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1.
Gene ; 806: 145935, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478821

RESUMO

Soluble molecules of programmed death ligand 1 (sPD-L1) are known to modulate T-cell depletion, an important mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence and liver disease progression. In addition, PD-L1 polymorphisms in the 3'-UTR can influence PD-L1 expression and have been associated with cancer risk, although not definitively. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of PD-L1 polymorphisms and circulating levels of sPD-L1 in HBV infection and live disease progression. In this study, five hundred fifty-one HBV infected patients of the three clinically well-defined subgroups chronic hepatitis B (CHB, n = 186), liver cirrhosis (LC, n = 142) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n = 223) and 240 healthy individuals (HC) were enrolled. PD-L1 polymorphisms (rs2297136 and rs4143815) were genotyped by in-house validated ARMS assays. Logistic regression models were applied in order to determine the association of PD-L1 polymorphisms with HBV infection as well as with progression of related liver diseases. Plasma sPD-L1 levels were quantified by ELISA assays. The PD-L1 rs2297136 AA genotype was associated with HBV infection susceptibility (HBV vs. HC: OR = 1.6; 95%CI = 1.1-2.3; p = 0.0087) and disease progression (LC vs. CHB: OR = 1.8; 95%CI = 1.1-2.9; p = 0.018). Whereas, the rs2297136 GG genotype was a protective factor for HCC development. Plasma sPD-L1 levels were significantly high in HBV patients (p < 0.0001) and higher in the LC followed by CHB and HCC groups. High sPD-L1 levels correlated with increased liver enzymes and with advanced liver disease progression (Child-pugh C > B > A, p < 0.0001) and BCLC classification (BCLC D > C > B > A, p = 0.031). We could, for the first time, conclude that PD-L1 rs2297136 polymorphism and plasma sPD-L1 protein levels associate with HBV infection and HBV-related liver disease progression.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Adulto , Idoso , Antígeno B7-H1/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Vírus da Hepatite B/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
2.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 60, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood stream infections (BSI) caused by Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBLs) producing Enterobacteriaceae is a clinical challenge leading to high mortality, especially in developing countries. In this study, we sought to describe the epidemiology of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from Vietnamese individuals with BSI, to investigate the concordance of genotypic-phenotypic resistance, and clinical outcome of ESBL E. coli BSI. METHODS: A total of 459 hospitalized patients with BSI were screened between October 2014 and May 2016. 115 E. coli strains from 115 BSI patients were isolated and tested for antibiotic resistance using the VITEK®2 system. The ESBL phenotype was determined by double disk diffusion method following the guideline of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Screening for beta-lactamase (ESBL and carbapenemase) genes was performed using a multiplex-PCR assay. RESULTS: 58% (67/115) of the E. coli strains were ESBL-producers and all were susceptible to both imipenem and meropenem. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporin was common, 70% (81/115) were cefotaxime-resistant and 45% (52/115) were ceftazidime-resistant. blaCTX-M was the most common ESBL gene detected (70%; 80/115) The sensitivity and specificity of blaCTX-M-detection to predict the ESBL phenotype was 87% (76-93% 95% CI) and 54% (39-48% 95% CI), respectively. 28%% (22/80) of blaCTX-M were classified as non-ESBL producers by phenotypic testing for ESBL production. The detection of blaCTX-M in ESBL-negative E. coli BSI was associated with fatal clinical outcome (27%; 6/22 versus 8%; 2/26, p = 0.07). CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates harbouring blaCTX-M was observed in BSI patients in Vietnam. The genotypic detection of blaCTX-M may have added benefit in optimizing and guiding empirical antibiotic therapy of E. coli BSI to improve clinical outcome.

