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1.
Acta Trop ; 221: 106022, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161816

RESUMO

Ethiopia is one of the African countries most affected by rabies. A coarse catalog of rabies viruses (RABV) was created as a benchmark to assess the impact of control and elimination activities. We evaluated a 726 bp amplicon at the end of the N-gene to infer viral lineages in circulation using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods for phylogenetic reconstruction. We sequenced 228 brain samples from wild and domestic animals collected in five Ethiopian regions during 2010-2017. Results identified co-circulating RABV lineages that are causing recurrent spillover infections into wildlife and domestic animals. We found no evidence of importation of RABVs from other African countries or vaccine-induced cases in the area studied. A divergent RABV lineage might be involved in an independent rabies cycle in jackals. This investigation provides a feasible approach to assess rabies control and elimination efforts in resource-limited countries.


Assuntos
Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Vírus da Raiva/genética
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To inform prevention strategies, we assessed the extent of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and settings in which transmission occurred in a Georgia public school district. METHODS: During December 1, 2020-January 22, 2021, SARS-CoV-2-infected index cases and their close contacts in schools were identified by school and public health officials. For in-school contacts, we assessed symptoms and offered SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing; performed epidemiologic investigations and whole-genome sequencing to identify in-school transmission; and calculated secondary attack rate (SAR) by school setting (e.g., sports, elementary school classroom), index case role (i.e., staff, student), and index case symptomatic status. RESULTS: We identified 86 index cases and 1,119 contacts, 688 (63.1%) of whom received testing. Fifty-nine (8.7%) of 679 contacts tested positive; 15 (17.4%) of 86 index cases resulted in ≥2 positive contacts. Among 55 persons testing positive with available symptom data, 31 (56.4%) were asymptomatic. Highest SAR were in indoor, high-contact sports settings (23.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 12.7, 33.3), staff meetings/lunches (18.2%, CI 4.5-31.8), and elementary school classrooms (9.5%, CI 6.5-12.5). SAR was higher for staff (13.1%, CI 9.0-17.2) versus student index cases (5.8%, CI 3.6-8.0) and for symptomatic (10.9%, CI 8.1-13.9) versus asymptomatic index cases (3.0%, CI 1.0-5.5). CONCLUSIONS: Indoor sports may pose a risk to the safe operation of in-person learning. Preventing infection in staff members, through measures that include COVID-19 vaccination, is critical to reducing in-school transmission. Because many positive contacts were asymptomatic, contact tracing should be paired with testing, regardless of symptoms.

3.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911766

RESUMO

Rabies transmitted by common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) has been known since the early 1900s but continues to expand geographically and in the range of species and environments affected. In this review, we present current knowledge of the epidemiology and management of rabies in D. rotundus and argue that it can be reasonably considered an emerging public health threat. We identify knowledge gaps related to the landscape determinants of the bat reservoir, reduction in bites on humans and livestock, and social barriers to prevention. We discuss how new technologies including autonomously-spreading vaccines and reproductive suppressants targeting bats might manage both rabies and undesirable growth of D. rotundus populations. Finally, we highlight widespread under-reporting of human and animal mortality and the scarcity of studies that quantify the efficacy of control measures such as bat culling. Collaborations between researchers and managers will be crucial to implement the next generation of rabies management in Latin America.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/fisiologia , Raiva/virologia , Animais , Quirópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , América Latina , Raiva/transmissão , Vírus da Raiva/genética
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008194, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598388

RESUMO

Rabies virus infections normally cause universally lethal encephalitis across mammals. However, 'abortive infections' which are resolved prior to the onset of lethal disease have been described in bats and a variety of non-reservoir species. Here, we surveyed rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers in 332 unvaccinated livestock of 5 species from a vampire bat rabies endemic region of southern Peru where livestock are the main food source for bats. We detected rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers in 11, 5 and 3.6% of cows, goats and sheep respectively and seropositive animals did not die from rabies within two years after sampling. Seroprevalence was correlated with the number of local livestock rabies mortalities reported one year prior but also one year after sample collection. This suggests that serological status of livestock can indicate the past and future levels of rabies risk to non-reservoir hosts. To our knowledge, this is the first report of anti-rabies antibodies among goats and sheep, suggesting widespread abortive infections among livestock in vampire bat rabies endemic areas. Future research should resolve the within-host biology underlying clearance of rabies infections. Cost-effectiveness analyses are also needed to evaluate whether serological monitoring of livestock can be a viable complement to current monitoring of vampire bat rabies risk based on animal mortalities alone.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/veterinária , Remissão Espontânea , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Peru , Raiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 851-854, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403984

RESUMO

A second case of a novel rabies variant described once in a capuchin monkey from Mato Grosso, Brazil, was discovered in a rabid wild kinkajou from the same region, indicating a public health risk following exposure to either of the two animals.


