Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 55
Filtrar
1.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 167: 103491, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626792

RESUMO

Real-world data suggest a possible interplay between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and susceptibility to and the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. As ADT is the backbone of prostate cancer treatment, various authors have evaluated different patient cohorts but the evidence provided is conflicting. The aim of this review is to assess the available publications concerning the role of ADT in preventing or reducing the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. After a literature search we identified four full papers, five letters, and four meeting abstracts, but these used different search methods and the quality of the evidence varied. They frequently had different endpoints, did not report the status of the prostate cancer patients and evaluated heterogeneous populations. The available data do not support the view that ADT protects against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Larger and more precise studies are warranted, considering variables that affect infection outcomes as these significantly influence the reliability of the findings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias da Próstata , Antagonistas de Androgênios , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Eur J Cancer ; 155: 56-63, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical data suggest that docetaxel and enzalutamide interfere with androgen receptor translocation and signalling. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of their concurrent administration in the first-line treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, phase II trial, previously untreated mCRPC patients were randomised 1:1 to receive eight 21-d courses of docetaxel 75 mg/m2, oral prednisone 5 mg twice daily and oral enzalutamide 160 mg/d (arm DE), or the same treatment without enzalutamide (arm D). The primary end-point was the percentage of patients without investigator-assessed disease progression 6 months after the first docetaxel administration. RESULTS: The 246 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive docetaxel, prednisone and enzalutamide (n = 120) or docetaxel and prednisone (n = 126). The 6-month progression rate was 12.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.1-20.6) in arm DE and 27.8% (95% CI 22.8-39.4) in arm D (chi-squared test 10.01; P = 0.002). The most frequent grade III-IV adverse events were fatigue (12.5% in arm DE versus 5.6% in arm D), febrile neutropenia (9.3% versus 4.0%) and neutropenia (7.6% versus 5.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of enzalutamide and docetaxel appears to be more clinically beneficial than docetaxel alone in previously untreated mCRPC patients, although serious adverse events were more frequent. Our findings suggest that first-line treatment with this combination could lead to an additional clinical benefit when prompt and prolonged disease control is simultaneously required. Clearly, these results should be considered cautiously because of the study's phase II design and the absence of an overall survival benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: EudraCT 2014-000175-43 - NCT02453009.

3.
Clin Med Insights Oncol ; 15: 11795549211021667, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290538

RESUMO

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are currently the standard of care for metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC) after the failure of previous platinum-based chemotherapy. The choice of further therapy after ICI progression is a new challenge, and scarce data support it. We aimed to examine the outcomes of mUC patients after progression to ICI, especially when receiving chemotherapy. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from clinical records of mUC patients whose disease progressed to anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1)or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) therapy at 14 Italian centers. Patients were grouped according to ICI therapy setting into SALVAGE (ie, ICI delivered ⩾ second-line therapy after platinum-based chemotherapy) and NAÏVE (ie, first-line therapy) groups. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared among subgroups. Cox regression assessed the effect of treatments after progression to ICI on OS. Objective response rate (ORR) was calculated as the sum of partial and complete radiologic responses. Results: The study population consisted of 201 mUC patients who progressed after ICI: 59 in the NAÏVE cohort and 142 in the SALVAGE cohort. Overall, 52 patients received chemotherapy after ICI progression (25.9%), 20 (9.9%) received ICI beyond progression, 115 (57.2%) received best supportive care only, and 14 (7.0%) received investigational drugs. Objective response rate to chemotherapy in the post-ICI setting was 23.1% (28.0% in the NAÏVE group and 18.5% in the SALVAGE group). Median PFS and OS to chemotherapy after ICI-PD was 5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3-11) and 13 months (95% CI: 7-NA) for the NAÏVE group; 3 months (95% CI: 2-NA) and 9 months (95% CI: 6-NA) for the SALVAGE group, respectively. Overall survival from ICI initiation was 17 months for patients receiving chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.09, p < 0.001), versus 8 months for patients receiving ICI beyond progression (HR = 0.13, p < 0.001), and 2 months for patients who did not receive further active treatment (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Chemotherapy administered after ICI progression for mUC patients is advisable irrespective of the treatment line.

