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1.
Gac Sanit ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787405

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if breastfeeding for at least the first six months of life is associated with overweight and obesity in children 2 to 5 years old. METHOD: Cross sectional analysis of data from national demographic and health surveys conducted in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. Overweight and obesity were defined using World Health Organization standard definitions. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity in children 2 to 5 years old was 10.4% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 8.2-12.6) in Bolivia, 4.9% in Colombia (95%CI: 4.0-5.8), and 6.4% (95%CI: 5.2-8.0) in Peru. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for at least the first 6 months in the study population was 89.9% (95%CI: 87.8-91.9) in Bolivia, 73.9% (95%CI: 72.2-75.6) in Colombia, and 92.8% (95%CI: 91.2-92.4) in Peru. Exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a decreased risk of obesity in children as compared to no breastfeeding or breastfeeding for less than 6 months in Bolivia (OR = .30; 95%CI: .16-.57) and a marginal association in Colombia (OR = .71; 95%CI: .47-1.06) and Peru (OR = .49; 95%CI: 0.23-1.04). No association between breastfeeding and overweight was found. CONCLUSION: Exclusive breastfeeding for at least the first six months of life decreases the risk of obesity in children 2 to 5 years old in Bolivia. A similar but weaker pattern was observed for children in Colombia and Peru.

2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190005.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of altered total cholesterol and fractions levels in the Brazilian population, according to biochemical data from the National Health Survey. METHODS: A descriptive study, using data from the National Health Survey, collected between 2014 and 2015. Total cholesterol and fractions were analyzed and population prevalences of altered values according to socio-demographic variables were calculated. The cutoff points considered were: total cholesterol ≥ 200mg/dl; low-density lipoprotein LDL ≥ 130mg/dL and high-density lipoprotein HDL < 40mg/dL. RESULTS: The prevalence of total cholesterol ≥200mg/dL in the population was 32.7%, and higher in women (35.1%). The prevalence of altered HDL was 31.8%, 22.0% in females and 42.8% in males. LDL ≥ 130mg/dL was found in 18.6% and was higher in women (19.9%). The population aged 45 years old and older and those with low levels of education presented a higher prevalence of altered cholesterol. CONCLUSION: Altered values of total cholesterol and fractions were frequent in the Brazilian population, especially among women, the elderly and people with low levels of education. These results may guide control and preventative actions such as healthy eating, physical activity and treatment, all of which aim to prevent coronary diseases.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(9): e00223518, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531522

RESUMO

This study was an assessment of time trends in morbid obesity prevalence in the adult population in Brazil's state capitals from 2006 to 2017. A cross-sectional study was performed with data from the Risk and Protective Factors Surveillance System for Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases Through Telephone Interview (Vigitel), analyzed by simple linear regression. The results showed an upward trend in morbid obesity prevalence in Brazil. Women showed higher prevalence rates (1.3% in 2006 and 1.9% in 2017) when compared to men (0.9% and 1.4%). The 25-44-year age bracket showed an upward trend from 0.9% to 2.1% (p < 0.001). There was an increase in morbid obesity in all levels of schooling and all regions of Brazil. The state capitals with upward trends in males were Campo Grande, Curitiba, Fortaleza, Macapá, Manaus, Palmas, Porto Velho, Rio Branco, and Teresina. In females, they were Belo Horizonte, Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro, and Teresina. The growth in morbid obesity in Brazil sounds a warning on the urgent need to adopt measures to detain it, such as regulation of ultra-processed foods and health education measures for the entire population.