Assuntos
Cebus/virologia , Procyonidae/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Raiva/transmissão , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Genes Virais , Filogenia , Saúde Pública , Vírus da Raiva/genética
6.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 5(1)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121499

RESUMO

We report mortality events in a group of 123 common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) captured in México and housed for a rabies vaccine efficacy study in Madison, Wisconsin. Bat mortalities occurred in México and Wisconsin, but rabies cases reported herein are only those that occurred after arrival in Madison (n = 15). Bats were confirmed positive for rabies virus (RABV) by the direct fluorescent antibody test. In accordance with previous reports, we observed long incubation periods (more than 100 days), variability in clinical signs prior to death, excretion of virus in saliva, and changes in rabies neutralizing antibody (rVNA) titers post-infection. We observed that the furious form of rabies (aggression, hyper-salivation, and hyper-excitability) manifested in three bats, which has not been reported in vampire bat studies since 1936. RABV was detected in saliva of 5/9 bats, 2-5 days prior to death, but was not detected in four of those bats that had been vaccinated shortly after exposure. Bats from different capture sites were involved in two separate outbreaks, and phylogenetic analysis revealed differences in the glycoprotein gene sequences of RABV isolated from each event, indicating that two different lineages were circulating separately during capture at each site.

7.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 256(1): 66-76, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate rabies virus (RABV) characterization data obtained from animal specimens submitted to the US public health rabies surveillance system and propose a standardized approach to sample selection for RABV characterization that could enhance early detection of important rabies epizootic events in the United States. SAMPLE: United States public health rabies surveillance system data collected from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2015. PROCEDURES: Data were reviewed to identify RABV-positive specimens for which virus characterization would likely provide information regarding any of 4 overarching events (discovery of novel variants, translocation of RABV variants, host-shift events, and any unusual rabies-related event) that could substantially alter animal rabies epizootiology in the United States. These specimens were designated as specimens of epizootiological importance (SEIs). Estimates of the additional number of specimens that public health laboratories could expect to process each year if all SEIs underwent RABV characterization were calculated. RESULTS: During the 6-year period, the mean annual number of SEIs was 855 (95% CI, 739 to 971); the mean number of SEIs that underwent virus characterization was 270 (95% CI, 187 to 353). Virus characterization of all SEIs would be expected to increase the public health laboratories' test load by approximately 585 (95% CI, 543 to 625) specimens/y. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Prioritization of RABV characterization of SEIs may improve early detection of rabies events associated with RABV host shifts, variant translocations, and importation. Characterization of SEIs may help refine wildlife rabies management practices. Each public health laboratory should evaluate testing of SEIs to ensure diagnostic laboratory capacity is not overstretched.