4.
Immunotherapy ; 13(13): 1093-1103, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190578

RESUMO

Background: To investigate the role of pretreatment lung immune prognostic index (LIPI) as biomarker in PD-L1 ≥50% non-small-cell lung cancer patients receiving pembrolizumab. Patients & methods: We retrospectively identified 117 patients, divided into three prognostic groups according to LIPI score. For each patient, we evaluated 1-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival rate. C-statistic and survival receiver operating characteristic curves were used to study discrimination of LIPI. Results: After a median follow-up of 11.7 months, 1-year OS rate was 60.1%, 35.3% and 28.6%, while 1-year progression-free survival rate was 39.1%, 20.6% and 14.3% in good, intermediate and poor LIPI groups, respectively (p < 0.001). The c-statistic and area under the curve of LIPI were 0.63 and 0.662 for OS and 1-year OS, respectively. Conclusions: Higher LIPI score is related to worse survival in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with first-line pembrolizumab. However, based on c-statistic and area under the curve, LIPI does not represent a good prognostic survival model.

5.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 162: 103351, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989769

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The introduction in clinical practice of the immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) radically changed the treatment algorithm of lung cancers. To characterize the toxicity of ICIs (atezolizumab, durvalumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab) is important for personalizing treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of phase III randomized controlled trials assessing ICIs, from inception until April 23rd, 2020. We extracted the data from the ICI arm of each trial for indirect comparisons to estimate relative risk for immune-related adverse events (irAEs), severe (grade ≥3) irAEs, drug discontinuation due to irAEs or toxic death. RESULTS: Sixteen trials included a total of 6226 subjects randomized to the experimental immunotherapy arm. Immunotherapy was administered in monotherapy (8 trials), in combination with chemotherapy (6 trials) or other ICI (2 trials). Any grade irAEs and severe irAEs for ICI were 37.1% and 18.5%, respectively. Discontinuations due to any grade irAEs and severe irAEs were 13.8% and 9.2%, respectively; toxic deaths were 2.9% in the immunotherapy arm. Pooled data on any, severe and organ-specific irAEs showed that immunotherapy has a significantly lower risk of irAEs compared to immuno-chemotherapy, especially when analysis was restricted to monoimmunotherapy, like drug discontinuation and toxic death (all p < 0.05). Detailed comparisons between different ICIs provided treatment-related risk profiles for organ-specific irAEs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings contribute to clarifying frequency and features of immune-related toxicities between different ICIs in lung cancer patients, including any grade irAEs, severe irAEs, drug discontinuation and toxic deaths, and may be useful to inform the selection of treatment.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos
6.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Until now, no robust data supported the efficacy, safety and recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with cancer receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). METHODS: The prospective multicenter observational INfluenza Vaccine Indication During therapy with Immune checkpoint inhibitors (INVIDIa-2) study investigated the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving ICIs, enrolled in 82 Italian centers from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the time-adjusted incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until April 30, 2020. Secondary endpoints regarded ILI severity and vaccine safety. RESULTS: The study enrolled 1279 patients; 1188 patients were evaluable for the primary endpoint analysis. Of them, 48.9% (581) received influenza vaccination. The overall ILI incidence was 8.2% (98 patients). Vaccinated patients were significantly more frequently elderly (p<0.0001), males (p=0.004), with poor European Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (p=0.009), affected by lung cancer (p=0.01), and by other non-cancer comorbidities (p<0.0001) when compared with unvaccinated. ILI incidence was not different basing on influenza vaccination: the time-to-ILI was similar in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients (p=0.62). ILI complications were significantly less frequent for patients receiving the vaccination (11.8% vs 38.3% in unvaccinated, p=0.002). ILI-related intravenous therapies were significantly less frequent in vaccinated patients than in unvaccinated (11.8% vs 29.8%, p=0.027). ILI lethality was, respectively, 0% in vaccinated and 4.3% in unvaccinated patients. Vaccine-related adverse events were rare and mild (1.5%, grades 1-2). CONCLUSION: The INVIDIa-2 study results support a positive recommendation for influenza vaccination in patients with advanced cancer receiving immunotherapy.

7.
Future Oncol ; 17(5): 597-609, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401981

RESUMO

The brain is one of the most frequent sites of metastases in lung cancer patients, whose prognosis is related to the histological, biomolecular and clinical features of the disease. Over the years, the survival has improved significantly with the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), but there are limited data concerning their efficacy in patients with brain metastases. The aim of this review is to describe the biological mechanisms supporting the use of immunotherapy for brain metastases and the outcomes experienced by lung cancer patients with brain involvement enrolled in Phase III registration trials of ICIs. We also review retrospective data on ICIs alone or combined with brain radiotherapy, and indicate future directions for preclinical and clinical research.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
8.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 21(4): 389-400, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245666