4.
Artigo em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-50938

RESUMO

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Investigar a associação entre consumo de carne vermelha e processada e a ocorrência de novos casos de resistência insulínica (RI) e diabetes mellitus (DM) em participantes do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Métodos. Estudo de coorte com 15 105 servidores públicos (idade: 35 a 74 anos). Dados bioquímicos, antropométricos, socioeconômicos e de estilo de vida foram coletados na linha de base (2008–2010) e na segunda onda (2012–2014). O consumo de carnes (g/dia) foi estimado por questionário de frequência alimentar. Para categorizar baixo, médio e alto consumo as variáveis independentes foram divididas em tercis. DM foi diagnosticado como glicemia de jejum ≥ 126 mg/dL, glicose pós-sobrecarga ≥ 200 mg/dL ou hemoglobina glicada ≥ 6,5. RI foi determinada pelo índice HOMA-IR com pontos de corte construídos a partir do percentil 75 da amostra. Resultados. Homens e participantes com menor renda e escolaridade relataram maior consumo de carne vermelha e processada. Maior consumo de carne processada (último tercil, > 27,1 g/dia) associou-se a novos casos de RI em homens (OR = 1,68; IC95%: 1,31 a 2,16) e mulheres (OR = 1,23; IC95%: 1,00 a 1,52). Alto consumo de carne vermelha aumentou em 40% (IC95%: 1,04 a 1,96) a chance de novos casos de DM em homens. Conclusões. O consumo elevado de carne vermelha e processada teve impacto negativo na saúde dos participantes. O consumo moderado de carnes pode ser recomendado para a população em geral e para prevenção do DM.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To investigate the association between red and processed meat consumption and the occurrence of new cases of insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Method. This cohort study included 15 105 civil servants (age: 35-74 years). Biochemical, anthropometric, and socioeconomic data, as well as lifestyle characteristics, were collected at baseline (2008–2010) and wave 2 (2012–2014). Meat consumption (g/day) was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. To categorize low, medium, and high consumption, independent variables were divided into tertiles. DM was diagnosed as fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, postload glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL, or glycated hemoglobin ≥ 6.5. IR was determined by HOMA-IR with cutoff points based on the sample’s 75th percentile. Results. Men and participants with lower income and schooling reported higher consumption of red and processed meat. High consumption of processed meat (highest tertile, > 27.1 g/day) was associated with new cases of IR in men (OR = 1.68; 95%CI: 1.31-2.16) and women (OR = 1.23; 95%CI: 1.00-1>52). High consumption of red meat increased by 40% (95%CI: 1.04-1.96) the likelihood of new cases of DM in men. Conclusions. High consumption of red/processed meat negatively impacted the health of participants. Moderate consumption of meats may be recommended for the general population and for prevention of DM.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Investigar la relación entre el consumo de carnes rojas y de carne procesada y la incidencia de nuevos casos de resistencia a la insulina y de diabetes mellitus en los participantes en el estudio longitudinal de salud del adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Métodos. Estudio de cohorte con 15 105 funcionarios públicos (de 35 a 74 años de edad). Se recopilaron datos bioquímicos, antropométricos, socioeconómicos y sobre el estilo de vida en la línea de base (2008– 2010) y en la segunda fase (2012–2014). Se calculó el consumo de carne (g/día) por medio de un cuestionario sobre la frecuencia del consumo de alimentos. Para las clasificaciones de consumo bajo, mediano y alto, las variables independientes se dividieron en terciles. La diabetes mellitus se diagnosticó como glucemia en ayunas ≥ 126 mg/dl, glucosa después de una sobrecarga ≥ 200 mg/dl o glucohemoglobina ≥ 6,5. La resistencia a la insulina se determinó con el modelo homeostático HOMA-IR con puntos de corte a partir del percentil 75 de la muestra. Resultados. Los hombres y los participantes de menores ingresos y menor grado de escolaridad declararon un mayor consumo de carnes rojas y de carnes procesadas. El mayor consumo de carne procesada (último tercil, > 27,1 g/día) guardó relación con nuevos casos de resistencia a la insulina en los hombres (razón de probabilidades [OR] = 1,68; IC95%: 1,31-2,16) y las mujeres (OR = 1,23; IC95%: 1,00-1,52). El consumo alto de carnes rojas aumentó un 40% (IC95%: 1,04-1,96) la posibilidad de manifestación de nuevos casos de diabetes mellitus en los hombres. Conclusiones. El consumo alto de carnes rojas y de carne procesada afectó desfavorablemente la salud de los participantes. El consumo moderado de carne puede recomendarse a la población en general y para la prevención de la diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Carne Vermelha , Produtos da Carne , Resistência à Insulina , Diabetes Mellitus , Brasil , Carne Vermelha , Produtos da Carne , Resistência à Insulina , Brasil , Carne Vermelha , Produtos da Carne , Resistência à Insulina
5.
Health Care Women Int ; 40(4): 386-406, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986134