Assuntos
Vírus da Raiva , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Estados Unidos
8.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 256(1): 77-84, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate species identification and rabies virus (RABV) characterization among samples from bats submitted for rabies testing in the United States and assess whether a standardized approach to specimen selection for RABV characterization could enhance detection of a sentinel event in virus dissemination among bats. SAMPLE: United States public health rabies surveillance system data collected in January 2010 through December 2015. PROCEDURES: The number of rabies-tested bats for which species was reported and the number of RABV-positive samples for which virus characterization would likely provide information regarding introduction of novel RABV variants and translocation and host-shift events were calculated. These specimens were designated as specimens of epizootiological importance (SEIs). Additionally, the estimated test load that public health laboratories could expect if all SEIs underwent RABV characterization was determined. RESULTS: Species was reported for 74,928 of 160,017 (47%) bats submitted for rabies testing. Identified SEIs were grouped in 3 subcategories, namely nonindigenous bats; bats in southern border states, Florida, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands; and bats of species that are not commonly found to be inflected with RABV. Annually, 692 (95% CI, 600 to 784) SEIs were identified, of which only 295 (95% CI, 148 to 442) underwent virus characterization. Virus characterization of all SEIs would be expected to increase public health laboratories' overall test load by 397 (95% CI, 287 to 506) samples each year. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Species identification and RABV characterization may aid detection of a sentinel event in bat RABV dissemination. With additional resources, RABV characterization of all SEIs as a standardized approach to testing could contribute to knowledge of circulating bat RABV variants.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Florida , Porto Rico , Estados Unidos
9.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 250(10): 1117-1130, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28467751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To describe rabies and rabies-related events occurring during 2015 in the United States. DESIGN Observational study based on passive surveillance data. ANIMALS All animals submitted for rabies testing in the United States during 2015. PROCEDURES State and territorial public health programs provided data on animals submitted for rabies testing in 2015. Data were analyzed temporally and geographically to assess trends in domestic and sylvatic animal rabies cases. RESULTS During 2015, 50 states and Puerto Rico reported 5,508 rabid animals to the CDC, representing an 8.7% decrease from the 6,033 rabid animals reported in 2014. Of the 5,508 cases of animal rabies, 5,088 (92.4%) involved wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 1,704 (30.9%) bats, 1,619 (29.4%) raccoons, 1,365 (24.8%) skunks, 325 (5.9%) foxes, 244 (4.4%) cats, 85 (1.5%) cattle, and 67 (1.2%) dogs. There was a 4.1% decrease in the number of samples submitted for testing in 2015, compared with the number submitted in 2014. Three human rabies deaths were reported in 2015, compared with only 1 in 2014. A 65-year-old man in Massachusetts was bitten by a rabid dog while abroad. A 77-year-old woman in Wyoming had contact with a bat. A 54-year-old man in Puerto Rico was bitten by a mongoose. The only connection among these 3 cases was that none received postexposure prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Laboratory testing of animals suspected to be rabid remains a critical public health function and continues to be a cost-effective method to directly influence human rabies postexposure prophylaxis recommendations. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2017;250:1117-1130).


Assuntos
Raiva/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Criança , Quirópteros , Feminino , Raposas , Herpestidae , Humanos , Masculino , Mephitidae , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Guaxinins , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Antiviral Res ; 146: 221-232, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28365457

RESUMO

Before the introduction of control programs in the 20th century, rabies in domestic dogs occurred throughout the Western Hemisphere. However, historical records and phylogenetic analysis of multiple virus isolates indicate that, before the arrival of the first European colonizers, rabies virus was likely present only in bats and skunks. Canine rabies was either rare or absent among domestic dogs of Native Americans, and first arrived when many new dog breeds were imported during the period of European colonization. The introduction of the cosmopolitan dog rabies lyssavirus variant and the marked expansion of the dog population provided ideal conditions for the flourishing of enzootic canine rabies. The shift of dog-maintained viruses into gray foxes, coyotes, skunks and other wild mesocarnivores throughout the Americas and to mongooses in the Caribbean has augmented the risk of human rabies exposures and has complicated control efforts. At the same time, the continued presence of bat rabies poses novel challenges in the absolute elimination of canine and human rabies. This article compiles existing historical and phylogenetic evidence of the origins and subsequent dynamics of rabies in the Western Hemisphere, from the era preceding the arrival of the first European colonizers through the present day. A companion article reviews the current status of canine rabies control throughout the Western Hemisphere and steps that will be required to achieve and maintain its complete elimination (Velasco-Villa et al., 2017).


Assuntos
Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Raiva/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Bovinos , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/história , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Raposas/virologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Lyssavirus/genética , Lyssavirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Vigilância da População , Saúde Pública/história , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Raiva/história , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/veterinária , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(4): e0005427, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28369139

RESUMO

The direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA), is performed in all rabies reference laboratories across Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Despite DFA being a critical capacity in the control of rabies, there is not a standardized protocol in the region. We describe the results of the first inter-laboratory proficiency exercise of national rabies laboratories in LAC countries as part of the regional efforts towards dog-maintained rabies elimination in the American region. Twenty three laboratories affiliated to the Ministries of Health and Ministries of Agriculture participated in this exercise. In addition, the laboratories completed an online questionnaire to assess laboratory practices. Answers to the online questionnaire indicated large variability in the laboratories throughput, equipment used, protocols availability, quality control standards and biosafety requirements. Our results will inform actions to improve and harmonize laboratory rabies capacities across LAC in support for the regional efforts towards elimination of dog-maintained rabies.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Proficiência Laboratorial/normas , Saúde Pública , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/diagnóstico , Animais , Encéfalo/virologia , Região do Caribe , Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Internet , América Latina , Controle de Qualidade , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Antiviral Res ; 143: 1-12, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28385500