3.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 133(17-18): 931-941, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We used the RNActive® technology platform (CureVac N.V., Tübingen, Germany) to prepare CVnCoV, a COVID-19 vaccine containing sequence-optimized mRNA coding for a stabilized form of SARS-CoV­2 spike (S) protein encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNP). METHODS: This is an interim analysis of a dosage escalation phase 1 study in healthy 18-60-year-old volunteers in Hannover, Munich and Tübingen, Germany, and Ghent, Belgium. After giving 2 intramuscular doses of CVnCoV or placebo 28 days apart we assessed solicited local and systemic adverse events (AE) for 7 days and unsolicited AEs for 28 days after each vaccination. Immunogenicity was measured as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV­2 S­protein and receptor binding domain (RBD), and SARS-CoV­2 neutralizing titers (MN50). RESULTS: In 245 volunteers who received 2 CVnCoV vaccinations (2 µg, n = 47, 4 µg, n = 48, 6 µg, n = 46, 8 µg, n = 44, 12 µg, n = 28) or placebo (n = 32) there were no vaccine-related serious AEs. Dosage-dependent increases in frequency and severity of solicited systemic AEs, and to a lesser extent local AEs, were mainly mild or moderate and transient in duration. Dosage-dependent increases in IgG antibodies to S­protein and RBD and MN50 were evident in all groups 2 weeks after the second dose when 100% (23/23) seroconverted to S­protein or RBD, and 83% (19/23) seroconverted for MN50 in the 12 µg group. Responses to 12 µg were comparable to those observed in convalescent sera from known COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: In this study 2 CVnCoV doses were safe, with acceptable reactogenicity and 12 µg dosages elicited levels of immune responses that overlapped those observed in convalescent sera.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Nanopartículas , Vacinas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/terapia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Lipídeos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375432

RESUMO

Bleeding associated with endothelial damage is one key feature of severe dengue fever. Here, we investigated whether Notch ligands are associated with bleeding in 115 patients with confirmed dengue infection in Vietnam. Soluble Notch ligands were determined by ELISA. 14.8% (17/115) experienced bleeding manifestations. High soluble DLL1 (sDLL1) plasma levels was associated with bleeding (median 15674 pg/ml vs 7117 pg/ml; p<0.001). ROC analysis demonstrated that sDLL1 had the best test performance (AUC=0.852), with 88% sensitivity and 84% specificity. The combination with ALT/AST slightly increased DLL1 performance. sDLL1 may be useful to guide clinical management of dengue patients in endemic settings.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 28-30, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418566

RESUMO

With reasonably good specificity and sensitivity, the speed and convenience of COVID-19 antigen tests have led to self-testing in schools, offices, and universities in the European Union (EU). Although self-testing can be beneficial and increase the accessibility to testing, there are potential ways to confound a positive COVID-19 lateral flow test. We observed that all soft drinks, energy drinks, alcoholic beverages (vodka, whiskey, and brandy), commercially bottled mineral water, and carbonated mineral water caused the appearance of a red test line. However, when equal volumes of the buffer and the respective beverages are mixed, there are no false-positive test lines. Deceitful methods may easily lead to misuse of COVID-19 antigen rapid tests and lead to false-positive results; however, this does not prove that these tests are unreliable when performed correctly.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Antígenos Virais , Teste para COVID-19 , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14471, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262116

RESUMO

Early detection of severe forms of COVID-19 is absolutely essential for timely triage of patients. We longitudinally followed-up two well-characterized patient groups, hospitalized moderate to severe (n = 26), and ambulatory mild COVID-19 patients (n = 16) at home quarantine. Human D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, cardiac troponin I, interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured on day 1, day 7, day 14 and day 28. All hospitalized patients were SARS-CoV-2 positive on admission, while all ambulatory patients were SARS-CoV-2 positive at recruitment. Hospitalized patients had higher D-dimer, CRP and ferritin, cardiac troponin I and IL-6 levels than ambulatory patients (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.016, p = 0.035, p = 0.002 respectively). Hospitalized patients experienced significant decreases in CRP, ferritin and IL-6 levels from admission to recovery (p < 0.001, p = 0.025, and p = 0.001 respectively). Cardiac troponin I levels were high during the acute phase in both hospitalized and ambulatory patients, indicating a potential myocardial injury. In summary, D-dimer, CRP, ferritin, cardiac troponin I, IL-6 are predictive laboratory markers and can largely determine the clinical course of COVID-19, in particular the prognosis of critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Assistência Ambulatorial , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Diagnóstico Precoce , Ferritinas/sangue , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Seguimentos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Medicina de Precisão , Prognóstico , Quarentena , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Troponina I/sangue
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009628, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of co-infection with Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni and the potential harmful effect on morbidity and control is enhanced by the overlapping distribution of both species in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the reported high endemicity of both species in Nigeria, studies on the spread and effect of their mixed infection are limited. Therefore, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among school children in two communities in South-west Nigeria to investigate the prevalence of mixed human schistosome infection, intensity, and possible ectopic egg elimination. METHODS: Urine and stool samples were collected from consenting school children in Ilie and Ore communities of Osun State, Nigeria. Schistosoma haematobium eggs were detected in urine using the urine filtration technique, while S. mansoni eggs were detected in stool using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. RESULTS: The study enrolled 466 primary and secondary school children (211; 45.3% males vs. 255; 54.7% females; mean age 11.6 ± 3.16 years). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 40% (185/466), with 19% (89/466) recording single S. haematobium infection while 9% (41/465) had a single S. mansoni infection. The geometric mean egg count for S. haematobium was 189.4 egg/10ml urine; 95% CI: range 115.9-262.9, while for S. mansoni, it was 115.7 epg; 95% CI: range 78.4-152.9. The prevalence of ectopic S mansoni (S. mansoni eggs in urine) was 4.7%, while no ectopic S. haematobium (S. haematobium eggs in stool) was recorded. Mixed infection of S. haematobium/S. mansoni had a prevalence of 9.5% (44/466). More females (54.5%) presented with S. haematobium/S. mansoni co-infection. For both parasites, males had higher infection intensity, with a significant difference observed with S. haematobium (p = 0.0004). Hematuria was significant in individuals with single S. haematobium infection (p = 0.002), mixed ectopic S. haematobium/S. mansoni (p = 0.009) and mixed S. haematobium/S. mansoni/ectopic S. mansoni (p = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the probability of interspecific interactions between S. haematobium and S. mansoni. Scaling up of mass administration of praziquantel and control measures in the study areas is highly desirable.

