural spaces singles out the two-way bodily communication between architecture and its inhabitants, which can be also explored in immersive virtual reality settings. Secondly, enactivism has a strong foothold in phenomenological thinking that corresponds to the existing phenomenological discourse in architectural theory and qualitative design approaches. In this way, the enactive approach acknowledges the available common ground between neuroscience and architecture and thus allows a more accurate definition of investigative goals. Accordingly, the outlined model of architectural subject in enactive terms-that is, a model of a human being as embodied, enactive, and situated agent, is proposed as a basis of neuroscientific and phenomenological interpretation of architectural experience.

6.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 54(10): 1503-13, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26645694

RESUMO

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are widely used for clinical applications and exploited to design robotic and interactive systems for healthy people. We provide evidence to control a sensorimotor electroencephalographic (EEG) BCI system while piloting a flight simulator and attending a double attentional task simultaneously. Ten healthy subjects were trained to learn how to manage a flight simulator, use the BCI system, and answer to the attentional tasks independently. Afterward, the EEG activity was collected during a first flight where subjects were required to concurrently use the BCI, and a second flight where they were required to simultaneously use the BCI and answer to the attentional tasks. Results showed that the concurrent use of the BCI system during the flight simulation does not affect the flight performances. However, BCI performances decrease from the 83 to 63 % while attending additional alertness and vigilance tasks. This work shows that it is possible to successfully control a BCI system during the execution of multiple tasks such as piloting a flight simulator with an extra cognitive load induced by attentional tasks. Such framework aims to foster the knowledge on BCI systems embedded into vehicles and robotic devices to allow the simultaneous execution of secondary tasks.


Assuntos
Aviação , Simulação por Computador , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Atenção , Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Humanos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cogn Process ; 16 Suppl 1: 425-9, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26224275

RESUMO

The recent efforts aimed at providing neuroscientific explanations of how people perceive and experience architectural environments have largely justified the initial belief in the value of neuroscience for architecture. However, a systematic development of a coherent theoretical and experimental framework is missing. To investigate the neurophysiological reactions related to the appreciation of ambiances, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in an immersive virtual reality during the appreciation of interior designs. Such data have been analyzed according to the working hypothesis that appreciated environments involve embodied simulation mechanisms and circuits mediating approaching stimuli. EEG recordings of 12 healthy subjects have been performed during the perception of three-dimensional interiors that have been simulated in a CAVE system and judged according to dimensions of familiarity, novelty, comfort, pleasantness, arousal and presence. A correlation analysis on personal judgments returned that scores of novelty, pleasantness and comfort are positively correlated, while familiarity and novelty are in negative way. Statistical spectral maps reveal that pleasant, novel and comfortable interiors produce a de-synchronization of the mu rhythm over left sensorimotor areas. Interiors judged more pleasant and less familiar generate an activation of left frontal areas (theta and alpha bands), along an involvement of areas devoted to spatial navigation. An increase in comfort returns an enhancement of the theta frontal midline activity. Cerebral activations underlying appreciation of architecture could involve different mechanisms regulating corporeal, emotional and cognitive reactions. Therefore, it might be suggested that people's experience of architectural environments is intrinsically structured by the possibilities for action.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Emoções , Meio Ambiente , Motivação/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Espectral , Estatística como Assunto , Interface Usuário-Computador
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2015: 7990-3, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26738146

RESUMO

In this paper we measured the neuroelectrical and the eye-movements activities in a group of 27 healthy subjects during their visit of a fine arts gallery in which a series of masterpieces of the Italian painter Tiziano Vecellio (also known as Titian, 1488-1576) were shown. The pictures chosen for the visit were 10 portraits and 10 of religious subjects. Each picture was observed for a minute. A mobile EEG device with an eye-tracker was used for this experiment. Evaluation of the appreciation of the pictures was performed by using the neuroelectrical approach-withdrawal index (AW). High value of AW means high appreciation of the picture. The number of eye fixations performed by the subjects during the observation of the pictures was also analyzed. Results showed that in the examined group the AW index was significant higher during the observation of portraits than during the observation of the religious subjects (as resulted from an ANOVA performed on AW index, with a p<;0,007). Interestingly, the average AW index estimated in the first 20 seconds of the observation of the pictures remains highly correlated with the AW index evaluated for the second part of the data (from 20 s to one minute) for all the 20 pictures examined (r = 0,82, p<;0,0001). In addition, the number of eye fixations performed by the subjects in the first 5 or 10 seconds of observation of the pictures that were most appreciated are significantly higher than the number of eye fixations performed on pictures that subjects did not like (p<;0,048 and p<;0,0018, respectively). Such difference vanishes if the entire period of observation of the pictures of one minute is used (p = 0,54). Taken together, such results seem to suggest that the neuroelectrical correlates of the perception of "good" or "bad" pictures are rapidly formed in our brain, within the first 10-20 seconds from the exposition to the picture.