RESUMO

The authors estimated the prevalence and trends of overweight, obesity, diabetes and hypertension among Brazilian women of reproductive age. A time series was constructed with Vigitel data from 2008 to 2015 and we analyzed trends of the prevalence of these conditions, considering sociodemographic characteristics. We observed an increasing trend in prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes (for some sociodemographic characteristics), and stationary trends for hypertension. Our results highlight the need for early interventions in lifestyle of this population to reduce the NCDs risk factors burden and potentially contribute to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes and reduce the NCDs load.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213254, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate trends in population-level adult body weight indicators in the 26 state capitals and the Federal District of Brazil. METHODS: Self-reported weight and height data of 572,437 adults were used to estimate the mean body mass index (BMI), and the prevalence of BMI categories ranging from underweight to morbid obesity, in Brazil's state capitals and Federal District, from 2006 to 2016, by sex. All estimates were standardized by age. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2016, the main findings showed that: (i) the overall mean BMI increased from 25.4 kg/m2 to 26.3 kg/m2 in men, and from 24.5 kg/m2 to 25.8 kg/m2 in women; (ii) the overall prevalence of overweight increased from 48.1% to 57.5% in men, and from 37.8% to 48.2% in women; (iii) the overall prevalence of obesity increased from 11.7% to 18.1% in men, and from 12.1% to 18.8% in women; (iv) in general, the largest increases in overweight and obesity prevalence were found in state capitals located in the north, northeast, and central-west regions of Brazil; (v) the prevalence of severe obesity surpassed the prevalence of underweight in 22 and 9 state capitals among men and women, respectively; and (vi) the mean BMI trend was stable only in Vitória state capital in men. CONCLUSIONS: The policies for preventing and treating obesity in Brazil over the past years were not able to halt the increase in obesity prevalence either in the state capitals or the Federal District. Thus, a revision of policies is warranted. Furthermore, although policies are necessary in all state capitals, our results suggest that policies are especially necessary in the north, northeast, and central-west regions' state capitals, where, in general, the largest increases in overweight and obesity prevalence were experienced.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 40: e20180016, 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the survival of wounds in lower limbs of diabetic and non-diabetic patients. METHOD: Retrospective cohort study of patients with lower limb ulcers treated at a specialized center between 2011 and 2013. Outcome: healing of lower limb injuries in days. The survival function of lower limb wounds and the differences between diabetic and non-diabetic were analyzed. The Log-rank test was used to compare the survival curves between the study groups. RESULTS: In up to 600 days, 23% of the diabetic patients presented wound healing, while 63% of the non-diabetic patients had their wounds healed, with a statistically significant difference in survival curves in comparison between the groups. The Hazard Ratios (RH) of healing were lower for diabetic patients (HR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.02-0.97). CONCLUSION: The results show that there is a delay in wound healing in diabetic patients.


Assuntos
Pé Diabético/terapia , Úlcera da Perna/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Cicatrização , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 40: e20180016, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-985606

RESUMO

Resumo OBJETIVO Avaliar a sobrevida de feridas em membros inferiores de pacientes diabéticos e não diabéticos. MÉTODO Estudo de coorte retrospectivo de pacientes com úlceras de membros inferiores tratados em centro especializado entre 2011 e 2013. Desfecho: cicatrização de lesões de membros inferiores em dias. Realizou-se análise da função de sobrevida das feridas de membros inferiores e das diferenças entre diabéticos e não diabéticos. Aplicou-se o teste Log-rank para comparação das curvas de sobrevida entre os grupos de estudo. RESULTADOS Em até 600 dias, 23% dos diabéticos apresentaram cicatrização das feridas, enquanto 63% dos não diabéticos tiveram suas feridas cicatrizadas, com diferença estatística das curvas de sobrevida na comparação entre os grupos. Os Hazard Ratios (HR) de cicatrização foram menores para pacientes diabéticos (HR = 0,13, IC95% = 0,02-0,97). CONCLUSÃO Os resultados mostram que há retardo na cicatrização de feridas em pacientes diabéticos.


Resumen OBJETIVO Evaluar la supervivencia de las heridas en miembros inferiores de pacientes diabéticos y no diabéticos. MÉTODO Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo de pacientes con úlceras de miembros inferiores tratados en centro especializado entre 2011 y 2013. CONCLUSIÓN cicatrización de lesiones de miembros inferiores, en días. Se realizó un análisis de la función de supervivencia de las heridas de miembros inferiores y de las diferencias entre diabéticos y no diabéticos. Se aplicó el test Log-rank para la comparación de las curvas de supervivencia entre los grupos de estudio. RESULTADOS En un total de 600 días, el 23% de los diabéticos presentaron cicatrización de las heridas, mientras que el 63% de los no diabéticos tuvieron sus heridas cicatrizadas, con diferencia estadística de las curvas de sobrevida en la comparación entre los grupos. Los Hazard Ratios (HR) de cicatrización fueron menores para pacientes diabéticos (HR = 0,13, IC95% = 0,02-0,97). CONCLUSIÓN Los resultados muestran que hay retraso en la cicatrización de heridas en pacientes diabéticos.