RESUMO

Almost all cases of human rabies result from dog bites, making the elimination of canine rabies a global priority. During recent decades, many countries in the Western Hemisphere have carried out large-scale dog vaccination campaigns, controlled their free-ranging dog populations and enforced legislation for responsible pet ownership. This article reviews progress in eliminating canine rabies from the Western Hemisphere. After briefly summarizing the history of control efforts and describing the approaches listed above, we note that programs in some countries have been hindered by societal attitudes and severe economic disparities, which underlines the need to discuss measures that will be required to complete the elimination of canine rabies throughout the region. We also note that there is a constant threat for dog-maintained epizootics to re-occur, so as long as dog-maintained rabies "hot spots" are still present, free-roaming dog populations remain large, herd immunity becomes low and dog-derived rabies lyssavirus (RABLV) variants continue to circulate in close proximity to rabies-naïve dog populations. The elimination of dog-maintained rabies will be only feasible if both dog-maintained and dog-derived RABLV lineages and variants are permanently eliminated. This may be possible by keeping dog herd immunity above 70% at all times, fostering sustained laboratory-based surveillance through reliable rabies diagnosis and RABLV genetic typing in dogs, domestic animals and wildlife, as well as continuing to educate the population on the risk of rabies transmission, prevention and responsible pet ownership. Complete elimination of canine rabies requires permanent funding, with governments and people committed to make it a reality. An accompanying article reviews the history and epidemiology of canine rabies in the Western Hemisphere, beginning with its introduction during the period of European colonization, and discusses how spillovers of viruses between dogs and various wild carnivores will affect future eradication efforts (Velasco-Villa et al., 2017).


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , América Central , Erradicação de Doenças , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/história , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Cães , Geografia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , América Latina , Propriedade/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais de Estimação , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/imunologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade , Vacinação/veterinária
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(1): e0005258, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28081126

RESUMO

Rabies, resulting from infection by Rabies virus (RABV) and related lyssaviruses, is one of the most deadly zoonotic diseases and is responsible for up to 70,000 estimated human deaths worldwide each year. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies is essential for timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans and control of the disease in animals. Currently, only the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test is recommended for routine rabies diagnosis. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based diagnostic methods have been widely adapted for the diagnosis of other viral pathogens, but there is currently no widely accepted rapid real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of all lyssaviruses. In this study, we demonstrate the validation of a newly developed multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay named LN34, which uses a combination of degenerate primers and probes along with probe modifications to achieve superior coverage of the Lyssavirus genus while maintaining sensitivity and specificity. The primers and probes of the LN34 assay target the highly conserved non-coding leader region and part of the nucleoprotein (N) coding sequence of the Lyssavirus genome to maintain assay robustness. The probes were further modified by locked nucleotides to increase their melting temperature to meet the requirements for an optimal real-time RT-PCR assay. The LN34 assay was able to detect all RABV variants and other lyssaviruses in a validation panel that included representative RABV isolates from most regions of the world as well as representatives of 13 additional Lyssavirus species. The LN34 assay was successfully used for both ante-mortem and post-mortem diagnosis of over 200 clinical samples as well as field derived surveillance samples. This assay represents a major improvement over previously published rabies specific RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR assays because of its ability to universally detect RABV and other lyssaviruses, its high throughput capability and its simplicity of use, which can be quickly adapted in a laboratory to enhance the capacity of rabies molecular diagnostics. The LN34 assay provides an alternative approach for rabies diagnostics, especially in rural areas and rabies endemic regions that lack the conditions and broad experience required to run the standard DFA assay.


Assuntos
Lyssavirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Raiva/veterinária , Raiva/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/virologia , Animais , Humanos , Lyssavirus/genética , Raiva/diagnóstico , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Vaccine ; 34(44): 5352-5358, 2016 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27650872

