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Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111668, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243630


Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex and multifactorial condition often characterised by obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and fasting hyperglycaemia. Collectively, MetS can increase the risk of atherosclerotic-cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death worldwide. However, no animal model currently exists to study MetS in the context of atherosclerosis. In this study we developed a pre-clinical mouse model that recapitulates the spectrum of MetS features while developing atherosclerosis. When BPHx mice were placed on a western type diet for 16 weeks, all the classical characteristics of MetS were observed. Comprehensive metabolic analyses and atherosclerotic imaging revealed BPHx mice to be obese and hypertensive, with elevated total plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, that accelerated atherosclerosis. Altogether, we demonstrate that the BPHx mouse has all the major components of MetS, and accelerates the development of atherosclerosis.

Aterosclerose/patologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Intolerância à Glucose/patologia , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/patologia , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(8)2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921778


The development of myelodysplasia syndromes (MDS) is multiphasic and can be driven by a plethora of genetic mutations and/or abnormalities. MDS is characterized by a hematopoietic differentiation block, evidenced by increased immature hematopoietic cells, termed blast cells and decreased mature circulating leukocytes in at least one lineage (i.e., cytopenia). Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is a recently described phenomenon preceding MDS development that is driven by somatic mutations in hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These mutant HSCs have a competitive advantage over healthy cells, resulting in an expansion of these clonal mutated leukocytes. In this review, we discuss the multiphasic development of MDS, the common mutations found in both MDS and CHIP, how a loss-of-function in these CHIP-related genes can alter HSC function and leukocyte development and the potential disease outcomes that can occur with dysfunctional HSCs. In particular, we discuss the novel connections between MDS development and cardiovascular disease.

Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3847, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846834


Active breaks in prolonged sitting has beneficial impacts on cardiometabolic risk biomarkers. The molecular mechanisms include regulation of skeletal muscle gene and protein expression controlling metabolic, inflammatory and cell development pathways. An active communication network exists between adipose and muscle tissue, but the effect of active breaks in prolonged sitting on adipose tissue have not been investigated. This study characterized the acute transcriptional events induced in adipose tissue by regular active breaks during prolonged sitting. We studied 8 overweight/obese adults participating in an acute randomized three-intervention crossover trial. Interventions were performed in the postprandial state and included: (i) prolonged uninterrupted sitting; or prolonged sitting interrupted with 2-minute bouts of (ii) light- or (iii) moderate-intensity treadmill walking every 20 minutes. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained after each condition. Microarrays identified 36 differentially expressed genes between the three conditions (fold change ≥0.5 in either direction; p < 0.05). Pathway analysis indicated that breaking up of prolonged sitting led to differential regulation of adipose tissue metabolic networks and inflammatory pathways, increased insulin signaling, modulation of adipocyte cell cycle, and facilitated cross-talk between adipose tissue and other organs. This study provides preliminary insight into the adipose tissue regulatory systems that may contribute to the physiological effects of interrupting prolonged sitting.

Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Idoso , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos
J Nutr Biochem ; 66: 52-62, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771734


GPR120 and GPR40 were recently reported as omega-3 (ω3) receptors with anti-inflammatory properties. Physical exercise could increase the expression of these receptors in the liver, improving hepatic metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to investigate GPR120/40 in the liver of lean and obese mice after acute or chronic physical exercise, with or without the supplementation of ω3 rich flaxseed oil (FS), as well as assess the impact of exercise and FS on insulin signaling and inflammation. Mice were fed a high-fat diet (HF) for 4 weeks to induce obesity and subsequently subjected to exercise with or without FS, or FS alone. Insulin signaling, inflammatory markers and GPR120/40 and related cascades were measured. Chronic, but not acute, exercise and FS increased GPR120, but not GPR40, activating ß-arrestin-2 and decreasing the inflammatory response, as well as reducing fat depots in liver and adipose tissue. Exercise or a source of ω3 led to a higher tolerance to fatigue and an increased running distance and speed. The combination of physical exercise and ω3 food sources could provide a new strategy against obesity through the modulation of hepatic GPR120 and an increase in exercise performance.

Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Óleo de Semente do Linho/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal
Haematologica ; 104(3): 456-467, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361420


Hypertension is a major, independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, this pathology can arise through multiple pathways, which could influence vascular disease through distinct mechanisms. An overactive sympathetic nervous system is a dominant pathway that can precipitate in elevated blood pressure. We aimed to determine how the sympathetic nervous system directly promotes atherosclerosis in the setting of hypertension. We used a mouse model of sympathetic nervous system-driven hypertension on the atherosclerotic-prone apolipoprotein E-deficient background. When mice were placed on a western type diet for 16 weeks, we showed the evolution of unstable atherosclerotic lesions. Fortuitously, the changes in lesion composition were independent of endothelial dysfunction, allowing for the discovery of alternative mechanisms. With the use of flow cytometry and bone marrow imaging, we found that sympathetic activation caused deterioration of the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell niche in the bone marrow, promoting the liberation of these cells into the circulation and extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen. Specifically, sympathetic activation reduced the abundance of key hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell niche cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells and osteoblasts. Additionally, sympathetic bone marrow activity prompted neutrophils to secrete proteases to cleave the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell surface receptor CXCR4. All these effects could be reversed using the ß-blocker propranolol during the feeding period. These findings suggest that elevated blood pressure driven by the sympathetic nervous system can influence mechanisms that modulate the hematopoietic system to promote atherosclerosis and contribute to cardiovascular events.

Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Hematopoese , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/etiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/patologia , Bloqueio Nervoso Autônomo , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mielopoese , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicho de Células-Tronco
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 132(17): 1889-1899, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185612


Cardiovascular (CV) diseases (CVD) are primarily caused by atherosclerotic vascular disease. Atherogenesis is mainly driven by recruitment of leucocytes to the arterial wall, where macrophages contribute to both lipid retention as well as the inflammatory milieu within the vessel wall. Consequently, diseases which present with an enhanced abundance of circulating leucocytes, particularly monocytes, have also been documented to accelerate CVD. A host of metabolic and inflammatory diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, hypercholesteraemia, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), have been shown to alter myelopoiesis to exacerbate atherosclerosis. Genetic evidence has emerged in humans with the discovery of clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), resulting in a disordered haematopoietic system linked to accelerated atherogenesis. CHIP, caused by somatic mutations in haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), consequently provide a proliferative advantage over native HSPCs and, in the case of Tet2 loss of function mutation, gives rise to inflammatory plaque macrophages (i.e. enhanced interleukin (IL)-1ß production). Together with the recent findings of the CANTOS (Canakinumab Anti-inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study) trial that revealed blocking IL-1ß using Canakinumab reduced CV events, these studies collectively have highlighted a pivotal role of IL-1ß signalling in a population of people with atherosclerotic CVD. This review will explore how haematopoiesis is altered by risk-factors and inflammatory disorders that promote CVD. Further, we will discuss some of the recent genetic evidence of disordered haematopoiesis in relation to CVD though the association with CHIP and suggest that future studies should explore what initiates HSPC mutations, as well as how current anti-inflammatory agents affect CHIP-driven atherosclerosis.

Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Hematopoese/fisiologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Hematopoese/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , Mielopoese/genética , Mielopoese/fisiologia