RESUMO

Introduction: Recently, there has been a paradigm shift in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) because the approval of a number of new agents has significantly improved overall survival. However, as PCa is a heterogeneous disease that may be more or less aggressive and patients may be more or less responsive to treatment, it is often debated whether or not it is acceptable to avoid active therapies.Areas covered: This review discusses different settings of advanced PCa.Expert opinion: In metastatic castration-resistant PCa, it is unethical not to use active treatments but the use of both androgen receptor targeting agents (ARTA) in sequence should be avoided in most patients and the use of the available agents for fourth-line treatment or beyond should only be considered for highly selected patients. In metastatic hormone-sensitive PCa, patients with de novo disease should receive one additional agent in combination with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), whereas patients in relapse should be managed with ADT alone. In non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (PCa), all patients with a PSA doubling time of ≤6 months should receive one ARTA, whereas the others might wait until there is an acceleration in the kinetics of their PSA levels.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Antagonistas de Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considerable numbers of patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) develop bone metastases (BoM). Their impact on the efficacy of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is not yet investigated. METHODS: Between July 2014 and August 2020 data on pts treated with single-agent ICIs after failure of at least 1 previous line of chemotherapy for advanced disease, were retrospectively collected across 14 Italian centers. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was performed evaluating potential prognostic factors for OS and PFS. Each factor was evaluated in univariable (UVA) and multivariable analysis (MVA). RESULTS: A total of 208 evaluable patients treated with ICIs were identified, including 122 (59%) without BoM (BoM-) and 86 (41%) with bone metastases (BoM+). After a median follow-up of 22.3 months, BoM+ patients showed shorter OS (median 3.9 vs 7.8 months, HR 1.59 [95%CI, 1.15-2.20], P = .005) and shorter PFS (median 2.0 vs 2.6 months, HR 1.76 [95%CI, 1.31-2.37], P < .001). Probability of being alive was 62% vs 40% after 6 months, 38% vs 23% after 1 year and 24% vs 13% after 2 years, in BoM- and BoM+ respectively. Within each Bellmunt score, OS and PFS of BoM+ patients were shorter. Both presence of BoM and higher Bellmunt risk score were significantly associated with shorter OS and PFS in UVA and MVA. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with single-agent ICIs for BoM+ mUC have a dismal prognosis compared to BoM-. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism behind these outcomes.

10.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920968463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224275

RESUMO

Background: This prospective, multicentre, observational INVIDIa-2 study is investigating the clinical efficacy of influenza vaccination in advanced-cancer patients receiving immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), enrolled in 82 Italian centres, from October 2019 to January 2020. The primary endpoint was the incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) until 30 April 2020. All the ILI episodes, laboratory tests, complications, hospitalizations and pneumonitis were recorded. Therefore, the study prospectively recorded all the COVID-19 ILI events. Patients and methods: Patients were included in this non-prespecified COVID-19 analysis, if alive on 31 January 2020, when the Italian government declared the national emergency. The prevalence of confirmed COVID-19 cases was detected as ILI episode with laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2. Cases with clinical-radiological diagnosis of COVID-19 (COVID-like ILIs), were also reported. Results: Out of 1257 enrolled patients, 955 matched the inclusion criteria for this unplanned analysis. From 31 January to 30 April 2020, 66 patients had ILI: 9 of 955 cases were confirmed COVID-19 ILIs, with prevalence of 0.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3-2.4], a hospitalization rate of 100% and a mortality rate of 77.8%. Including 5 COVID-like ILIs, the overall COVID-19 prevalence was 1.5% (95% CI: 0.5-3.1), with 100% hospitalization and 64% mortality. The presence of elderly, males and comorbidities was significantly higher among patients vaccinated against influenza versus unvaccinated (p = 0.009, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001). Overall COVID-19 prevalence was 1.2% for vaccinated (six of 482 cases, all confirmed) and 1.7% for unvaccinated (8 of 473, 3 confirmed COVID-19 and 5 COVID-like), p = 0.52. The difference remained non-significant, considering confirmed COVID-19 only (p = 0.33). Conclusion: COVID-19 has a meaningful clinical impact on the cancer-patient population receiving ICIs, with high prevalence, hospitalization and an alarming mortality rate among symptomatic cases. Influenza vaccination does not protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

11.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a source of tumor genetic material for EGFR testing in NSCLC. Real-word data about liquid biopsy (LB) clinical practice are lacking. The aim of the study was to describe the LB practice for EGFR detection in North Eastern Italy. METHODS: we conducted a multi-regional survey on ctDNA testing practices in lung cancer patients. RESULTS: Median time from blood collection to plasma separation was 50 min (20-120 min), median time from plasma extraction to ctDNA analysis was 24 h (30 min-5 days) and median turnaround time was 24 h (6 h-5 days). Four hundred and seventy five patients and 654 samples were tested. One hundred and ninety-two patients were tested at diagnosis, with 16% EGFR mutation rate. Among the 283 patients tested at disease progression, 35% were T790M+. Main differences in LB results between 2017 and 2018 were the number of LBs performed for each patient at disease progression (2.88 vs. 1.2, respectively) and the percentage of T790M+ patients (61% vs. 26%).