Assuntos
Percepção , Movimentos Oculares , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Itália
9.
Front Psychol ; 6: 1944, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26733924

RESUMO

Nowadays there is the hope that neuroscientific findings will contribute to the improvement of building design in order to create environments which satisfy man's demands. This can be achieved through the understanding of neurophysiological correlates of architectural perception. To this aim, the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals of 12 healthy subjects were recorded during the perception of three immersive virtual reality environments (VEs). Afterwards, participants were asked to describe their experience in terms of Familiarity, Novelty, Comfort, Pleasantness, Arousal, and Presence using a rating scale from 1 to 9. These perceptual dimensions are hypothesized to influence the pattern of cerebral spectral activity, while Presence is used to assess the realism of the virtual stimulation. Hence, the collected scores were used to analyze the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the EEG for each behavioral dimension in the theta, alpha and mu bands by means of time-frequency analysis and topographic statistical maps. Analysis of Presence resulted in the activation of the frontal-midline theta, indicating the involvement of sensorimotor integration mechanisms when subjects expressed to feel more present in the VEs. Similar patterns also characterized the experience of familiar and comfortable VEs. In addition, pleasant VEs increased the theta power across visuomotor circuits and activated the alpha band in areas devoted to visuospatial exploration and processing of categorical spatial relations. Finally, the de-synchronization of the mu rhythm described the perception of pleasant and comfortable VEs, showing the involvement of left motor areas and embodied mechanisms for environment appreciation. Overall, these results show the possibility to measure EEG correlates of architectural perception involving the cerebral circuits of sensorimotor integration, spatial navigation, and embodiment. These observations can help testing architectural hypotheses in order to design environments matching the changing needs of humans.

10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2015: 1654-7, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26736593

RESUMO

Despite of technological innovations, noisy environments still constitute a challenging and stressful situation for words recognition by hearing impaired subjects. The evaluation of the mental workload imposed by the noisy environments for the recognition of the words in prelingually deaf children is then of paramount importance since it could affect the speed of the learning process during scholar period.The aim of the present study was to investigate different electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectral density (PSD) components (in theta 4-8 Hz - and alpha - 8-12 Hz - frequency bands) to estimate the mental workload index in different noise conditions during a word recognition task in prelingually deaf children, a population not yet investigated in relation to the workload index during auditory tasks. A pilot study involving a small group of prelingually deaf children was then subjected to EEG recordings during an auditory task composed by a listening and a successive recognition of words with different noise conditions. Results showed that in the pre-word listening phase frontal EEG PSD in theta band and the ratio of the frontal EEG PSD in theta band and the parietal EEG PSD in alpha band (workload index; IWL) reported highest values in the most demanding noise condition. In addition, in the phase preceding the word forced-choice task the highest parietal EEG PSD in alpha band and IWL values were reported at the presumably simplest condition (noise emitted in correspondence of the subject's deaf ear). These results could suggest the prominence of EEG PSD theta component activity in the pre-word listening phase. In addition, a more challenging noise situation in the pre-choice phase would be so "over-demanding" to fail to enhance both the alpha power and the IWL in comparison to the already demanding "simple" condition.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Auxiliares de Audição , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído
11.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2014: 434296, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25214884

RESUMO

The present research investigates the neurophysiological activity elicited by fast observations of faces of real candidates during simulated political elections. We used simultaneous recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals as well as galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) as measurements of central and autonomic nervous systems. Twenty healthy subjects were asked to give judgments on dominance, trustworthiness, and a preference of vote related to the politicians' faces. We used high-resolution EEG techniques to map statistical differences of power spectral density (PSD) cortical activity onto a realistic head model as well as partial directed coherence (PDC) and graph theory metrics to estimate the functional connectivity networks and investigate the role of cortical regions of interest (ROIs). Behavioral results revealed that judgment of dominance trait is the most predictive of the outcome of the simulated elections. Statistical comparisons related to PSD and PDC values highlighted an asymmetry in the activation of frontal cortical areas associated with the valence of the judged trait as well as to the probability to cast the vote. Overall, our results highlight the existence of cortical EEG features which are correlated with the prediction of vote and with the judgment of trustworthy and dominant faces.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Política , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Pele
12.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2014: 876290, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25180046