Abstract OBJECTIVE To evaluate the survival of wounds in lower limbs of diabetic and non-diabetic patients. METHOD Retrospective cohort study of patients with lower limb ulcers treated at a specialized center between 2011 and 2013. Outcome: healing of lower limb injuries in days. The survival function of lower limb wounds and the differences between diabetic and non-diabetic were analyzed. The Log-rank test was used to compare the survival curves between the study groups. RESULTS In up to 600 days, 23% of the diabetic patients presented wound healing, while 63% of the non-diabetic patients had their wounds healed, with a statistically significant difference in survival curves in comparison between the groups. The Hazard Ratios (RH) of healing were lower for diabetic patients (HR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.02-0.97). CONCLUSION The results show that there is a delay in wound healing in diabetic patients.

9.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(1): e00028019, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939541

RESUMO

Lipid abnormalities and subclinical systemic inflammation are associated with atherosclerosis and are used as markers of cardiovascular risk. Studies have suggested a possible beneficial effect of dairy products on cardiovascular health, but the results in lipid and inflammatory markers are still controversial. This study aimed to assess the association between consumption of dairy products and their different subgroups and C-reactive protein (CRP), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) in participants in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) (n = 9,372). Consumption of dairy products was assessed via a validated food frequency questionnaire and expressed as servings/day. Total consumption of dairy products was described in four categories (≤ 1 serving/day to > 4 servings/day). The associations were estimated via odds ratios (OR), using the group with the lowest consumption (≤ 1 serving/day) as the reference. The lowest ORs for TG/HDL-C in the multivariate model (0.70; 95%CI: 0.55-0.90 in men; and 0.55; 95%CI: 0.43-0.70 in women) were found in the group that consumed > 4 servings day of dairy products. These results were supported by the inverse associations between different subgroups of dairy products and the TG/HDL-C ratio. No association was found between consumption of dairy products and their subgroups and LDL-C and CRP. The results suggest a possible beneficial effect of dairy products on lipid profile, but longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to elucidate the effect mechanisms of different types of dairy products.

10.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(9): e00223518, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1039420

RESUMO

Para a avaliação da tendência temporal da prevalência de obesidade mórbida na população adulta das capitais brasileiras entre os anos 2006 e 2017, foi realizado estudo transversal com dados da Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel), analisados por regressão linear simples. Resultados evidenciaram tendência de aumento da prevalência de obesidade mórbida no Brasil. As mulheres apresentaram maiores prevalências (1,3%, em 2006, e 1,9%, em 2017) ao serem comparadas com os homens (0,9% e 1,4%). Na faixa etária entre 25 a 44 anos, a tendência foi de crescimento de 0,9% para 2,1% (p < 0,001). Em todos os níveis de escolaridade e regiões do Brasil, houve aumento da obesidade mórbida. As capitais que apresentaram tendência de aumento no sexo masculino foram: Campo Grande, Curitiba, Fortaleza, Macapá, Manaus, Palmas, Porto Velho, Rio Branco e Teresina. Em relação ao sexo feminino: Belo Horizonte, Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro e Teresina. O crescimento da obesidade mórbida no país constitui um alerta para a urgente necessidade de adotar medidas para detê-la, como a regulação de alimentos ultraprocessados e ações de educação para a saúde para toda a população.


This study was an assessment of time trends in morbid obesity prevalence in the adult population in Brazil's state capitals from 2006 to 2017. A cross-sectional study was performed with data from the Risk and Protective Factors Surveillance System for Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases Through Telephone Interview (Vigitel), analyzed by simple linear regression. The results showed an upward trend in morbid obesity prevalence in Brazil. Women showed higher prevalence rates (1.3% in 2006 and 1.9% in 2017) when compared to men (0.9% and 1.4%). The 25-44-year age bracket showed an upward trend from 0.9% to 2.1% (p < 0.001). There was an increase in morbid obesity in all levels of schooling and all regions of Brazil. The state capitals with upward trends in males were Campo Grande, Curitiba, Fortaleza, Macapá, Manaus, Palmas, Porto Velho, Rio Branco, and Teresina. In females, they were Belo Horizonte, Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro, and Teresina. The growth in morbid obesity in Brazil sounds a warning on the urgent need to adopt measures to detain it, such as regulation of ultra-processed foods and health education measures for the entire population.