8.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(16): 5953-5976, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223911

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus causing the major pandemic facing the world today. Although, SARS-CoV-2 primarily causes lung infection, a variety of symptoms have proven a systemic impact on the body. SARS-CoV-2 has spread in the community quickly infecting humans from all age, ethnicities and gender. However, fatal outcomes have been linked to specific host factors and co-morbidities such as age, hypertension, immuno-deficiencies, chronic lung diseases or metabolic disorders. A major shift in the microbiome of patients suffering of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have also been observed and is linked to a worst outcome of the disease. As many co-morbidities are already known to be associated with a dysbiosis of the microbiome such as hypertension, diabetes and metabolic disorders. Host factors and microbiome changes are believed to be involved as a network in the acquisition of the infection and the development of the diseases. We will review in detail in this manuscript, the immune response toward SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as the host factors involved in the facilitation and worsening of the infection. We will also address the impact of COVID-19 on the host's microbiome and secondary infection which also worsen the disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Replicação Viral/imunologia , Animais , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/virologia , Humanos , Imunidade/imunologia , Microbiota/imunologia , Pandemias
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 109: 247-252, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174430

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Accurate diagnosis of chikungunya (CHIK) is essential for effective disease management and surveillance. In a cohort of febrile Congolese patients, available diagnostic methods widely used in CHIK diagnosis were evaluated. In addition, plasma cytokines were quantified in CHIK patients and those coinfected with malaria compared with healthy controls. METHODS: Between June and November 2019, a total of 107 febrile patients with suspected CHIK were subjected to differential diagnosis both for CHIK and malaria. Patients were screened for CHIK virus using molecular diagnosis by real-time PCR, serologic testing by IgM-specific and IgG-specific ELISAs, and lateral flow-based method with rapid diagnostic test (RDT), while malaria diagnosis was confirmed by PCR methods. Pro-inflammatory (IL-12, IL-16, IFN-γ, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10, IL-13) cytokines were quantified in patients and healthy controls by ELISA assays. RESULTS: Molecular diagnoses revealed that 57% (61/107) were positive for CHIK by RT-PCR, while serologic testing revealed 31% (33/107) and 9% (10/107) seropositivity for anti- IgM and IgG, respectively. None of the patients were CHIK RDT-positive. Also, 27% (29/107) were PCR-positive for malaria. Among the malaria-positive patients, 14% (15/107) were co-infected with CHIK and 13% (14/107) were monoinfection. Plasma IL-12 and TNF-α levels were increased in patients with malaria and IL-13 levels were increased in patients with co-infection (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Co-infection of malaria and CHIK were common in febrile Congolese patients. Real-time PCR was a better tool for detecting actual occurrences of CHIK in a malaria holoendemic area.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus Chikungunya , Malária , Anticorpos Antivirais , Febre de Chikungunya/complicações , Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
10.
Liver Int ; 41(7): 1462-1473, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960603