12.
Eur J Cancer ; 140: 140-146, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are at increased risk of complicated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but it is still unclear if the risk of mortality is influenced by cancer type or ongoing anti-cancer treatments. An interesting debate concerning the potential relationship between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and SARS-CoV-2 infection has recently been opened in the case of prostate cancer (PC), and the aim of this multi-centre cohort study was to investigate the incidence and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostrate cancer (mCRPC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients with mCRPC who developed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and recorded their baseline clinical characteristics, their history of PC and SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their oncological status and treatment at the time of infection. The primary study end point was the death rate and the possible impact of the patients' PC-related history and treatments on mortality. RESULTS: Thirty-four of the 1433 patients with mCRPC attending the participating centres (2.3%) developed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 22 (64.7%) of whom were hospitalised. Most of the patients were symptomatic, the most frequent symptoms being fever (70.6%), dyspnoea (61.8%), cough (52.9%) and fatigue (38.2%). After a median follow-up of 21 days (interquartile range: 13-41), 13 patients had died (38.2%), 17 recovered (50.0%) and four (11.7%) were still infected. The number of treatments previously administered for mCRPC had a significant impact on mortality (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings contribute additional data to the current debate concerning the postulated protective role of ADT, which seems to be less in patients with metastatic PC.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias Ósseas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Neoplasias Ósseas/virologia , COVID-19 , Terapia Combinada , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
J BUON ; 25(2): 848-854, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521877

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) mutations may predict sensitivity and resistance to EGFR-TKIs (Tyrosine Kinases Inhibitors) in metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. The detection of these mutations is usually performed on tumor tissue samples. However, when a biopsy is not feasible or the amount of tissue is limited, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may represent an alternative source for genotyping the tumor. METHODS: In the first phase of the study, the liquid biopsy was performed in newly diagnosed metastatic lung adenocarcinoma patients with and without EGFR mutations to evaluate the concordance between EGFR mutational analysis on ctDNA by real time PCR and on tissue. In the second phase it was performed in EGFR positive patients progressing after first or second generation TKIs in order to detect the T790M mutation. RESULTS: In the first phase, a 100% concordance between EGFR on ctDNA and tissue was revealed, leading to validation of the test. In the second phase, 44.8% of patients showed T790M positive result at liquid biopsy. Considering the re-biopsies performed in 31% of the cases, the overall positivity rate of T790M was 58.6%. Sensitivity and specificity were 76% and 75%, respectively. The median time to development of T790M mutation from the start of first line EGFR TKI was 244 days. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience confirms that liquid biopsy is a valid method to detect sensitizing and resistant EGFR mutations in patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. Nevertheless, in the presence of negative ctDNA analysis, a rebiopsy should be performed whenever possible to confirm this result.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/sangue , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/enzimologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica
15.
Anticancer Drugs ; 31(5): 540-544, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011360

RESUMO

The immunotherapy significantly improved survival of non-small cell lung cancer patients, but it may cause immune-related adverse events, which are severe in less than 10% of cases. We report the case of one patient who developed myositis and myasthenia during nivolumab treatment for metastatic lung squamous carcinoma. Moreover, we reviewed literature data in order to identify similar cases in cancer patients treated with immune-checkpoints inhibitors. A 65-year-old patient, who had previously received a first-line platinum-based therapy, developed diplopia and ptosis 4 weeks after the start of nivolumab. Although antibodies associated with myositis, myasthenia gravis and paraneoplastic syndromes were absent, immune-related myositis and myasthenia were diagnosed. Corticosteroids, immunoglobulin and pyridostigmine showed poor efficacy and the patient died 7 weeks after the appearance of the first symptoms. Fifteen similar cases were found in the literature. A close collaboration between different specialists is essential to rapidly identify and treat severe immune-related adverse events.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Miastenia Gravis/patologia , Miosite/patologia , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Miastenia Gravis/induzido quimicamente , Miosite/induzido quimicamente , Prognóstico
16.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 143: 124-129, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) for resected biliary tract cancer (BTC) is still unclear and there is no specific recommendation by international guidelines. AIM: To perform a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to better define the clinical benefit and risks of ACT or observation in resected BTC. METHOD: A systematic literature search of Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library was performed up to April 2019. A meta-analysis was carried out using the random effects model. RESULTS: ACT provided a mild improvement in recurrence free survival (RFS) (HR:0.83, 95%CI 0.69-0.99) and no effect on overall survival (OS) (HR:0.91, 95%CI 0.75-1.09). Similarly, ACT showed no effect on OS in lymph-node positive subgroup (HR:0.84, 95% CI 0.65-1.08) and surgical margin positive subgroup (HR:0.95, 95%CI 0.69-1.31). Moreover, ACT led to a substantial increase of chemotherapy-associated adverse events (RR:3.03, 95%CI 2.22-4.15). CONCLUSION: ACT for resected BTC patients modestly improved RFS with no effect on OS and a substantial increase in chemotherapy associated AEs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
Future Oncol ; 15(25): 2967-2982, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424285

