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1.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165499

RESUMO

Dynamic regulation of the mitochondrial network by mitofusins (MFNs) modulates energy production, cell survival, and many intracellular signaling events including calcium handling. However, the relative importance of specific mitochondrial functions and their dependence on MFNs vary greatly among cell types. Osteoclasts have many mitochondria, and increased mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation enhance bone resorption, but little is known about the mitochondrial network or MFNs in osteoclasts. Because expression of each MFN isoform increases with osteoclastogenesis, we conditionally deleted both MFN1 and -2 (dcKO) in murine osteoclast precursors, finding that this increased bone mass in young female mice, and abolished osteoclast precursor differentiation into mature osteoclasts, in vitro.  Defective osteoclastogenesis was reversed by overexpression of MFN2 but not MFN1; therefore we generated mice lacking only MFN2 in osteoclasts. MFN2-deficient female mice had increased bone mass at 1 year and resistance to RANKL-induced osteolysis at 8 weeks. To explore whether MFN-mediated tethering or mitophagy is important for osteoclastogenesis, we overexpressed MFN2 variants defective in either function in MFN1/2 dcKO precursors and found that although mitophagy was dispensable for differentiation, tethering was required. Since the master osteoclastogenic transcriptional regulator nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATC1) is calcium-regulated, we assessed calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and store-operated calcium entry and found that the latter was blunted in dcKO cells. Restored osteoclast differentiation by expression of intact MFN2 or the mitophagy-defective variant was associated with normalization of store-operated calcium entry and Nfatc1 levels, indicating that MFN2 controls mitochondria-ER tethering in osteoclasts.

2.
Bone ; 130: 115047, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472299

RESUMO

Bruck syndrome (BRKS) is the rare disorder that features congenital joint contractures often with pterygia and subsequent fractures, also known as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type XI (OMIM # 610968). Its two forms, BRKS1 (OMIM # 259450) and BRKS2 (OMIM # 609220), reflect autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance of FKBP10 and PLOD2 loss-of-function mutations, respectively. A 10-year-old girl was referred with blue sclera, osteopenia, poorly-healing fragility fractures, Wormian skull bones, cleft soft palate, congenital fusion of cervical vertebrae, progressive scoliosis, bell-shaped thorax, restrictive and reactive pulmonary disease, protrusio acetabuli, short stature, and additional dysmorphic features without joint contractures. Iliac crest biopsy after alendronate treatment that improved her bone density revealed low trabecular connectivity, abundant patchy osteoid, and active bone formation with widely-spaced tetracycline labels. Chromosome 22q11 deletion analysis for velocardiofacial syndrome, COL1A1 and COL1A2 sequencing for prevalent types of OI, and Sanger sequencing of LRP5, PPIB, FKBP10, and IFITM5 for rare pediatric osteoporoses were negative. Copy number microarray excluded a contiguous gene syndrome. Instead, exome sequencing revealed two missense variants in PLOD2 which encodes procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (lysyl hydroxylase 2, LH2); exon 8, c.797G>T, p.Gly266Val (paternal), and exon 12, c.1280A>G, p.Asn427Ser (maternal). In the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) database, low frequency (Gly266Val, 0.0000419) and absence (Asn427Ser) implicated both variants as mutations of PLOD2. The father, mother, and sister (who carried the exon 12 defect) were reportedly well with normal parental DXA findings. BRKS2, characterized by under-hydroxylation of type I collagen telopeptides compromising their crosslinking, has been reported in at least 16 probands/families. Most PLOD2 mutations involve exons 17-19 (of 20 total) encoding the C-terminal domain with LH activity. However, truncating defects (nonsense, frameshift, splice site mutations) are also found throughout PLOD2. In three reports, AR PLOD2 mutations are not associated with congenital contractures. Our patient's missense defects lie within the central domain of unknown function of PLOD2. In our patient, compound heterozygosity with PLOD2 mutations is associated with a clinical phenotype distinctive from classic BRKS2 indicating that when COL1A1 and COL1A2 mutation testing is negative for OI without congenital contractures or pterygia, atypical BRKS should be considered.