RESUMO

The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the main causes of acute hepatitis and the de facto global burden is underestimated. HEV-related clinical complications are often undetected and are not considered in the differential diagnosis. Convincing findings from studies suggest that HEV is clinically relevant not only in developing countries but also in industrialized countries. Eight HEV genotypes (HEV-1 to HEV-8) with different human and animal hosts and other HEV-related viruses are in circulation. Transmission routes vary by genotype and location, with large waterborne outbreaks in developing countries and zoonotic food-borne infections in developed countries. An acute infection can be aggravated in pregnant women, organ transplant recipients, patients with pre-existing liver disease and immunosuppressed patients. HEV during pregnancy affects the fetus and newborn with an increased risk of vertical transmission, preterm and stillbirth, neonatal jaundice and miscarriage. Hepatitis E is associated with extrahepatic manifestations that include neurological disorders such as neuralgic amyotrophy, Guillain-Barré syndrome and encephalitis, renal injury and haematological disorders. The risk of transfusion-transmitted HEV is increasingly recognized in Western countries where the risk may be because of a zoonosis. RNA testing of blood components is essential to determine the risk of transfusion-transmitted HEV. There are currently no approved drugs or vaccines for HEV infections. This review focuses on updating the latest developments in zoonoses, screening and diagnostics, drugs in use and under development, and vaccines.


Assuntos
Medicina Clínica , Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E , Saúde Única , Animais , Feminino , Hepatite E/diagnóstico , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
11.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(7): e0027521, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875422

RESUMO

Malaria remains one of the deadliest diseases in Africa, particularly for children. While successful in reducing morbidity and mortality, antimalarial treatments are also a major cause of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Host genetic variation in genes involved in drug disposition or toxicity constitutes an important determinant of ADR risk and can prime for parasite drug resistance. Importantly, however, the genetic diversity in Africa is substantial, and thus, genetic profiles in one population cannot be reliably extrapolated to other ethnogeographic groups. Gabon is considered a high-transmission country, with more than 460,000 malaria cases per year. Yet the pharmacogenetic landscape of the Gabonese population or its neighboring countries has not been analyzed. Using targeted sequencing, here, we profiled 21 pharmacogenes with importance for antimalarial treatment in 48 Gabonese pediatric patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Overall, we identified 347 genetic variants, of which 18 were novel, and each individual was found to carry 87.3 ± 9.2 (standard deviation [SD]) variants across all analyzed genes. Importantly, 16.7% of these variants were population specific, highlighting the need for high-resolution pharmacogenomic profiling. Between one in three and one in six individuals harbored reduced-activity alleles of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP2C8 with important implications for artemisinin, chloroquine, and amodiaquine therapy. Furthermore, one in three patients harbored at least one G6PD-deficient allele, suggesting a considerably increased risk of hemolytic anemia upon exposure to aminoquinolines. Combined, our results reveal the unique genetic landscape of the Gabonese population and pinpoint the genetic basis for interindividual differences in antimalarial drug responses and toxicity.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Gabão , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium falciparum/genética
12.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805214

RESUMO

Enteric viruses are the leading cause of diarrhea in children globally. Identifying viral agents and understanding their genetic diversity could help to develop effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the detection rate and genetic diversity of four enteric viruses in Gabonese children aged below five years. Stool samples from children <5 years with (n = 177) and without (n = 67) diarrhea were collected from April 2018 to November 2019. Norovirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, and aichivirus A were identified using PCR techniques followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. At least one viral agent was identified in 23.2% and 14.9% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic participants, respectively. Norovirus (14.7%) and astrovirus (7.3%) were the most prevalent in children with diarrhea, whereas in the healthy group norovirus (9%) followed by the first reported aichivirus A in Gabon (6%) were predominant. The predominant norovirus genogroup was GII, consisting mostly of genotype GII.P31-GII.4 Sydney. Phylogenetic analysis of the 3CD region of the aichivirus A genome revealed the presence of two genotypes (A and C) in the study cohort. Astrovirus and sapovirus showed a high diversity, with five different astrovirus genotypes and four sapovirus genotypes, respectively. Our findings give new insights into the circulation and genetic diversity of enteric viruses in Gabonese children.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Enterovirus/classificação , Enterovirus/genética , Variação Genética , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/virologia , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gabão/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Kobuvirus/genética , Kobuvirus/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Sapovirus/genética , Sapovirus/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 265-268, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848675