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to measure the perceived pleasantness during the observation of a musical video clip in a group of cochlear implanted adult patients when compared to a group of normal hearing subjects. This comparison was performed by using the imbalance of the EEG power spectra in alpha band over frontal areas as a metric for the perceived pleasantness. Subjects were asked to watch a musical video clip in three different experimental conditions: with the original audio included (Norm), with a distorted version of the audio (Dist), and without the audio (Mute). The frontal EEG imbalance between the estimated power spectra for the left and right prefrontal areas has been calculated to investigate the differences among the two populations. Results suggested that the perceived pleasantness of the musical video clip in the normal hearing population and in the bilateral cochlear implanted populations has similar range of variation across the different stimulations (Norm, Dist, and Mute), when compared to the range of variation of video clip's pleasantness for the monolateral cochlear implanted population. A similarity exists in the trends of the perceived pleasantness across the different experimental conditions in the mono- and bilaterally cochlear implanted patients.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Implantes Cocleares/psicologia , Música/psicologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória
13.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2014: 912981, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25147579

RESUMO

Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Comportamento do Consumidor , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Emoções , Neurofisiologia/métodos , Pele/patologia , Algoritmos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Neurociências/tendências , Fatores Sexuais , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Software , Televisão , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cochlear Implants Int ; 15 Suppl 1: S68-71, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24869449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate by means of non-invasive neuroelectrical imaging the differences in the perceived pleasantness of music between children with cochlear implants (CI) and normal-hearing (NH) children. METHODS: 5 NH children and 5 children who received a sequential bilateral CI were assessed by means of High-Resolution EEG with Source Reconstruction as they watched a musical cartoon. Implanted children were tested before and after the second implant. For each subject the scalp Power Spectral Density was calculated in order to investigate the EEG alpha asymmetry. RESULTS: The scalp topographic distribution of the EEG power spectrum in the alpha band was different in children using one CI as compared to NH children (see figure). With two CIs the cortical activation pattern changed significantly, becoming more similar to the one observed in NH children. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the hypothesis that bilateral CI users have a closer-to-normal perception of the pleasantness of music than unilaterally implanted children.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Implante Coclear/métodos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Perda Auditiva/cirurgia , Música , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Implantes Cocleares , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 78(5): 737-43, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24642416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To date, no objective measure of the pleasantness of music perception by children with cochlear implants has been reported. The EEG alpha asymmetries of pre-frontal cortex activation are known to relate to emotional/affective engagement in a perceived stimulus. More specifically, according to the "withdrawal/approach" model, an unbalanced de-synchronization of the alpha activity in the left prefrontal cortex has been associated with a positive affective state/approach toward a stimulus, and an unbalanced de-synchronization of the same activity in the right prefrontal cortex with a negative affective state/withdrawal from a stimulus. In the present study, High-Resolution EEG with Source Reconstruction was used to compare the music-induced alpha asymmetries of the prefrontal cortex in a group of prelingually deaf implanted children and in a control group of normal-hearing children. METHODS: Six normal-hearing and six age-matched deaf children using a unilateral cochlear implants underwent High-Resolution EEG recordings as they were listening to a musical cartoon. Musical stimuli were delivered in three versions: Normal, Distort (reverse audio flow) and Mute. The EEG alpha rhythm asymmetry was analyzed: Power Spectral Density was calculated for each Region of Interest, together with a right-left imbalance index. A map of cortical activation was then reconstructed on a realistic cortical model. RESULTS: Asymmetries of EEG alpha rhythm in the prefrontal cortices were observed in both groups. In the normal-hearing children, the asymmetries were consistent with the withdrawal/approach model, whereas in cochlear implant users they were not. Moreover, in implanted children a different pattern of alpha asymmetries in extrafrontal cortical areas was noticed as compared to normal-hearing subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The peculiar pattern of alpha asymmetries in implanted children's prefrontal cortex in response to musical stimuli suggests an inability by these subjects to discriminate normal from dissonant music and to appreciate the pleasantness of normal music. High-Resolution EEG may prove to be a promising tool for objectively measuring prefrontal cortex alpha asymmetries in child cochlear implant users.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Implante Coclear/métodos , Surdez/cirurgia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Música , Estimulação Acústica , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Implantes Cocleares , Estudos de Coortes , Surdez/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 44: 58-75, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23116991