3.
Bone ; 132: 115190, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843680

RESUMO

The SIBLINGs are a subfamily of the secreted calcium-binding phosphoproteins and comprise five small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins [dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1), secreted phosphoprotein-1 (SPP1) also called osteopontin (OPN), integrin-binding sialoprotein (IBSP) also called bone sialoprotein (BSP), matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP)]. Each SIBLING has at least one "acidic, serine- and aspartic acid-rich motif" (ASARM) and multiple Ser-x-Glu/pSer sequences that when phosphorylated promote binding of the protein to hydroxyapatite for regulation of biomineralization. Mendelian disorders from loss-of-function mutation(s) of the genes that encode the SIBLINGs thus far involve DSPP causing various autosomal dominant dysplasias of dentin but without skeletal disease, and DMP1 causing autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets, type 1 (ARHR1). No diseases have been reported from gain-of-function mutation(s) of DSPP or DMP1 or from alterations of SPP1, IBSP, or MEPE. Herein, we describe severe hypophosphatemic osteosclerosis and hyperostosis associated with skeletal deformity, short stature, enthesopathy, tooth loss, and high circulating FGF23 levels in a middle-aged man and young woman from an endogamous family living in southern India. Both shared novel homozygous mutations within two genes that encode a SIBLING protein: stop-gain ("nonsense") DMP1 (c.556G>T,p.Glu186Ter) and missense SPP1 (c.769C>T,p.Leu266Phe). The man alone also carried novel heterozygous missense variants within two additional genes that condition mineral homeostasis and are the basis for autosomal recessive disorders: CYP27B1 underlying vitamin D dependent rickets, type 1, and ABCC6 underlying both generalized arterial calcification of infancy, type 2 and pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). By immunochemistry, his bone contained high amounts of OPN, particularly striking surrounding osteocytes. We review how our patients' disorder may represent the first digenic SIBLING protein osteopathy.

4.
JCI Insight ; 4(19)2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578308

RESUMO

Osteolytic bone lesions and hypercalcemia are common, serious complications in adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), an aggressive T cell malignancy associated with human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. The HTLV-1 viral oncogene HBZ has been implicated in ATL tumorigenesis and bone loss. In this study, we evaluated the role of HBZ on ATL-associated bone destruction using HTLV-1 infection and disease progression mouse models. Humanized mice infected with HTLV-1 developed lymphoproliferative disease and continuous, progressive osteolytic bone lesions. HTLV-1 lacking HBZ displayed only modest delays to lymphoproliferative disease but significantly decreased disease-associated bone loss compared with HTLV-1-infected mice. Gene expression array of acute ATL patient samples demonstrated increased expression of RANKL, a critical regulator of osteoclasts. We found that HBZ regulated RANKL in a c-Fos-dependent manner. Treatment of HTLV-1-infected humanized mice with denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against human RANKL, alleviated bone loss. Using patient-derived xenografts from primary human ATL cells to induce lymphoproliferative disease, we also observed profound tumor-induced bone destruction and increased c-Fos and RANKL gene expression. Together, these data show the critical role of HBZ in driving ATL-associated bone loss through RANKL and identify denosumab as a potential treatment to prevent bone complications in ATL patients.