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Use of hydroxychloroquine in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was widespread and uncontrolled until recently. Patients vulnerable to severe COVID-19 are at risk of hydroxychloroquine interactions with co-morbidities and co-medications contributing to detrimental, including fatal, adverse treatment effects. METHODS: A retrospective survey was undertaken of health conditions and co-medications of patients with COVID-19 who were pre-screened for enrolment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled hydroxychloroquine multi-centre trial. RESULTS: The survey involved 305 patients [median age 71 (interquartile range 59-81) years]. The majority of patients (n = 279, 92%) considered for inclusion in the clinical trial were not eligible, mainly due to safety concerns caused by health conditions or co-medications. The most common were QT-prolonging drugs (n = 188, 62%) and haematologic/haemato-oncologic diseases (n = 39, 13%) which prohibited the administration of hydroxychloroquine. In addition, 165 (54%) patients had health conditions and 167 (55%) patients were on co-medications that did not prohibit the use of hydroxychloroquine but had a risk of adverse interactions with hydroxychloroquine. The most common were diabetes (n = 86, 28%), renal insufficiency (n = 69, 23%) and heart failure (n = 58, 19%). CONCLUSION: The majority of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 had health conditions or took co-medications precluding safe treatment with hydroxychloroquine. Therefore, hydroxychloroquine should be administered with extreme caution in elderly patients with COVID-19, and only in clinical trials.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Contraindicações de Medicamentos , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7772, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833369

RESUMO

The inhibitory effects of programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) modulates T-cell depletion. T-cell depletion is one of the key mechanisms of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence, in particular liver disease progression and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This case-control study aimed to understand the significance of PD-1 polymorphisms (PD-1.5 and PD-1.9) association with HBV infection risk and HBV-induced liver disease progression. Genotyping of PD-1.5 and PD-1.9 variants was performed by direct Sanger sequencing in 682 HBV-infected patients including chronic hepatitis (CHB, n = 193), liver cirrhosis (LC, n = 183), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n = 306) and 283 healthy controls (HC). To analyze the association of PD-1 variants with liver disease progression, a binary logistic regression, adjusted for age and gender, was performed using different genetic models. The PD-1.9 T allele and PD-1.9 TT genotype are significantly associated with increased risk of LC, HCC, and LC + HCC. The frequencies of PD-1.5 TT genotype and PD-1.5 T allele are significantly higher in HCC compared to LC patients. The haplotype CT (PD-1.5 C and PD-1.9 T) was significantly associated with increased risk of LC, HCC, and LC + HCC. In addition, the TC (PD-1.5 T and PD-1.9 C) haplotype was associated with the risk of HCC compared to non-HCC. The PD-1.5 CC, PD-1.9 TT, genotype, and the CC (PD-1.5 C and PD-1.9) haplotype are associated with unfavorable laboratory parameters in chronic hepatitis B patients. PD-1.5 and PD1.9 are useful prognostic predictors for HBV infection risk and liver disease progression.

15.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671832

RESUMO

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) coinfection will additionally aggravate the hepatitis B virus (HBV) burden in the coming decades, with an increase in HBV-related liver diseases. Between 2018 and 2019, a total of 205 HBV patients clinically characterized as chronic hepatitis B (CHB; n = 115), liver cirrhosis (LC; n = 21), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; n = 69) were recruited. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies against surface antigens (anti-HBs), and core antigens (anti-HBc) were determined by ELISA. The presence of hepatitis B viral DNA and hepatitis delta RNA was determined. Distinct HBV and HDV genotypes were phylogenetically reconstructed and vaccine escape mutations in the "a" determinant region of HBV were elucidated. All HBV patients were HbsAg positive, with 99% (n = 204) and 7% (n = 15) of them being positive for anti-HBc and anti-HBs, respectively. Anti-HBs positivity was higher among HCC (15%; n = 9) compared to CHB patients. The HBV-B genotype was predominant (65%; n = 134), followed by HBV-C (31%; n = 64), HBV-D, and HBV-G (3%; n = 7). HCC was observed frequently among young individuals with HBV-C genotypes. A low frequency (2%; n = 4) of vaccine escape mutations was observed. HBV-HDV coinfection was observed in 16% (n = 33) of patients with the predominant occurrence of the HDV-1 genotype. A significant association of genotypes with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme levels was observed in HBV monoinfections. The prevalence of the HDV-1 genotype is high in Vietnam. No correlation was observed between HDV-HBV coinfections and disease progression when compared to HBV monoinfections.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Hepatite D/virologia , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite B/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/classificação , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Prevalência , Vietnã , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 29-32, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781904