Evaluación de la tendencia temporal de la prevalencia de obesidad mórbida en la población adulta de capitales brasileñas entre los años 2006 y 2017. Se realizó un estudio transversal con datos procedentes de la Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo y Protección para Enfermedades Crónicas No Transmisibles por Entrevista Telefónica (Vigitel), analizados por regresión lineal simple. Los resultados evidenciaron una tendencia de aumento de la obesidad mórbida en Brasil. Las mujeres presentaron mayores prevalencias (1,3% en 2006 y 1,9% en 2017) al compararlas con los hombres (0,9% y 1,4%). En la franja de edad entre 25 a 44 años la tendencia fue de crecimiento de 0,9% a 2,1% (p < 0,001). En todos los niveles de escolaridad y regiones de Brasil hubo un aumento de obesidad mórbida. Las capitales que presentaron una tendencia de aumento en el sexo masculino fueron: Campo Grande, Curitiba, Fortaleza, Macapá, Manaus, Palmas, Porto Velho, Río Branco y Teresina. En relación con el sexo femenino: Belo Horizonte, Campo Grande, Río de Janeiro y Teresina. El crecimiento de la obesidad mórbida en el país constituye una alerta para la necesidad urgente de adoptar medidas con el fin de detenerla como pueden ser la regulación de alimentos ultraprocesados, así como acciones educativas para la salud de toda la población.

11.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22(supl.2): E190005.SUPL.2, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042220

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar as prevalências dos níveis de colesterol total e frações alterados na população brasileira, segundo dados bioquímicos da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, utilizando dados laboratoriais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde coletados entre os anos de 2014 e 2015. Foram analisados exames de colesterol total e frações e calculadas prevalências populacionais de valores alterados segundo variáveis sociodemográficas. Consideraram-se os seguintes pontos de corte: colesterol total ≥ 200mg/dL; lipoproteínas de baixa densidade (LDL) ≥ 130mg/dL e lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL) < 40mg/dL. Resultados: Aprevalência de colesterol total ≥ 200mg/dL na população foi de 32,7%, mais elevada em mulheres (35,1%). A prevalência de HDL alterado foi de 31,8%, sendo de 42,8% no sexo masculino e 22,0% no feminino. LDL≥ 130mg/dL foi observado em 18,6%, com prevalência mais elevada em mulheres (19,9%). População com idade de 45 anos ou mais e com baixa escolaridade apresentou maiores prevalências de colesterol com alterações. Conclusão: Valores de colesterol total e frações alterados foram frequentes na população brasileira, especialmente entre mulheres, idosos e pessoas de baixa escolaridade. Esses resultados poderão orientar as ações de controle e prevenção, como alimentação saudável, atividade física e tratamento, visando à prevenção de doenças coronarianas.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze the prevalence of altered total cholesterol and fractions levels in the Brazilian population, according to biochemical data from the National Health Survey. Methods: A descriptive study, using data from the National Health Survey, collected between 2014 and 2015. Total cholesterol and fractions were analyzed and population prevalences of altered values according to socio-demographic variables were calculated. The cutoff points considered were: total cholesterol ≥ 200mg/dl; low-density lipoprotein LDL ≥ 130mg/dL and high-density lipoprotein HDL < 40mg/dL. Results: The prevalence of total cholesterol ≥200mg/dL in the population was 32.7%, and higher in women (35.1%). The prevalence of altered HDL was 31.8%, 22.0% in females and 42.8% in males. LDL ≥ 130mg/dL was found in 18.6% and was higher in women (19.9%). The population aged 45 years old and older and those with low levels of education presented a higher prevalence of altered cholesterol. Conclusion: Altered values of total cholesterol and fractions were frequent in the Brazilian population, especially among women, the elderly and people with low levels of education. These results may guide control and preventative actions such as healthy eating, physical activity and treatment, all of which aim to prevent coronary diseases.

12.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 23(3): e20180320, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012098

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence of concurrency of risk factors for Noncommunicable Diseases and non-random aggregation of these in Brazilian school adolescents. Method: Descriptive study, with data from the National School Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar), 2015. The prevalence of concurrent risk factors was estimated: smoking, alcohol use, physical inactivity and low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Aggregation was verified when the observed-expected prevalence ratio was greater than 1. The analyses were performed in Stata 15.0 software. Results: The proportion of concurrent risk factors was higher for those who had two risk factors (56.1%; 95%CI: 55.5-56.6). The most prevalent risk factors combination was "Low consumption of fruits and vegetables + Physical inactivity" (66%; 95% CI: 65.8-66.9). There was an aggregation of risk factors, and the highest ratio between observed and expected prevalence was: "Smoking + Alcohol" (79.0%; 95%CI: 73.8-84.2). Conclusion and implications for practice: The findings show a high prevalence of concurrent risk factors, with aggregation of these in adolescents. Identifying these risk groups may favor early interventions by minimizing exposure and targeting primary prevention strategies in early exposure to risk factors.