5.
mBio ; 10(5)2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615966

RESUMO

Osteomyelitis (OM), or inflammation of bone tissue, occurs most frequently as a result of bacterial infection and severely perturbs bone structure. OM is predominantly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, and even with proper treatment, OM has a high rate of recurrence and chronicity. While S. aureus has been shown to infect osteoblasts, it remains unclear whether osteoclasts (OCs) are also a target of intracellular infection. Here, we demonstrate the ability of S. aureus to intracellularly infect and divide within OCs. OCs were differentiated from bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) by exposure to receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). By utilizing an intracellular survival assay and flow cytometry, we found that at 18 h postinfection the intracellular burden of S. aureus increased dramatically in cells with at least 2 days of RANKL exposure, while the bacterial burden decreased in BMMs. To further explore the signals downstream of RANKL, we manipulated factors controlling OC differentiation, NFATc1 and alternative NF-κB, and found that intracellular bacterial growth correlates with NFATc1 levels in RANKL-treated cells. Confocal and time-lapse microscopy in mature OCs showed a range of intracellular infection that correlated inversely with S. aureus-phagolysosome colocalization. The propensity of OCs to become infected, paired with their diminished bactericidal capacity compared to BMMs, could promote OM progression by allowing S. aureus to evade initial immune regulation and proliferate at the periphery of lesions where OCs are most abundant.IMPORTANCE The inflammation of bone tissue is called osteomyelitis, and most cases are caused by an infection with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus To date, the bone-building cells, osteoblasts, have been implicated in the progression of these infections, but not much is known about how the bone-resorbing cells, osteoclasts, participate. In this study, we show that S. aureus can infect osteoclasts and proliferate inside these cells, whereas bone-residing macrophages, immune cells related to osteoclasts, destroy the bacteria. These findings elucidate a unique role for osteoclasts to harbor bacteria during infection, providing a possible mechanism by which bacteria could evade destruction by the immune system.

6.
J Virol ; 94(1)2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619554

RESUMO

Type I interferons (IFNs) are key mediators of the innate immune response. Although members of this family of cytokines signal through a single shared receptor, biochemical and functional variation exists in response to different IFN subtypes. While previous work has demonstrated that type I IFNs are essential to control infection by chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a globally emerging alphavirus, the contributions of individual IFN subtypes remain undefined. To address this question, we evaluated CHIKV pathogenesis in mice lacking IFN-ß (IFN-ß knockout [IFN-ß-KO] mice or mice treated with an IFN-ß-blocking antibody) or IFN-α (IFN regulatory factor 7 knockout [IRF7-KO] mice or mice treated with a pan-IFN-α-blocking antibody). Mice lacking either IFN-α or IFN-ß developed severe clinical disease following infection with CHIKV, with a marked increase in foot swelling compared to wild-type mice. Virological analysis revealed that mice lacking IFN-α sustained elevated infection in the infected ankle and in distant tissues. In contrast, IFN-ß-KO mice displayed minimal differences in viral burdens within the ankle or at distal sites and instead had an altered cellular immune response. Mice lacking IFN-ß had increased neutrophil infiltration into musculoskeletal tissues, and depletion of neutrophils in IFN-ß-KO but not IRF7-KO mice mitigated musculoskeletal disease caused by CHIKV. Our findings suggest disparate roles for the IFN subtypes during CHIKV infection, with IFN-α limiting early viral replication and dissemination and IFN-ß modulating neutrophil-mediated inflammation.IMPORTANCE Type I interferons (IFNs) possess a range of biological activity and protect against a number of viruses, including alphaviruses. Despite signaling through a shared receptor, there are established biochemical and functional differences among the IFN subtypes. The significance of our research is in demonstrating that IFN-α and IFN-ß both have protective roles during acute chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection but do so by distinct mechanisms. IFN-α limits CHIKV replication and dissemination, whereas IFN-ß protects from CHIKV pathogenesis by limiting inflammation mediated by neutrophils. Our findings support the premise that the IFN subtypes have distinct biological activities in the antiviral response.

7.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(8): e1007993, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465513