RESUMO

Over the last 10 years, a number of new agents approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer have led to a significant improvement in overall survival. The addition of new agents to androgen deprivation therapy has also allowed a paradigmatic change in the treatment of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer by improving overall survival in comparison with androgen deprivation therapy alone. Furthermore, recent data concerning the efficacy of three different androgen receptor-targeting agents in patients with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer have opened up new scenarios for future patients' management. Defining the best sequencing strategies for men with prostate cancer is a currently unmet medical need, and choosing treatment is often challenging for clinicians because of the lack of direct comparisons of the available agents. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the literature concerning current sequencing strategies for prostate cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/genética , Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia
18.
Future Oncol ; 15(10): 1115-1123, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887825

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate activity of metronomic cyclophosphamide (mCTX) in heavily pretreated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. PATIENTS & METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated a consecutive series of 74 mCRPC patients treated with at least one new agent after docetaxel failure, who received once-daily oral mCTX treatment at a fixed dose of 50 mg. RESULTS: The treatment was well tolerated. Sixteen percent of the patients experienced a major biochemical response. Median progression-free survival was 4.0 months, and median overall survival was 8.1 months. CONCLUSIONS: In the modern context of mCRPC, mCTX may represent a valuable and inexpensive alternative to new agents, which have shown similar activity in heavily pretreated patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/secundário , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 74: 35-42, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738364

RESUMO

In few years the scenario of metastatic prostate carcinoma treatment has radically changed due to improved knowledge of those mechanisms responsible of prostatic cancer cells survival and proliferation. Five new therapeutic agents (abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, cabazitaxel, radium-223, sipuleucel-T), all able to improve overall survival, have been introduced in the management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Moreover, recent evidences showed that adding docetaxel chemotherapy or abiraterone acetate to androgen deprivation therapy significantly increases overall survival of de novo castration-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer patients. Due to this rapid therapeutic evolution clinicians face one crucial challenge: the choice of the best treatment sequencing. In particular, there are no prospective data to guide clinical decision in patients with progressive disease after docetaxel or abiraterone acetate treatment for castration sensitive disease. In this review we provide an overview of the therapeutic agents available for both castration-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer. We propose some biological and clinical insights helpful in selecting the most appropriate treatment for patients progressing after metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer treatment with docetaxel or abiraterone acetate.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Acetato de Abiraterona/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas , Humanos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Nitrilas , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/radioterapia , Rádio (Elemento)/uso terapêutico , Taxoides/uso terapêutico , Extratos de Tecidos/uso terapêutico
20.
Future Oncol ; 14(26): 2691-2699, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207488

RESUMO

AIM: To collect efficacy and safety data of enzalutamide after docetaxel, we retrospectively evaluated the Italian Named Patient Program results. PATIENTS & METHODS: Two hundred and nine metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients were enrolled. Median age was 73 years. Total 42.1% patients had pain, 14.4% had a performance status of two and 59.8% had a Gleason score ≥8. Total 31.1% had previously received ≥2 chemotherapies, 15.3 and 12% had been previously treated with abiraterone and cabazitaxel, respectively and 14.8% had received both. RESULTS:  Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 4.8 and 13.1 months, respectively. A prostate-specific antigen reduction ≥50% was observed in 49.1%. Total 32.7% abiraterone-pretreated patients achieved a biochemical response compared with 56% of abiraterone-naive patients. CONCLUSION:  Enzalutamide was safe and well tolerated. Its antitumor activity in abiraterone-pretreated patients was limited.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Androstenos/farmacologia , Androstenos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Benzamidas , Progressão da Doença , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Calicreínas/sangue , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrilas , Feniltioidantoína/farmacologia , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...