Resumen Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia de la concurrencia de factores de riesgo para enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles y la agregación no aleatoria de éstos en adolescentes escolares brasileños. Método: Estudio descriptivo, con datos de la Investigación Nacional de Salud del Escolar (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar) en 2015. Se estimó la prevalencia de los factores de riesgo simultáneos: tabaquismo, uso de alcohol, inactividad física y bajo consumo de frutas y verduras. La agregación se verificó cuando la razón entre la prevalencia observada y esperada fue superior a 1. Los análisis se realizaron en el software Stata 15.0. Resultados: La proporción de factores de riesgo simultáneos fue mayor para quienes tenían dos factores de riesgo (56,1%, IC95%: 55,5-56,6). La combinación de factores de riesgo más prevalente fue "Bajo consumo de frutas y verduras + Inactividad física" (66%, IC95%: 65,8-66,9). Se ha producido una agregación de factores de riesgo, y que la mayor razón entre la prevalencia observada y esperada fue para: "Tabaquismo + Alcohol" (79,0; IC95%: 73,8-84,2). Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica: Los hallazgos muestran una elevada prevalencia de factores de riesgo simultáneos, con agregación de éstos en adolescentes. Identificar estos grupos de riesgo puede favorecer intervenciones tempranas, minimizando la exposición y direccionar estrategias de prevención primaria en la exposición precoz a factores de riesgo.


Resumo Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência da simultaneidade de fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e o agregamento não aleatório destes em adolescentes escolares brasileiros. Método: Estudo descritivo, com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar, 2015. Foi estimada a prevalência dos fatores de risco simultâneos: tabagismo, uso de álcool, inatividade física e baixo consumo de frutas e legumes. O agregamento foi verificado quando a razão entre a prevalência observada e a esperada foi superior a 1. As análises foram realizadas no software Stata 15.0. Resultados: A proporção de fatores de risco simultâneos foi maior para quem tinha dois fatores de risco (56,1%; IC95%: 55,5-56,6). A combinação de fatores de risco mais prevalente foi "Baixo consumo de frutas e hortaliças + Inatividade física" (66%; IC95%: 65,8-66,9). Houve agregamento de fatores de risco, sendo que a maior razão entre a prevalência observada e a esperada foi para: "Tabagismo + Álcool" (79,0; IC95%: 73,8-84,2). Conclusão e Implicações para a prática: Os achados mostram uma elevada prevalência de fatores de risco simultâneos, com agregamento destes em adolescentes. Identificar esses grupos de risco pode favorecer intervenções precoces minimizando a exposição e direcionar estratégias de prevenção primária na exposição precoce à fatores de risco.