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus that acutely causes fever as well as severe joint and muscle pain. Chronic musculoskeletal pain persists in a substantial fraction of patients for months to years after the initial infection, yet we still have a poor understanding of what promotes chronic disease. While replicating virus has not been detected in joint-associated tissues of patients with persistent arthritis nor in various animal models at convalescent time points, viral RNA is detected months after acute infection. To identify the cells that might contribute to pathogenesis during this chronic phase, we developed a recombinant CHIKV that expresses Cre recombinase (CHIKV-3'-Cre). CHIKV-3'-Cre replicated in myoblasts and fibroblasts, and it induced arthritis during the acute phase in mice. Importantly, it also induced chronic disease, including persistent viral RNA and chronic myositis and synovitis similar to wild-type virus. CHIKV-3'-Cre infection of tdTomato reporter mice resulted in a population of tdTomato+ cells that persisted for at least 112 days. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometric profiling revealed that these tdTomato+ cells predominantly were myofibers and dermal and muscle fibroblasts. Treatment with an antibody against Mxra8, a recently defined host receptor for CHIKV, reduced the number of tdTomato+ cells in the chronic phase and diminished the levels of chronic viral RNA, implicating these tdTomato+ cells as the reservoir of chronic viral RNA. Finally, isolation and flow cytometry-based sorting of the tdTomato+ fibroblasts from the skin and ankle and analysis for viral RNA revealed that the tdTomato+ cells harbor most of the persistent CHIKV RNA at chronic time points. Therefore, this CHIKV-3'-Cre and tdTomato reporter mouse system identifies the cells that survive CHIKV infection in vivo and are enriched for persistent CHIKV RNA. This model represents a useful tool for studying CHIKV pathogenesis in the acute and chronic stages of disease.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/virologia , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/patogenicidade , Derme/patologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Animais , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Febre de Chikungunya/metabolismo , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Derme/metabolismo , Derme/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/patologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/virologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Replicação Viral
8.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(11): 2087-2100, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246323

RESUMO

Studies from global loss-of-function mutants suggest that alternative NF-κB downstream of NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK) is a cell-intrinsic negative regulator of osteogenesis. However, the interpretation of the osteoblast and/or osteocyte contribution to the bone phenotype is complicated by simultaneous osteoclast defects in these models. Therefore, we turned to a transgenic mouse model to investigate the direct role of NIK in the osteolineage. Osx-Cre;NT3 animals (NT3-Cre +), which bear a constitutively active NIK allele (NT3) driven by Osx-Cre, were compared with their Cre-negative, Control (Ctrl) littermates. NT3-Cre + mice had elevated serum P1NP and CTX levels. Despite this high turnover state, µCT showed that constitutive activation of NIK resulted in a net increase in basal bone mass in both cortical and cancellous compartments. Furthermore, NT3-Cre + mice exhibited a greater anabolic response following mechanical loading compared with controls. We next performed RNA-Seq on nonloaded and loaded tibias to elucidate possible mechanisms underlying the increased bone anabolism seen in NT3-Cre + mice. Hierarchical clustering revealed two main transcriptional programs: one loading-responsive and the other NT3 transgene-driven. Gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated a distinct upregulation of receptor, kinase, and growth factor activities including Wnts, as well as a calcium-response signature in NT3-Cre + limbs. The promoters of these GO-term associated genes, including many known to be bone-anabolic, were highly enriched for multiple κB recognition elements (κB-RE) relative to the background frequency in the genome. The loading response in NT3-Cre + mice substantially overlapped (>90%) with Ctrl. Surprisingly, control animals had 10-fold more DEGs in response to loading. However, most top DEGs shared between genotypes had a high incidence of multiple κB-RE in their promoters. Therefore, both transcriptional programs (loading-responsive and NT3 transgene-driven) are modulated by NF-κB. Our studies uncover a previously unrecognized role for NF-κB in the promotion of both basal and mechanically stimulated bone formation. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