RESUMO

Bats (Order Chiroptera) are an abundant group of mammals with tremendous ecological value as insectivores and plant dispersers, but their role as reservoirs of zoonotic diseases has received more attention in the last decade. With the goal of managing disease in free-ranging bats, we tested modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and raccoon poxvirus (RCN) as potential vaccine vectors in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), using biophotonic in vivo imaging and immunogenicity studies. Animals were administered recombinant poxviral vectors expressing the luciferase gene (MVA-luc, RCN-luc) through oronasal (ON) or intramuscular (IM) routes and subsequently monitored for bioluminescent signal indicative of viral infection. No clinical illness was noted after exposure to any of the vectors, and limited luciferase expression was observed. Higher and longer levels of expression were observed with the RCN-luc construct. When given IM, luciferase expression was limited to the site of injection, while ON exposure led to initial expression in the oral cavity, often followed by secondary replication at another location, likely the gastric mucosa or gastric associated lymphatic tissue. Viral DNA was detected in oral swabs up to 7 and 9 days post infection (dpi) for MVA and RCN, respectively. While no live virus was detected in oral swabs from MVA-infected bats, titers up to 3.88 x 104 PFU/ml were recovered from oral swabs of RCN-infected bats. Viral DNA was also detected in fecal samples from two bats inoculated IM with RCN, but no live virus was recovered. Finally, we examined the immunogenicity of a RCN based rabies vaccine (RCN-G) following ON administration. Significant rabies neutralizing antibody titers were detected in the serum of immunized bats using the rapid fluorescence focus inhibition test (RFFIT). These studies highlight the safety and immunogenicity of attenuated poxviruses and their potential use as vaccine vectors in bats.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Quirópteros/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Poxviridae/imunologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Quirópteros/virologia , Vetores Genéticos , Luciferases/genética , Medições Luminescentes , Masculino , Boca/virologia , Orthopoxvirus/genética , Orthopoxvirus/fisiologia , Poxviridae/isolamento & purificação , Poxviridae/fisiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Antirrábicas/genética , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vírus Vaccinia/genética , Vírus Vaccinia/imunologia , Vírus Vaccinia/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Vaccinia/fisiologia , Replicação Viral
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(39): 10926-31, 2016 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27621441

RESUMO

Anticipating how epidemics will spread across landscapes requires understanding host dispersal events that are notoriously difficult to measure. Here, we contrast host and virus genetic signatures to resolve the spatiotemporal dynamics underlying geographic expansions of vampire bat rabies virus (VBRV) in Peru. Phylogenetic analysis revealed recent viral spread between populations that, according to extreme geographic structure in maternally inherited host mitochondrial DNA, appeared completely isolated. In contrast, greater population connectivity in biparentally inherited nuclear microsatellites explained the historical limits of invasions, suggesting that dispersing male bats spread VBRV between genetically isolated female populations. Host nuclear DNA further indicated unanticipated gene flow through the Andes mountains connecting the VBRV-free Pacific coast to the VBRV-endemic Amazon rainforest. By combining Bayesian phylogeography with landscape resistance models, we projected invasion routes through northern Peru that were validated by real-time livestock rabies mortality data. The first outbreaks of VBRV on the Pacific coast of South America could occur by June 2020, which would have serious implications for agriculture, wildlife conservation, and human health. Our results show that combining host and pathogen genetic data can identify sex biases in pathogen spatial spread, which may be a widespread but underappreciated phenomenon, and demonstrate that genetic forecasting can aid preparedness for impending viral invasions.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Quirópteros/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Raiva/epidemiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Genoma Viral , Geografia , Padrões de Herança/genética , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Peru/epidemiologia , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Estações do Ano
16.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 34(5): 520-8, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25405805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabies is an acute fatal encephalitis caused by all members of the Lyssavirus genus. The first human rabies survivor without benefit of prior vaccination was reported from Milwaukee in 2005. We report a second unvaccinated patient who showed early recovery from rabies and then died accidentally during convalescence, providing an unparalleled opportunity to examine the histopathology as well as immune and virological correlates of early recovery from human rabies. METHODS: Case report, rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect and direct fluorescent antibody assays, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, phylogenetic reconstruction, isolation in tissue culture, pathology and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The 9 year old died 76 days after presenting with rabies of vampire bat phylogeny transmitted by cat bite. Antibody response in serum and cerebrospinal fluid was robust and associated with severe cerebral edema. No rabies virus was cultured at autopsy. Rabies virus antigen was atypical in size and distribution. Rabies virus genome was present in neocortex but absent in brainstem. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical recovery was associated with detection of neutralizing antibody and clearance of infectious rabies virus in the central nervous system by 76 days but not clearance of detectable viral subcomponents such as nucleoprotein antigen or RNA in brain.