13.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21(suppl 1): e180005, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between parental supervision and sociodemographic factors and alcohol use by Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with data from National School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) 2015, which included 16,608 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years, students from Brazilian public and private schools. Variables related to alcohol use, sociodemographic factors and parental supervision were evaluated. In order to analyze the relation between sociodemographic variables, parental supervision and use of alcohol among adolescents, prevalence ratios stratified by sex were used. RESULTS: It was observed that 61.4% of the adolescents had tried alcohol, 27.2% had a drunken episode in their lifetime, 9.3% have had problems with alcohol and 29.3% reported alcohol use in last 30 days. The lack of parental supervision was associated with increased use of alcohol. The proportion of alcohol use was higher for girls, and also among those who were older than 16 years, worked, did not live with one or both parents, and lived in the South, regardless of sex. CONCLUSION: The results showed early alcohol experimentation and occurrence of problems due to its use among Brazilian adolescents. In addition, the lack of monitoring by parents and guardians shows a risk of alcohol use in this age.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pais-Filho , Psicologia do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Assunção de Riscos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia
14.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21(suppl 1): e180010, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between soft drink consumption and body mass index (BMI) in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. METHODS: We used data from the National Adolescent Student Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar - PeNSE) of 2009. The dependent variable (outcome) was the tertiles of BMI score (zBMI), and the main independent variable (exposure) was the consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks. The models included age, school type, home goods and services score, and maternal schooling as adjustment variables. We estimated the association between exposure and outcome by using multinomial regression models, stratified by gender, and eutrophic and overweight subgroups. RESULTS: 23.8% of the adolescents evaluated were overweight, and 21.7% reported consuming soft drinks daily. For eutrophic boys, those who consumed soft drinks had a greater chance of being in higher zBMI tertiles than non-consumers. For overweight adolescents, both male and female, soft drink consumption was associated with a lower chance of being in the highest tertile of zBMI score. CONCLUSION: The results show the possibility of reverse causality between consumption of sweetened soft drinks and zBMI in the overweight adolescents group. For eutrophic male adolescents, soft drink consumption can potentially increase the chances of having higher zBMI, which reinforces the need for measures to significantly reduce the consumption of this beverage.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Estudantes/psicologia
15.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 52(0): e03390, 2018 Nov 23.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of the Pap test and analyze the factors associated with its non-attendance by Brazilian women. METHOD: Cross-sectional, population-based study in which were used Vigitel (Surveillance System for Protective and Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey ) data and were included women in the target age range of the screening. The coverage and prevalence of non-screening were assessed according to sociodemographic, behavioral and health characteristics. RESULTS: Data from 22,580 women were included. About 17.1% of women did not take the Pap test in the three previous years. Women in the age groups of 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years showed a higher prevalence of having the test compared to those aged 25-34 years (p<0.05). The following factors were associated with the non-attendance: women with less than 12 years of study (p<0.05), who declared not having a partner (p<0.0001), residents of Northeast, Midwest and North regions (p<0.05), malnourished (p=0.017), who self-assessed their health as negative and presented at least one negative health behavior (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Despite the high coverage of this screening, it remains unsatisfactory in population subgroups, such as women living without a partner, with low educational level, malnourished, who self-assessed their health status as negative, and with at least one negative health behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste de Papanicolaou/estatística & dados numéricos , Esfregaço Vaginal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
16.
Nutrients ; 10(8)2018 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060512

RESUMO

The secular trend of hyperuricemia coincides with the substantial increase in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Our aim was to evaluate the association between the consumption of soft drinks, dietary fructose and unsweetened, non-processed fruit juices with hyperuricemia in a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data (2008⁻2010; n = 7173) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The explanatory variables were the consumption of soft drinks, fruit juice, and fructose using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The outcomes were hyperuricemia and the uric acid concentration in serum. Regression models were tested, and a significance level of 5% was adopted. In men, the daily consumption of a portion of soft drink/day (250 mL) almost doubled the chance of hyperuricemia with a linear trend. In women, the consumption of ≥0.1 to <1.0 soft drink/day was associated with a higher chance of hyperuricemia, but there was no linear trend. High fructose consumption in men and moderate and high consumption in women were associated with hyperuricemia. All categories of soft drinks consumption were linearly associated with increased serum uric acid levels. Our findings suggest that the consumption of soft drinks and dietary fructose is positively associated with a higher chance of hyperuricemia and higher uric acid levels in Brazilian adults.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Hiperuricemia/etiologia , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais
17.
Nutrients ; 10(6)2018 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29857508

RESUMO

Recent studies have suggested the possible effect of dairy product intake on cardiovascular risk markers, including arterial stiffness. Our aim was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with arterial stiffness, which we assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and pulse pressure (PP) in a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data (2008­2010; n = 12,892) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Dairy consumption was evaluated with a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) by computing servings per day for total and subgroups of dairy products. Dairy consumption was described in four categories (≤1 serving/day to >4 servings/day). Covariance analysis (ANCOVA) was used to compare cfPWV across increasing intake of dairy food, adjusting for confounding factors, including non-dairy food groups. The intake of total dairy was inversely associated with cfPWV and PP (­0.13 m/s and ­1.3 mmHg, from the lowest and to the highest category of dairy intake). Low-fat dairy, fermented dairy and cheese showed an inverse relationship with cfPWV and PP. These findings suggest a beneficial effect of dairy consumption to reduce arterial stiffness. However, further evidence from longitudinal studies or long-term intervention is needed to support reduction of cfPWV and PP mediating the beneficial effects of dairy products on cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Queijo , Laticínios , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Queijo/efeitos adversos , Queijo/microbiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios/efeitos adversos , Laticínios/microbiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , /microbiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 23(5): 1415-1423, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768597