9.
Bone ; 121: 243-254, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), encoded by IKBKG, is necessary for activation of the ubiquitous transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). Animal studies suggest NEMO is required for NF-κB mediated bone homeostasis, but this has not been thoroughly studied in humans. IKBKG loss-of-function mutation causes incontinentia pigmenti (IP), a rare X-linked disease featuring linear hypopigmentation, alopecia, hypodontia, and immunodeficiency. Single case reports describe osteopetrosis (OPT) in boys carrying hypomorphic IKBKG mutations. METHOD: We studied the bone phenotype in women with IP with evaluation of radiographs of the spine and non-dominant arm and leg; lumbar spine and femoral neck aBMD using DXA; µ-CT and histomorphometry of trans-iliac crest biopsy specimens; bone turnover markers; and cellular phenotype in bone marrow skeletal (stromal) stem cells (BM-MSCs) in a cross-sectional, age-, sex-, and BMI-matched case-control study. X-chromosome inactivation was measured in blood leucocytes and BM-MSCs using a PCR method with methylation of HpaII sites. NF-κB activity was quantitated in BM-MSCs using a luciferase NF-κB reporter assay. RESULTS: Seven Caucasian women with IP (age: 24-67 years and BMI: 20.0-35.2 kg/m2) and IKBKG mutation (del exon 4-10 (n = 4); c.460C>T (n = 3)) were compared to matched controls. The IKBKG mutation carriers had extremely skewed X-inactivation (>90:10%) in blood, but not in BM-MSCs. NF-κB activity was lower in BM-MSCs from IKBKG mutation carriers (n = 5) compared to controls (3094 ±â€¯679 vs. 5422 ±â€¯1038/µg protein, p < 0.01). However, no differences were identified on skeletal radiographics, aBMD, µ-architecture of the iliac crest, or bone turnover markers. The IKBKG mutation carriers had a 1.7-fold greater extent of eroded surfaces relative to osteoid surfaces (p < 0.01), and a 2.0-fold greater proportion of arrested reversal surface relative to active reversal surface (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Unlike mutation-positive males, the IKBKG mutation-positive women did not manifest OPT.

10.
JBMR Plus ; 3(1): 14-22, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680359

RESUMO

Alternative NF-κB signaling promotes osteoclastogenesis and pathological bone loss, but the effect of sex on phenotype has not been explored. We disrupted alternative NF-κB signaling by deletion of upstream kinase NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) or NF-κB subunit RelB and found that both NIK-deficient and RelB-deficient female mice possessed more than twofold higher trabecular bone mass compared to controls, whereas no differences were observed in males. In vitro, RelB-deficient precursors from female mice showed a more severe osteoclast (OC) differentiation defect than male, while WT had no sex bias. Next, we asked whether pharmacologic activation of alternative NF-κB by inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) antagonist BV6 has sex-dependent effects on bone. Unlike male mice that lost bone, female mice on BV6 for 4 weeks showed no changes in either trabecular bone mass or OC number. Because estrogen generally suppresses NF-κB, we hypothesized that estrogen protects bone from BV6 effects in vivo. Thus, we performed ovariectomy or sham surgery in female mice, then treated with BV6 or vehicle for 4 weeks. Although ovariectomy caused bone loss, BV6 did not have any additional impact, suggesting that direct estrogen effects do not cause resistance to BV6 in vivo. The osteopenic effects of IAP antagonists in males may have implications for their use in cancer therapy. © 2018 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

11.
Exp Suppl ; 108: 269-279, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536175

RESUMO

Unresolved inflammation is harmful to any tissues in the organism. Bone in particular is vulnerable to inflammatory assaults because its integrity depends on the activity of osteoclasts, which arise from myeloid precursors. Osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption in normal and disease conditions. Increased osteolysis is a common feature of inflammatory disorders and a risk factor for bone fractures. Thus, bone is impacted negatively not only by local and systemic inflammatory mediators, but also directly, by alterations affecting myelopoiesis and lineage allocations. Such perturbations are characteristics of dysregulated inflammasomes, which are key regulators of innate immunity. In this review, we discuss the role of inflammasomes in bone diseases caused by sterile or non-sterile inflammation.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas/imunologia , Inflamassomos , Inflamação/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Osteoclastos , Osteólise/imunologia
12.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(11): 2071-2080, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29933504