Assuntos
Raiva , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Mordeduras e Picadas , Encéfalo/virologia , Edema Encefálico/virologia , Gatos , Criança , Colômbia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/fisiopatologia , Raiva/terapia , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 63(20): 446-9, 2014 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24848216

RESUMO

On June 7, 2013, a man was diagnosed in a Texas hospital with rabies. He had been detained in a U.S. detention facility during his infectious period. To identify persons exposed to rabies who might require rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), CDC and the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) conducted investigations at four detention facilities, one medical clinic, and two hospitals. In all, 25 of 742 persons assessed for rabies exposure were advised to receive PEP. Early diagnosis of rabies is essential for implementation of appropriate hospital infection control measures and for rapid assessment of potential contacts for PEP recommendations.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Prisões , Raiva/diagnóstico , Adulto , Evolução Fatal , Guatemala/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Prática de Saúde Pública , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Texas
18.
JAMA ; 310(4): 398-407, 2013 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23917290

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: The rabies virus causes a fatal encephalitis and can be transmitted through tissue or organ transplantation. In February 2013, a kidney recipient with no reported exposures to potentially rabid animals died from rabies 18 months after transplantation. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether organ transplantation was the source of rabies virus exposure in the kidney recipient, and to evaluate for and prevent rabies in other transplant recipients from the same donor. DESIGN: Organ donor and all transplant recipient medical records were reviewed. Laboratory tests to detect rabies virus-specific binding antibodies, rabies virus neutralizing antibodies, and rabies virus antigens were conducted on available specimens, including serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and tissues from the donor and the recipients. Viral ribonucleic acid was extracted from tissues and amplified for nucleoprotein gene sequencing for phylogenetic comparisons. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Determination of whether the donor died from undiagnosed rabies and whether other organ recipients developed rabies. RESULTS: In retrospect, the donor's clinical presentation (which began with vomiting and upper extremity paresthesias and progressed to fever, seizures, dysphagia, autonomic dysfunction, and brain death) was consistent with rabies. Rabies virus antigen was detected in archived autopsy brain tissue collected from the donor. The rabies viruses infecting the donor and the deceased kidney recipient were consistent with the raccoon rabies virus variant and were more than 99.9% identical across the entire N gene (1349/1350 nucleotides), thus confirming organ transplantation as the route of transmission. The 3 other organ recipients remained asymptomatic, with rabies virus neutralizing antibodies detected in their serum after completion of postexposure prophylaxis (range, 0.3-40.8 IU/mL). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Unlike the 2 previous clusters of rabies virus transmission through solid organ transplantation, there was a long incubation period in the recipient who developed rabies, and survival of 3 other recipients without pretransplant rabies vaccination. Rabies should be considered in patients with acute progressive encephalitis of unexplained etiology, especially for potential organ donors. A standard evaluation of potential donors who meet screening criteria for infectious encephalitis should be considered, and risks and benefits for recipients of organs from these donors should be evaluated.


Assuntos
Período de Incubação de Doenças Infecciosas , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Raiva/transmissão , Doadores de Tecidos , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Raiva/diagnóstico , Raiva/fisiopatologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Guaxinins/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 7(8): e2365, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23991230

RESUMO

Bat rabies is an emerging disease of public health significance in the Americas. The Caribbean island of Trinidad experiences periodic outbreaks within the livestock population. We performed molecular characterisation of Trinidad rabies virus (RABV) and used a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to investigate the extent to which outbreaks are a result of in situ evolution versus importation of virus from the nearby South American mainland. Trinidadian RABV sequences were confirmed as bat variant and clustered with Desmodus rotundus (vampire bat) related sequences. They fell into two largely temporally defined lineages designated Trinidad I and II. The Trinidad I lineage which included sequences from 1997-2000 (all but two of which were from the northeast of the island) was most closely related to RABV from Ecuador (2005, 2007), French Guiana (1990) and Venezuela (1993, 1994). Trinidad II comprised sequences from the southwest of the island, which clustered into two groups: Trinidad IIa, which included one sequence each from 2000 and 2007, and Trinidad IIb including all 2010 sequences. The Trinidad II sequences were most closely related to sequences from Brazil (1999, 2004) and Uruguay (2007, 2008). Phylogeographic analyses support three separate RABV introductions from the mainland from which each of the three Trinidadian lineages arose. The estimated dates for the introductions and subsequent lineage expansions suggest periods of in situ evolution within Trinidad following each introduction. These data also indicate co-circulation of Trinidad lineage I and IIa during 2000. In light of these findings and the likely vampire bat origin of Trinidadian RABV, further studies should be conducted to investigate the relationship between RABV spatiotemporal dynamics and vampire bat population ecology, in particular any movement between the mainland and Trinidad.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Evolução Molecular , Filogeografia , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Gado , Epidemiologia Molecular , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 19(9): 1463-69, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23969087

RESUMO

During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002-2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non-vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Peru/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação
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