RESUMO

This article aims to evaluate associations between anthropometric changes in five years with lipid and blood pressure levels in Brazilian rural population. This longitudinal study evaluated 387 individuals aged 18 to 75 residents of two rural communities. Demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, biochemical and hemodynamic characteristics were assessed in 2004 and repeated in 2009. Multivariate linear regression was used. Positive change in BMI was associated with increased diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (ß = 0.07; 95%CI: 0.03-0.11), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) (increase of 0.01% to 10%: ß = 0.08; 95%CI: 0.02-0.14, more than 10% increase: ß = 0.09; 95%CI: 0.01-0.16) and low density lipoprotein/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (LDL-C/HDL-C) (increase of 0.01% to 10%: ß = 0.15; 95%CI: 0.06-0.25, more than 10% increase: ß = 0.14; 95%CI: 0.02-0.25). Our results showed no association between positive changes in WC and lipid levels increase, only with blood pressure levels increase (SBP: ß = 0.06; CI95%:0.02-0.10; DBP: ß = 0.09; CI95%: 0.04;0.13). Positive changes in BMI are independent predictors of increased lipid and blood pressure levels and positive changes in WC of increased blood pressure.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(5): 1415-1423, Mai. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890569

RESUMO

Abstract This article aims to evaluate associations between anthropometric changes in five years with lipid and blood pressure levels in Brazilian rural population. This longitudinal study evaluated 387 individuals aged 18 to 75 residents of two rural communities. Demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, biochemical and hemodynamic characteristics were assessed in 2004 and repeated in 2009. Multivariate linear regression was used. Positive change in BMI was associated with increased diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (β = 0.07; 95%CI: 0.03-0.11), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) (increase of 0.01% to 10%: β = 0.08; 95%CI: 0.02-0.14, more than 10% increase: β = 0.09; 95%CI: 0.01-0.16) and low density lipoprotein/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (LDL-C/HDL-C) (increase of 0.01% to 10%: β = 0.15; 95%CI: 0.06-0.25, more than 10% increase: β = 0.14; 95%CI: 0.02-0.25). Our results showed no association between positive changes in WC and lipid levels increase, only with blood pressure levels increase (SBP: β = 0.06; CI95%:0.02-0.10; DBP: β = 0.09; CI95%: 0.04;0.13). Positive changes in BMI are independent predictors of increased lipid and blood pressure levels and positive changes in WC of increased blood pressure.


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo foi avaliar associação entre as mudanças antropométricas, em cinco anos de estudo, com os níveis lipídicos e pressóricos em populações rurais brasileiras. Estudo longitudinal, que avaliou 387 indivíduos, entre 18 e 75 anos, residentes em duas comunidades rurais. Características demográficas, de estilo de vida, antropométricas, bioquímicas e hemodinâmicas foram coletadas em 2004 e repetidas em 2009. Utilizou-se a regressão linear. Mudanças positivas do IMC foram associadas com aumento da pressão arterial diastólica (PAD) (β = 0,07; IC95%: 0,03-0,11), lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL-C) (aumento de 0,01% a 10%: β = 0,08; IC95%: 0,02-0,14; aumento de mais de 10%: β = 0,09; IC95%: 0,01-0,16) e razão lipoproteína de baixa densidade/lipoproteína de alta densidade (LDL-C/HDL-C) (aumento de 0,01 a 10%: β = 0,15; IC95%: 0,06-0,25; aumento de mais de 10% β = 0,14; IC95%: 0,02-0,25). Não se observou associação entre mudanças positivas na CC e aumento de níveis lipídicos, apenas com aumento da pressão arterial (PAS: β = 0,06; IC95%: 0,02-0,10; PAD: β = 0,09; IC95%: 0,04-0,13). Mudanças positivas no IMC são preditoras independentes para aumento de níveis lipídicos e pressóricos e mudanças positivas na CC para aumento de níveis pressóricos.

20.
Cien Saude Colet ; 23(4): 1323-1332, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694585

RESUMO

The regular practice of walking can contribute to a better quality of life, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between sociodemographic and health factors related to adult practice of walking in the Brazilian rural context. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 567 adults. The outcome variable was the regular practice of walking (≥150 minutes per week) and the explanatory variables were sociodemographic factors, anthropometric measures, laboratory tests and self-perceived health. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used in analysis, considering p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: Only 34.7% of the population practices walking regularly. Women (PR 0.84, 95% CI 0.78-0.89), age of 31-45 years (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.22, comparing to 18-30 years), and self-perception of poor/fair health (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.97 comparing to people with great/good health) remained independently associated with regular practice of walking. Conclusion Age between 31 and 45 years and males were positively associated with walking and the perception of poor/fair health had negative association. These findings may suggest that public policies to encourage physical activity in urban areas should also be applied to rural areas.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , População Rural , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
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