RESUMO

Pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA) refers to two formerly separate entities: autosomal dominant Blau syndrome (BS) and its sporadic phenocopy early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS). In 2001 BS and in 2005 EOS became explained by heterozygous mutations within the gene that encodes nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), also called caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 15 (CARD15). NOD2 is a microbe sensor in leukocyte cytosol that activates and regulates inflammation. PGA is characterized by a triad of autoinflammatory problems (dermatitis, uveitis, and arthritis) in early childhood, which suggests the causal NOD2/CARD15 mutations are activating defects. Additional complications of PGA were recognized especially when NOD2 mutation analysis became generally available. However, in PGA, hypercalcemia is only briefly mentioned, and generalized osteosclerosis is not reported, although NOD2 regulates NF-κB signaling essential for osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function. Herein, we report a 4-year-old girl with PGA uniquely complicated by severe 1,25(OH)2 D-mediated hypercalcemia, nephrocalcinosis, and compromised renal function together with radiological and histopathological features of osteopetrosis (OPT). The classic triad of PGA complications was absent, although joint pain and an antalgic gait accompanied wrist, knee, and ankle swelling and soft non-tender masses over her hands, knees, and feet. MRI revealed tenosynovitis in her hands and suprapatellar effusions. Synovial biopsy demonstrated reactive synovitis without granulomas. Spontaneous resolution of metaphyseal osteosclerosis occurred while biochemical markers indicated active bone turnover. Anti-inflammatory medications suppressed circulating 1,25(OH)2 D, corrected the hypercalcemia, and improved her renal function, joint pain and swelling, and gait. Mutation analysis excluded idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia, type 1, and known forms of OPT, and identified a heterozygous germline missense mutation in NOD2 common in PGA (c.1001G>A, p.Arg334Gln). Thus, radiological and histological findings of OPT and severe hypercalcemia from apparent extrarenal production of 1,25(OH)2 D can complicate NOD2-associated PGA. Although the skeletal findings seem inconsequential, treatment of the hypercalcemia is crucial to protect the kidneys. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Artrite/genética , Granuloma/complicações , Granuloma/genética , Hipercalcemia/complicações , Mutação/genética , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Osteosclerose/complicações , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Artrite/complicações , Artrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Sequência de Bases , Medula Óssea/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Óssea/patologia , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Granuloma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/química , Osteosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Membrana Sinovial/patologia , Vitamina D/efeitos adversos
13.
JCI Insight ; 3(8)2018 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669933

RESUMO

Angiogenesis, new blood vessel formation from preexisting vessels, is critical for solid tumor growth. As such, there have been efforts to inhibit angiogenesis as a means to obstruct tumor growth. However, antiangiogenic therapy faces major challenges to the selective targeting of tumor-associated-vessels, as current antiangiogenic targets also disrupt steady-state vessels. Here, we demonstrate that the developmentally critical transcription factor Etv2 is selectively upregulated in both human and mouse tumor-associated endothelial cells (TAECs) and is required for tumor angiogenesis. Two-photon imaging revealed that Etv2-deficient tumor-associated vasculature remained similar to that of steady-state vessels. Etv2-deficient TAECs displayed decreased Flk1 (also known as Vegfr2) expression, FLK1 activation, and proliferation. Endothelial tube formation, proliferation, and sprouting response to VEGF, but not to FGF2, was reduced in Etv2-deficient ECs. ROS activated Etv2 expression in ECs, and ROS blockade inhibited Etv2 expression in TAECs in vivo. Systemic administration of Etv2 siRNA nanoparticles potently inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis without cardiovascular side effects. These studies highlight a link among vascular oxidative stress, Etv2 expression, and VEGF response that is critical for tumor angiogenesis. Targeting the ETV2 pathway might offer a unique opportunity for more selective antiangiogenic therapies.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacocinética , Animais , Feminino , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Terapia Genética/efeitos adversos , Terapia Genética/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Neovascularização Patológica/terapia , Estresse Oxidativo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regulação para Cima , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
14.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 170(2): 313-320, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29532340