RESUMO

This paper reviews published papers related to neurophysiological measurements (electroencephalography: EEG, electrooculography EOG; heart rate: HR) in pilots/drivers during their driving tasks. The aim is to summarise the main neurophysiological findings related to the measurements of pilot/driver's brain activity during drive performance and how particular aspects of this brain activity could be connected with the important concepts of "mental workload", "mental fatigue" or "situational awareness". Review of the literature suggests that exists a coherent sequence of changes for EEG, EOG and HR variables during the transition from normal drive, high mental workload and eventually mental fatigue and drowsiness. In particular, increased EEG power in theta band and a decrease in alpha band occurred in high mental workload. Successively, increased EEG power in theta as well as delta and alpha bands characterise the transition between mental workload and mental fatigue. Drowsiness is also characterised by increased blink rate and decreased HR values. The detection of such mental states is actually performed "offline" with accuracy around 90% but not online. A discussion on the possible future applications of findings provided by these neurophysiological measurements in order to improve the safety of the vehicles will be also presented.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Neurofisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Fases do Sono/fisiologia , Carga de Trabalho , Aeronaves , Condução de Veículo , Humanos
17.
Cogn Neurodyn ; 7(6): 531-5, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24427225

RESUMO

How to evaluate the effect of commercials is significantly important in neuromarketing. In this paper, we proposed an electronic way to evaluate the influence of video commercials on consumers by impression index. The impression index combines both the memorization and attention index during consumers observing video commercials by tracking the EEG activity. It extracts features from scalp EEG to evaluate the effectiveness of video commercials in terms of time-frequency-space domain. And, the general global field power was used as an impression index for evaluation of video commercial scenes as time series. Results of experiment demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to track variations of the cerebral activity related to cognitive task such as observing video commercials, and help to judge whether the scene in video commercials is impressive or not by EEG signals.

18.
Brain Topogr ; 26(2): 303-14, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23053602

RESUMO

Proportional reasoning is very important logical skill required in mathematics and science problem solving as well as in everyday life decisions. However, there is a lack of studies on neurophysiological correlates of proportional reasoning. To explore the brain activity of healthy adults while performing a balance scale task, we used high-resolution EEG techniques and graph-theory based connectivity analysis. After unskilled subjects learned how to properly solve the task, their cortical power spectral density (PSD) maps revealed an increased parietal activity in the beta band. This indicated that subjects started to perform calculations. In addition, the number of inter-hemispheric connections decreased after learning, implying a rearrangement of the brain activity. Repeated performance of the task led to the PSD decrease in the beta and gamma bands among parietal and frontal regions along with a synchronization of lower frequencies. These findings suggest that repetition led to a more automatic task performance. Subjects were also divided in two groups according to their scores on the test of logical thinking (TOLT). Although no group differences in the accuracy and reaction times were found, EEG data showed higher activity in the beta and gamma bands for the group that scored better on TOLT. Learning and repetition induced changes in the pattern of functional connectivity were evident for all frequency bands. Overall, the results indicated that higher frequency oscillations in frontal and parietal regions are particularly important for proportional reasoning.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lógica , Masculino , Matemática
19.
IEEE Pulse ; 3(3): 42-7, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22678840

RESUMO

Today, there is a greater interest in the marketing world in using neuroimaging tools to evaluate the efficacy of TV commercials. This field of research is known as neuromarketing. In this article, we illustrate some applications of electrical neuroimaging, a discipline that uses electroencephalography (EEG) and intensive signal processing techniques for the evaluation of marketing stimuli. We also show how the proper usage of these methodologies can provide information related to memorization and attention while people are watching marketing-relevant stimuli. We note that temporal and frequency patterns of EEG signals are able to provide possible descriptors that convey information about the cognitive process in subjects observing commercial advertisements (ads). Such information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. Evidence of this research shows how EEG methodologies could be employed to better design new products that marketers are going to promote and to analyze the global impact of video commercials already broadcast on TV.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Emoções/fisiologia , Televisão , Humanos , Pesquisa , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
20.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2011: 643489, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21960996

RESUMO

Here we present an overview of some published papers of interest for the marketing research employing electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) methods. The interest for these methodologies relies in their high-temporal resolution as opposed to the investigation of such problem with the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) methodology, also largely used in the marketing research. In addition, EEG and MEG technologies have greatly improved their spatial resolution in the last decades with the introduction of advanced signal processing methodologies. By presenting data gathered through MEG and high resolution EEG we will show which kind of information it is possible to gather with these methodologies while the persons are watching marketing relevant stimuli. Such information will be related to the memorization and pleasantness related to such stimuli. We noted that temporal and frequency patterns of brain signals are able to provide possible descriptors conveying information about the cognitive and emotional processes in subjects observing commercial advertisements. These information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. We also show an example of how an EEG methodology could be used to analyze cultural differences between fruition of video commercials of carbonated beverages in Western and Eastern countries.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Magnetoencefalografia , Marketing Social , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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