RESUMO

Indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have the potential to seriously undermine the health system in sub-Saharan Africa with an increase in the incidences of malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV infections. Based on current evidence in the African region the collateral impact of COVID-19 on the "big three diseases" shall be addressed in the following.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Sindemia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pandemias
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 735-738, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to carry out whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), using samples collected from Congolese individuals between April and July 2020. METHODS: Ninety-six samples were screened for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR, and 19 samples with Ct values <30 were sequenced using Illumina Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). The genomes were annotated and screened for mutations using the web tool 'coronapp'. Subsequently, different SARS-CoV-2 lineages were assigned using PANGOLIN and Nextclade. RESULTS: Eleven SARS-CoV-2 genomes were successfully sequenced and submitted to the GSAID database. All genomes carried the spike mutation D614G and were classified as part of the GH clade. The Congolese SARS-CoV-2 sequences were shown to belong to lineage B1 and Nextclade 20A and 20C, which split them into distinct clusters, indicating two separate introductions of the virus into the Republic of Congo. CONCLUSION: This first study provides valuable information on SARS CoV-2 transmission in the central African region, contributing to SARS CoV-2 surveillance on a temporal and spatial scale.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Genoma Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Congo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 133(9-10): 500-508, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398458

RESUMO

Medical research in sub-Saharan Africa is of high priority for societies to respond adequately to local health needs. Often enough it remains a challenge to build up capacity in infrastructure and human resources to highest international standards and to sustain this over mid-term to long-term periods due to difficulties in obtaining long-term institutional core funding, attracting highly qualified scientists for medical research and coping with ever changing structural and political environments. The Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné (CERMEL) serves as model for how to overcome such challenges and to continuously increase its impact on medical care in Central Africa and beyond. Starting off as a research annex to the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Lambaréné, Gabon, it has since then expanded its activities to academic and regulatory clinical trials for drugs, vaccines and diagnostics in the field of malaria, tuberculosis, and a wide range of poverty related and neglected tropical infectious diseases. Advancing bioethics in medical research in Africa and steadily improving its global networks and infrastructures, CERMEL serves as a reference centre for several international consortia. In close collaboration with national authorities, CERMEL has become one of the main training hubs for medical research in Central Africa. It is hoped that CERMEL and its leitmotiv "to improve medical care for local populations" will serve as an inspiration to other institutions in sub-Saharan Africa to further increase African capacity to advance medicine.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Doenças Transmissíveis , Tuberculose , Gabão , Humanos , Pobreza
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432902

RESUMO

Hypoxemia is readily detectable by assessing SpO2 levels, and these are important in optimizing COVID-19 patient management. Hyperlactatemia is a marker of tissue hypoxia, particularly in patients with increased oxygen requirement and microvascular obstruction. We monitored peripheral venous lactate concentrations in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 (n = 18) and in mild ambulatory COVID-19 patients in home quarantine (n = 16). Whole blood lactate decreased significantly during the clinical course and recovery in hospitalized patients (P = 0.008). The blood lactate levels were significantly higher in hospitalized patients than ambulatory patients (day 1: hospitalized versus ambulatory patients P = 0.002; day 28: hospitalized versus ambulatory patients P = < 0.0001). Elevated lactate levels may be helpful in risk stratification, and serial monitoring of lactate may prove useful in the care of hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

20.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(1): 196-204, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869414

RESUMO

The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the most common causes of hepatitis worldwide. HEV is also widespread in many developed countries, where the number of infections is steadily increasing. In those countries, the virus is transmitted mainly through consumption of undercooked or raw food or through contact with animals. Especially, pigs serve as a main reservoir of HEV. Here, we investigated the prevalence of HEV RNA in pork livers and pork meat products to assess the actual risk of HEV infection through food consumption in Germany. A total of 131 pork products were collected from grocery stores and butcher shops between October 2019 and February 2020 and screened for HEV RNA using nested PCR and subsequent sequencing. Overall, 10% of the samples were positive for HEV, including pork livers (5%), spreadable liver sausages (13%) and liver pâté samples (15%). Sequence analyses indicated that the large majority of HEV strains belonged to subtype HEV-3c, representing the most frequent subtype in Germany. One sample belonged to subtype HEV-3f. Further sequence analysis revealed large sequence variation between the samples; however, most of the mutations identified were synonymous. Although infectivity of the virus was not tested, the results suggest a considerable risk of HEV infection through food consumption. Therefore, preventive measures should be taken according to a One Health approach.

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