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radial scar's stellate appearance may mimic carcinoma mammographically and histologically. Management of radial scar (RS) found on breast core needle biopsies (CNB) ranges from excision to clinical observation due to the variation in reported upgrades to malignancy at surgical excision. We examined the upgrade rate in patients with RS detected on CNB at our institution and reviewed the current literature. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of all cases with RS diagnosed on CNB between December 2006 and March 2017 at our institution. Inclusion criteria were patients with "pure" RS and RS associated with high-risk lesions (HRL). Upgrade was defined as invasive or non-invasive cancer in the excisional biopsy. RESULTS: 157 cases were identified with RS on CNB, and 122 cases met inclusion criteria. Of these 122 cases, 91 (75%) had pure RS on CNB while 31 (25%) had associated atypia or HRL. 81 (66%) of patients proceeded to excisional biopsy and 41 (34%) did not. Two patients (1.6% of total) were found to have a low-grade invasive ductal carcinoma (0.6 and 0.8 cm) upon surgical excision. None of the remaining 120 patients developed an ipsilateral breast cancer with a mean of 32.3-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: We found a very low upgrade rate to breast cancer when RS was found on CNB with or without associated HRL. Our results are consistent with other reported series. Our data do not support surgical excision for RS but rather close clinical follow-up for patients with RS on CNB.


Assuntos
Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Cicatriz/patologia , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Adulto , Axila/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Linfonodo Sentinela/patologia , Carga Tumoral
15.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(6): 1114-1125, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29521005

RESUMO

Osteoclasts are mitochondria-rich cells, but the role of these energy-producing organelles in bone resorption is poorly defined. To this end, we conditionally deleted the mitochondria-inducing co-activator, PGC1ß, in myeloid lineage cells to generate PGC1ßLysM mice. In contrast to previous reports, PGC1ß-deficient macrophages differentiate normally into osteoclasts albeit with impaired resorptive function due to cytoskeletal disorganization. Consequently, bone mass of PGC1ßLysM mice is double that of wild type. Mitochondrial biogenesis and function are diminished in PGC1ßLysM osteoclasts. All abnormalities are normalized by PGC1ß transduction. Furthermore, OXPHOS inhibitors reproduce the phenotype of PGC1ß deletion. PGC1ß's organization of the osteoclast cytoskeleton is mediated by expression of GIT1, which also promotes mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, osteoclast mitochondria regulate the cell's resorptive activity by promoting cytoskeletal organization. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Biogênese de Organelas , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Fêmur/metabolismo , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Osteoclastos/ultraestrutura , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Paxilina/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/deficiência
16.
JCI Insight ; 3(3)2018 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29415884

RESUMO

To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for cytoprotective effects of TNF receptor-activated factor 2 (TRAF2) in the heart, we employed genetic gain- and loss-of-function studies ex vivo and in vivo in mice with cardiac-restricted overexpression of TRAF2 (Myh6-TRAF2LC). Crossing Myh6-TRAF2LC mice with mice lacking canonical signaling (Myh6-TRAF2LC/Myh6-IκBαΔN) abrogated the cytoprotective effects of TRAF2 ex vivo. In contrast, inhibiting the JAK/STAT pathway did not abrogate the cytoprotective effects of TRAF2. Transcriptional profiling of WT, Myh6-TRAF2LC, and Myh6-TRAF2LC/Myh6-IκBαΔN mouse hearts suggested that the noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathway was upregulated in the Myh6-TRAF2LC mouse hearts. Western blotting and ELISA for the NF-κB family proteins p50, p65, p52, and RelB on nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts from naive 12-week-old WT, Myh6-TRAF2LC, and Myh6-TRAF2LC/Myh6-IκBαΔN mouse hearts showed increased expression levels and increased DNA binding of p52 and RelB, whereas there was no increase in expression or DNA binding of the p50 and p65 subunits. Crossing Myh6-TRAF2LC mice with RelB-/+ mice (Myh6-TRAF2LC/RelB-/+) attenuated the cytoprotective effects of TRAF2 ex vivo and in vivo. Viewed together, these results suggest that crosstalk between the canonical and noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathways is required for mediating the cytoprotective effects of TRAF2.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Fator 2 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelB/metabolismo , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fator 2 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética , Fator de Transcrição RelB/genética
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